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and THe Commons 



Vol. XVII 



October, 1906 April 1907 



WITH INDEX 



New York 
The Charity Organization Society 
105 East 22D Street . • 



Publication Committee 



ROBERT W. de FOREST, Chairman 



JANE ADDAMS, Chicago 
ROBERT S. BREWSTER, New York 
MARGARET DRBIER ROBINS, Chicago 
ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, Boston 
DANIEL C. OILMAN, Baltimore 
WILLIAM GUGGENHEIM, New York 
WILLIAM E. HARMON. 



GRAHAM! TAYLOR 
PAUL TJ. KELLOGG 
GRAHAM ROMEYN TAYLOR 
LEWIS E. PALMER 
MINA W. De HART 




EDWARD T. DEVINE 



JOSEPH LEW, Boston 

JOHN F. MOORS, Boston 

SIMON N. BATTEN, BHil.ADEr.PHiA 

JACOB A. RIIS, New York 

ROBERT TREAT BAINE, Boston 

FRANK TUCKER, New York 

S. W. WOODWARD, Washington 



LEE K. FRANKEL 
ARTHUR B. KELLOGG 
FRIEND BITTS 
ARTHUR B. REEVE 
BELLE L. ISRAELS 



Departmental Editors 



SAMUEL J. BARROWS 

LILIAN BRANDT 

EMILY W. DINWIDDIE 

L. L. DOCK 

W. B. GUTHRIE 

LIVINGSTON FARRAND 

HOMER FOLKS 

WILLIAM BYRON FORBUSH 



ALEXANDER JOHNSON 

FLORENCE KELLEY 

HELEN M. KELSEY 

BEN B. LINDSEY 

FRANCIS H. McLEAN 

W, FRANK PERSONS 

MARY E. RICHMOND 

CHARLES MULFORD ROBINSON 



Ind 



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_ volume xvii 

October, 1906 April, 1907 



Abbott, District Attorney, 709. 

Abbott, Lyman, 403, 1031. 

Abelson, Paul, 8. 

Abrahams, Henry, 696. 

Absolute Indeterminate Sentence, 867. 

A City Grumbling, 587. 

Act of Incorporation and Current Editorial 
Comment (Sage Foundation), 1087. 

Addams, Jane, 106, 202, 238, 284, 331, 371, 
456, 599, 641, 694. 

Additional Hospital Facilities for Washing- 
ton, 661. 

Adler, Felix, 284, 639, 931, 96o, 1031. 

Adler, Harry, 113. 

A Great Iniquity, 479. 

Ahearn, John F., 694. 

Aladyin, Alexis, 999. 

Almshouses Versus State Care for the In- 
sane, 954. 

Albany Orphan Asylum, 291. 

Alcove Rooms Abolished in Chicago, 1059. 

Alger, George W., 826. 

Allen, Edward E., 149. 

Allen, Wm. H., 371, 1082. 

Alleys of the National Capital, 587. 

A Living Wage, 471. 

America Bearing Relief to Kingston, 724. 

American City Electorate, 209. 

Andrew Carnegie's Address, 517. 

As An Educational Force, 457. 

American Civic Association, 181. 

American Hospital Association, 109. 

American Humane Association, 331. 

American Social Workers in Russia, 361. 

American Sociological Society Meeting, 583. 

Andrews, Fannie Fern, 335. 

Air They Breathe in New York Factories, 
274. 

Anagos, Michael, 151. 

An Unofficial Famine Ambassador, 930. 

An Early English Social Economist and 
Modern Analogies, 963. 

Arbuckle, John W., 49. 

Arizona Foundling Case, 971. 

Ash, Mrs. Isadore, 113. 

Assertion of the People's Right to the Refer- 
endum, 973. 

Atlanta, 4. 

Atlanta and The Nation, 123. 

Attendance at the Ohio State Conference, 
127. 

Atterbury, Grosvenor, 5, 49. 

Awakening a State to the Opportunities of 
Its Public Charity, 936. 

Backing Up an Independent Mayor, 241. 
Balch, Emily Greene, 464. 
Baldwin, Simeon E., 129, 137. 
Baldwin, William H., 589. 
Ball, Charles B., 90. 
Barrows, Isabel C, 461. 



Barrows, Samuel J., 129, 191, 764, 965, 995, 

1032, 1060. 
Bartzen, Peter, 106. 
Bates, Helen Page, 766. 
Battles of Labor, 468. 
Baylor, Margaret, 559. 
Be Content With Your Wages, 355. 
Beeks, Gertrude, 271, 272, 273. 
Belmont, August, 286, 517. 
Bereschkowski, Madame, 362. 
Berlin Hospitals, 437. 
Berry, Martha, 195. 
Beveridge-Parsons Bill, 581, 643. 
Beveridge, Senator, 642. 

Bicknell, Ernest P., 45, 166, 423, 1035, 1112. 
Bibliographic Notes, 766. 
Bijur, Nathan, 550. 

Billings, Frank, 937. 

Birmingham Institute for the Blind, 413. 

Birtwell, Miss, 45, 425. 

Bitter Cry of the Children, 497. 

Black, Samuel L., 128. 

Blackwelder, Mrs. I. S., 106. 

Blaine, Mrs. Emmons, 106. 

Blaine, Anita McCormick, 520. 

Blaustein, David, 693. 

Bliss, W. D. P., 286. 

Boarding and Lodging Houses, 713. 

Bodine, W. L., 535. 

Bolton, Alfred J., 697. 

Bonaparte, Charles J., 188, 358. 

Book to be Recommended, 179. 

Booth, Charles, 188. 

Boston and Billboards, 872. 

Boston City Club, 186, 515. 

Boston City History Club, 967. 

Boston Consumptive Hospital, 696. 

Boston Housing Situation, 96. 

Boston Newsboys and Licenses, 931. 

Boston School for Social Workers, 266. 

Bourland, Clara P., 957. 

Bowen, Mrs. Joseph T., 694. 

Boys' Building for Hull House Dedicated, 

694. 
Boys'. Clubs Conference, 885. 
Boys' Club in Civic Work, 685. 
Boys' Industrial School, Rome, Ga., 195. 
Brackett, Jeffrey R., 267, 358 
Bradley, Captain, 694. 
Brager, Albert A., 113. 
Brandeis, Louis D., 696, 880, 887. 
Brandt, Lilian, 25, 395, 419, 488. 
Breckinridge, Sophonisba, 106, 261, 1025. 
Brennan, William, 12. 

British and Foreign Blind Association, 413. 
Britton, Gertrude, 106, 455, 523. 
Brockway, Z. R., 867. 
Brook Farm, 185. 

Brooklyn's New Jewish Hospital, 519. 
Brooklyn Social Reform Club, 456. 



IV 



Ind 



ex 



Brooks, John Graham, 284. 

Brown, Charles S., 49. 

Brown, Elmer E., 124. 

Brown, Herbert S., 53. 

Brownsville, 579. 

Bruere, Henry, 223. 

Brush, W. Franklin, 1056. 

Building Difficulties in San Francisco, 969. 

Bulkley, William L., 109. 

Bullard, Arthur, 362. 

Bullard, William L., 286. 

Burgess, Frederick W., 286. 

Burlingham, Charles C, 284. 

Burns, Allen, 106, 694. * 

Burritt, O. H., 141, 142. 

Burrows, Miss, 45. 

Buster Brown, His Social Philosophy, 512. 

Butler, Amos W., 110, 453, 761, 857, 1112. 

Butler, Edmond J., 12. 163. 

Butler, Elizabeth B., 1062. 

Butler, Nicholas Murray, 283, 368, 931, 965. 



Cabot, Richard A., 125, 266, 332, 863, 864, 

865. 866. 
Cahn, Jacob B., 113. 
Call to the Young Russians, 373. 
Call, Henry Laurens, 584. 
Campbell, F. J., 410. 

Campaign Against Tuberculosis in New Jer- 
sey, 456. 
Campaign Renewed in Washington, 330. 
Camp Schools and The State, 892. 
Canadian Legislation for Children, 433. 
Cannon, Joseph G., 102, 261, 262. 
Caring for Inebriates, 661. 
Carl Schurz Memorial, 1110. 
Carnegie, Andrew, 517, 884, 1108. 
Carstens, C. C, 816. 

Case of Labor Against Its Traitors, 788. 
Cawcroft, Ernest, 718. 
Chamberlain, Joseph, 705. 
Chapin, R. C, 472. 

Charitable Work Among the Seamen, 713. 
Charities Directory in Rome — An Appeal, 

693. 
Charity and Democracy, 387. 
Charles Eliot Memorial, 873. 
Chicago Conference on Truancy — Causes 

and Prevention, 536. 
Chicago Institute of Social Science, 1035. 
Chicago Juvenile Court Building, 542. 
Chicago Society of Social Hygiene, 548. 
Chicago Truancy Conference, 455. 
Child Labor. 

No More Night Work for Children, 9. 

Children in Oregon, 113. 

State Wide Juvenile Court System, 128. 

Child Labor in Ohio, 128. 

Welfare Work and Child Labor in 
Southern Cotton Mills, 271. 

Work for Reform in Omaha, 435, 

Philadelphia Industrial Exhibit, 436. 

Maryland Child Labor Law, 452. 

Child Labor and the Nation, 581. 

Child Labor Reformers Attacked, 516. 

National Child Labor Meeting, 519. 

Beveridge-Parsons Bill, 581, 643. 

Child Labor and the Republic, 639. 



Child as an Economic Factor, 644. 

Handbook of Child Labor Legislation, 
659. 

Holding the Mirror Up to Industry, 691. 

Present Situation of Employers' Liabil- 
ity, 826. 

Progress of Child Labor Legislation, 
858. 

Child Labor in Pennsylvania, 1110. 

School Scholarships — A Branch of Child 
Labor Work, 971. 
Child Labor in Oregon, 113. 
China in the Grasp of Famine, 855. 
Chisholm, B. Ogden, 693. 
Chittenden, Russell H., 500. 
City Club of Chicago and Its Committee 

Plan, 214. 
City Club of New York, 212. 
City Government for Young People, 237. 
City of the Future, 189. 
Civic Federation of New England, 695. 
Civic Improvement, 719, 872, 1065. 
Civic Interest Among the People, 257. 
Clark, John W., 684. 
Clark, Victor S., 468. 
Clay, Sir Arthur, 699. 
Clean Milk for New York, 327, 677. 
Cleveland Home Gardening Association, 882. 
Columbian Settlement of Pittsburg, 1059. 
Columbus Commission, 872. 
Commercial Organizations and Civic Work, 

217. 
Commons, John R., 504. 
Conant, Mrs. 693. 

Conditions That May Be Found, 715. 
Condition of Labor of Women and Children, 

1032. 
Conference of Charities and Correction — 

Indiana, 9. 
Conferences. 

Charities and Corrections — Indiana, 9. 

Southern Immigration Conference, 112. 

Public Health Conference, 126. 

Attendance at the Ohio Conference, 127. 

Illinois State Conference, 127. 

New York State Conference, 266, 299. 

National Conference of Charities, 304, 
327. 

New York City Hospital Conference, 
332. 

Massachusetts State Conference, 332. 

Chicago Conference on Truancy, 455, 
536. 

Minnesota Conference of Charities and 
Correction, 452. 

Kentucky's Third Conference of Chari- 
ties and Correction, 349. 

Iowa State Conference, 728. 

Northwest and the National Conference, 
762. 

Missouri Conference of Charities and 
Correction, 857. 

Revive Maryland Charity conference, 
857. 
Conger, Mrs. W. P., 106. 
Congress On Social Education, 186. 
Conn, G. W., 248. 
Construction and Control, 6. 
Consumption and Civilization, 493. 



Ind 



ex 



Consumption, Its Relation to Man, 493. 

Convention of the A. I. A., 873. 

Conyngton, Mary, 503. 

Cook "Betterment," 499. 

Cooke, Flora J., 540. 

Cooley, E. G., 542. 

Cooper Union, 328. 

Cost of Living as Modified by Sanitary 

Science, 502. 
Countryward Jewish Movement, 8. 
Cowen, Philip, 989. 
Cox, Governor of Tennessee, 112. 
Cox, Harold, 705. 

Council of Jewish Women at Work, 856. 
Crain, T. C. T., 12. 
Cravath, Paul D., 163, 856. 
Cromwell, Mary E., 115. 
Cripple School, $175,000 For, 697. 
Crosby, Ernest Howard, 850. 
Crowell, F. Elisabeth, 667. 
Crowley, D. O., 44, 45. 
Culver, Helen, 694. 
Cure for Speculative Building, 347. 
Cushing, Oscar K., 25, 27, 44, 45, 418. 
Cutting, R. Fulton, 931, 965, 995. 

Dana, C. L., 697. 

Danger of Sending Consumptives to the 

Country, 1061. 
Darwin, Harry G., 12. 
Davis, Lillian, 185. 
Davis, George A., 73. 
Davis, Michael M., Jr., 257, 473, 474. 
Davies, Edgar T., 106, 649. 
Death Roll of Industry, 791. 
de Forest, Robert W., 2, 49, 203, "856, 1055. 
de Hirsch, Baron, 8. 
Delinquent State, 875. 
Demand Real Labor Inquiry, 723. 
De Marco, Marchese De Viti, 693. 
Democracy in the District of Columbia, 727. 
Demonstration of Good Citizenship, 619. 
Deneen, Charles S., 269, 932, 935, 940, 947. 
Deterrent Effects, 708. 
Devine, Edward T., 25, 27, 35, 43, 45, 119, 

301, 422, 463, 475, 500, 697, 856, 965, 

995, 1116. 
Devol, Major, 39. 
Dewey, John, 185, 284. 
Dinwiddie, Emily Wayland, 11. 
Dock, L. L., 494, 743. 
Dodge, Cleveland H., 1055. 
Doctor Wise's Free Synagogue, 855. 
Dodge, Marcellus Hartley, 965, 995. 
Donnely, Samuel B., 370. 
Dohrmann, F. W., 45, 435. 
Dole, Charles Fletcher, 461. 
Doty, Madeleine Z., 488. 
Dudley, J. L., 1109. 
Duffy, J. P., 119. 
Dunham, Helen, 693. 
Durland, Kellogg, 362. 

Eastman, Christopher, 493, 1115. 
Eastman Crystal, 607, 615. 
Economics and Industry, 468. 
Educational Alliance, 183. 
Educating the Adult Immigrant, 890. 
Eichengreen, William, 113. 
Eliot, Charles, 873. 



Eliot, Charles W., 237. 
Elting, Victor, 214. 
Ely, Robert Erskine, 284. 
Emery, John A., 45. 
English, Gertrude E., 453. 
Eno, Charles, 694. 

Epilepsy and' the National Association, 285. 
Epstein, Jacob, 113. 
Evolution of a Sunday School, 195. 
Exhibition of Civic Congestion, 182. 
Experiment in Man Making, 131. 
Experiment Station for the Blind, Boston, 
416. 

Factory Inspection in Massachusetts, 1058. 

Famine in Russia, 995. 

Family Monographs, 501. 

Farming as a Cure for the Insane, 943. 

Farraday, Michael, 66. 

Farrand, Livingston, 9. 

Faulkner, C. E., 875. 

Favill, H. B., 106. 

Federated Boys' Clubs, 436. 

Federation of Rural Forces, 248. 

Fesler, Mayo, 217. 

Federated Jewish Charities — Baltimore, 113. 

Field, Mary, 1042. 

Field Nurse for Old Belleview, 125. 

Filene, A. Lincolr, 9. 

Fine System, 764. 

Fischer, Miss, 45. 

Fish, Aloys M., 1012. 

Fish, Frederick P., 283, 369. 

Fisher, Walter L., 204. 

Fiske, Haley, 879. ' 

Fitzgerald, Mayor, 696. 

Fitzpatrick, John J., 106. 

Fitzsimmons, Thomas C, 286. 

Flagg, Ernest, 77. 

Flagg, Marcus C, 165. 

Fletcher, Horace, 499. 

Fletcher: "Social Quarantine," 499. 

Flood, Everett, 286. 

Flood in Pittsburg, 1115. 

Folk, Joseph W., 242. 

Folks, Homer, 119, 269, 697, 723, 1082. 

For a New Park on New York's East SiQe, 

693. 
For Regulating Jewish Emigration, 660. 
Forces Moulding the City of the Future, 235. 
Forbes, James, 849. 
For the Negroes in New York, 109. 
Foster, J. Ellen, 183. 
Foundation of Sociology, 473. 
Four Books on Social Betterment, 499. 
Four Books on Social Theory, 473. 
Frank, Eli, 113. 

Frankel, Lee K., 2, 44, 187, 298, 304, 1082. 
Freiberg, Dr., 645. 
Fresh Air Work Among Colored Children 

in New York, 115. 
Friday, Lucy F., 636. 
Friends of Russian Freedom, 284. 
From the Mayor's Point of View, 238. 
Fulmer, Harriet, 106. 
Funston, Frederick, 39. 



Gabriel Tarde; An Essay on Sociological 
Theory, 473. 



VI 



Index 



Gallwey, John, 45. 

Garden Cities Association of America, 286. 

Gardners Trust for the Blind, 411. 

Gates, Frederick T., 884. 

George, W. R., 537. 

German Exposition on Infant Mortality, 111. 

Ghent, W. J., 473, 474. 

Ghetto Sayings, 1042. 

Giddings, Franklin H., 119, 284, 882. 

Gifts by Mrs. Samuel L. Frank, 518. 

Gilbert Simeon, 123. 

Gilchrist, C. G., 108. 

Gillette, George W., 70. 

Gilman, Daniel C, 357, 858, 1055. 

Gilman, Elisabeth, 971. 

Gladden: "Christianity and Socialism," 500. 

Glasgow Shepard Institute for the Blind, 414. 

Glen Iris, 767, 775. 

Glenn, John M., 1055. 

Glenn, Mrs. John M., 45, 497, 626, 1058. 

Gompers, Samuel, 102, 262. 

Goodnow, Frank J., 243. 

Goodyear, Caroline, 315. 

Gordon, George E., 45. 

Gorky, Maxim, 284. 

Gould, Elgin R. L., 49, 53, 286. 

Governor Deneen and the Spoils System, 

269. 
Governor Hughes Aids Russian Relief, 1059. 
Governor Hughes on Industrial Accidents, 

759. 
Government Takes a Hand, 702. 
Gould, Helen, 1055. 
Grant, Percy S., 286. 
Graves, William C, 936. 
Green, Andrew H., 588. 
Greenbaum, Leon B., 113. 
Greer, David H., 931, 965. 
Gregory, Gershuni, 1000. 
Griffin, Mary Agnes, 1047. 
Grinsfelder, Mrs. Joseph, 113. 
Gulick, Luther H„ 538. 
Grinnell, William Morton, 473. 
Guthrie, W. B., 468, 473, 499, 517. 



Haag, Charles, 607, 615. 

Hadley, Dwight L., 178, 356. 

Haggerty, James E., 127. 

Hale, M. T., 695. 

Hall, Fred S., 870. 

Hall, G. Stanley, 455, 541. 

Hall, Prescott F., 881. 

Hall, Robert C, 892. 

Hall, Thomas C, 965, 995. 

Hallock, Dr., 694. 

Hamburger, Samuel I., 113. 

Hamilton, Alice, 1037. 

Hamilton, Allan McLane, 697. 

Hamilton, James H., 286, 693. 

Hamilton, J. Perrine, 145, 148. 

Hamlin, Leonora, 106. 

Handbook of Child Labor Legislation, 659. 

Haney, James P., 365, 367, 538. 

Hanley, J. Frank, 164. 

Hanna, H. H., 165. 

Hanus, Paul H., 9. 

Hartman, Edward T., 246, 886. 

Hart, Hastings H., 128, 267. 

Hawk, William S., 49. 



Hawley, N. F., 695. 
Hazlett, William C, 74, 347. 
Hearst, William R., 3. 
Hearst and Hughes, 3. 
Heaviest Burden of the Blind, 820. 
Hebberd, Robert W., 162, 775. 
Hebrew Free Loan Association, .970. 
Hebrew Sheltering House, New York, 931. 
Hedrick, Perry L., 106. 
Helicon Hall, 185. 

Henderson, Charles R., 106, 119, 267, 823. 
Henrotin, Ellen M., 106, 1023. 
Hero of the San Francisco Relief, 418. 
Herzfeld, Elsa, 501. 
Higgings, Alice L., 44, 418. 
Higgins, Milton P., 283. 
Higginson, Henry L., 267. 
High School Field Secretary, 883. 
Hirsch, Emil G., 947. 
Historical vs. Economical Method, 180. 
History of a Christmas Box, 555. 
Hobhouse, Emily, 932. 
Hoch, August, 697. 
Hofer, Amalie, 267. 

Holding the Mirror Up to Industry, 591. 
Hollander, J. M., 113. 
Holmes, Walter, 9, 161. 
Holt, Hamilton, 284. 
Holt, Winifred, 405. 
Hoppe, F. G., 106. 
Horse Cars to Go at Last, 730. 
Hospital Accounting, 22. 
Houghton, Justice, 454. 

Household Experiment on the Palisades, 
185. 

Housing. 

Housing in Germany, 7. 

The Situation in France, 7. 

Work of New York's Tenement House 
Department, 11. 

Phipps Model Tenement Houses, 49. 

In Midmost London, 65. 

Tenement House Situation in Buffalo, 
70. 

Of the Breed of Budensiek, 74. 

Best Method of Tenement Construction, 
77. 

A Day's Work of a New York Tenement 
House Inspector, 80. 

The New Treatment in Chicago, 90. 

The Boston Housing Situation, 96. 

Residential Flats, 99. 

Investigation in Hartford, 113. 

Reform in Housing, 163. 

Cure for Speculative Building, 347. 

Power to Improve Old Tenement Condi- 
tions, 360. 

Boarding and Lodging Houses, 713. 

London's Housing Problem, 886. 

Lodging House Reform, 1117. 
Housing in Germany, 7. 
Housing Investigation in Hartford, 113. 
How to Combat Crap Shooting, 1044. 
How Communities Are Affected, 108. 
Howe, Fred C, 508, 511, 718. 
Howland, William B., 1056. 
How to Help, 503. 

How to Reduce Our Prison Population, 191 
Huber, John Bessner, 493. 



Index 



VI! 



Hughes, Charles E., 3, 759, 760, 1059, 1060. 

Hull House War on Cocaine, 1034. 

Hull, M., 694. 

Human Side of Workshop, 810. 

Humane Way — A Lesson to Chicago from 

Glasgow, 946. 
Hurty, J. N., 165. 

Illinois Board of Charities, State, 268. 
Illinois Should Furnish Diphtheria Antitoxin 

to Its Citizens, 957. 
Illinois State Conference, 127. 
Illinois to the Fore, 927. 
Immigration, 504. 

Rediscovering America for the Immi- 
grant, 183. 

On the Trail of the Immigrant, 480, 481, 
482. 

Southern Immigration Conference, 112. 

Opinions of U. S. Consuls on Immi- 
gration, 504. 

Immigration and Its Effects on the 
United States, 504. 

Pending Immigration Legislation, 550. 

Immigrants' Side of the Question, 507. 

International Aspects of Immigration, 
507. 

Facts and Figures, 727. 

Immigration Bill to Date, 881. 

Near Recollections, 894. 

Restriction in Canada, 967. 

Japanese Exclusion and Immigration 
Bill, 970. 

People Who Come, 975. 
Immigration Act and the Insane, 1035. 
Immigration and Its Effects on the United 

States, 504. 
Immigration Bill to Date, 881. 
Immigration Facts and Figures, 727. 
Immigration Restriction in Canada, 967. 
Immigrants' Side of the Question, 507. 
Impressions of American Charity, 621, 740, 

1016, 1092. 
Improvement of Social Conditions, 856. 
Income and Relief Measures, 756. 
Increased Tenement Rents, 691. 
Indeterminate Sentence and the Indiana Con- 
ference, 164. 
Indeterminate Sentence for Crime — Its Use 

and Abuse, 731. 
Indigent Tuberculosis Patients, 278. 
Industrial Education Movement, 328. 
Industrial Insurance, 879, 1104. 
Industrial Removal Office, 183. 
Industrial Re-Education for the Insane, 942. 
Industrial Viewpoint, 101, 260, 427, 653, 851, 

1025. 
Ingraham, Justice, 454. 
Injecting Posterity Into Politics, 588. 
In Midmost London, 65. 
In Peril of Change, 463. 

Insuring the Unemployed in Germany, 520. 
International Aspects of Immigration, 507. 
International Juvenile Court Society, 696. 
International Movement for Labor Legisla- 
tion, 833. 
In the Field of Organizing Charity, 154, 571. 
Interstate Measure, 642. 
International Agreement Against Night 

Work, 161. 



Iowa State Conference, 728. 

Israels, Charles H., 347. 

Italian Lace Workers in New York, 437. 

Jackson, James F., 128. 

Janeway, Theodore C, 816, 863. 

Japanese Exclusion and Immigration Bill, 

970. 
Jewish Agricultural and Industrial Aid So- 
ciety, 183. 
Jewish Federation in London, 584. 
Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, 763. 
Jewish Territorial Commission, 269. 
Jewish Territorial Organization, 187. 
Jewish Toynbee Hall of Berlin, 883. 
Jewish Year Book, 330. 

Johnson, Alexander, 110, 128, 267, 763, 1033. 
Johnson, George E., 333. 
Johnson, Tom L., 205. 
Jones, David P., 238, 695. 
Jones, Edith, 980. 
Jones, Samuel M., 176. 
Judge Lindsey for Governor, 107. 
Jungle, The, 185. 
Juvenile Court Co-operation, 762. 
Juvenile Court, Kansas City, 860. 
Juvenile Court. 

State Wide Ju-enile Court System, 128. 

International Court Society, 696. 

Juvenile Court Co-operation, 762. 

Chicago's Juvenile Court Building, 542. 

Juvenile Court, Kansas City, 860. 

Keay, Frances Anne, 630, 712, 845. 

Kehew, Mrs. Mary, 9. 

Keller, Helen, 415, 417, 547, 764, 820. 

Kellor: "Out of Work," 469. 

Kelley, Florence, 459, 466, 553, 645, 697, 723, 

862. 
Kellogg, Paul U., 167, 363, 1000. 
Kelly, William H., 875. 
Kelsey, Carl, 4. 
Kelsey, Harlan P., 181. 
Kelso, J. J., 331. 
Kennedy: "Slavery," 486. 
Kentucky's Third Conference of Charities 

and Correction, 549. 
Kengolt, Louis J., 709. 
Kentucky State Institutions and Partizan 

Politics, 328. 
Keogh, Martin J., 284. 
Kershaw, Ellen, 128. 
Kingman, J. R., 695. 
Kingsley, Sherman C, 106. 
Kipling, Rudyard, 179. 
Kirkham, Guy, 619. 
Knaus, Henry, 106. 
Knopf, S. A., 963. 
Knowledge of the Individual, 692. 

Labor Investigation, 1059. 

Labor Movement in Australia, 468. 

La Motte, Ellen N., 1061. 

Langer, Samuel, 874. 

Law Journal on the Labor Contract, 125. 

Lawson, Thomas W., 179. 

Lee, Fred., 106. 

Lee, Joseph, 206, 387, 1104. 

Lee, Mrs. Frederick S., 5. 



Vlll 



Index 



Legal End of the Working Woman's Day, 
553. 

Lehy, Geoffrey B., 515. 

Leonard, James A., 128, 129. 

Letchworth Gift, 759. 

Letchworth, William Pryor, 286, 759, 760, 
767. 

Levin, Louis H., 113. 

Levis, E. Virginia, 987. 

Levy, Louis Edward, 875. 

Levy. William, 113. 

Lewis, Ada, 284, 285. 

Lewis, F. Park, 140, 149, 151. 

Lewis, Samuel, 284. 

Light in Egyptian Darkness, 764. 

Lincoln House, Boston, 686. 

Lindsay, Samuel McC., 437, 858, 1085. 

Lindsey, Benjamin B., 107, 245, 541. 

Liquor Law and Its Administration in Su- 
burban Cities, 735. 

Little, John Mason, 696. 

Lloyd, Henry Demarest, 466, 477. 

Lodge Bill, 582. 

Lodging House Reform, 1117. 

London County Council Experiments, The, 
703. 

London's Housing Problem, 886. 

"Long Day, The," 484. 

Louisiana's New Labor Laws, 858. 

Lovell, Mary F., 331. 

Low, Seth, 22, 254, 433. 

Lowell, Josephine Shaw, 2, 433. 

Lyman, Arthur, 735. 

Macfarland, Henry B. F., 207, 1057. 

Mack, Julian W., 521, 541, 694. 

MacMillan, D. P., 529. 

Macy, V. Everit, 284. 

Mailhouse, Max, 285. 

Man Who Throws the Switch, 807. 

Man, the Social Creator, 466. 

Mandelstamm, Professor, 269. 

Mark, Clarence H., 816. 

Marot, Mary S., 1050. 

Maryland Child Labor Law, 452. 

Marx, Karl, 194. 

Marriott, W. McKim, 274. 

Martin, John, 193, 284. 

Mass and Class; a Survey of Social Condi- 
tions, 473, 475. 

Massachusetts Civic League, 873. 

Massachusetts Free Employment Offices, 761. 

Massachusetts Industrial Education Commis- 
sion, 9. 

Massachusetts State Board of Health, 760. 

Massachusetts State Conference, 332. 

Massiglia, Count, 1056. 

Masterman, C. F. G., 463. 

Matthews, Brander, 2. 

Maxim Gorky's Socialism of Culture, 193. 

Mayer, Attorney General, 551. 

McAnally, John T., 941. 

McCain, A. A., 166. 

McCarthy, Frank H., 696. 

McClellan, George B., 49, 872. 

McDowell, Mary E., 106, 261, 634, 1025. 

McFarland, J. Horace, 181, 229. 

McKeown, John, 12. 

McKelway, A. J., 271. 



McLean, Francis H., 45. 

McWeeney, James, 166. 

Medical Administration and Service in the 
Illinois State Charitable Institutions, 
937. 

Menace of the Prentice Bill, 966. 

Message from Hampton Institute, 861. 

Meyer, Adolph, 697. 

Meyer, Alfred, 344, 875. 

Meyer, Julius P., 724. 

Messages of Governors, 745. 

Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, 730. 

Midwives of New York, 667. 

Miles, Rufus E., 96. 

Militant Civic Organizations, 254. 

Milk. 

St. Louis Milk Commission, 126. 
Clean Milk for New York, 327, 677. 
Milk Crusade, 862. 
Pure Milk in Washington, 875. 

Milk Crusade, 862. 

Miller, C. W., 165. 

Miller, Dickinson, 284. 

Minimum Practicable Cost of an Adequate" 
Standard of Living in New York, 315. 

Minnesota Conference of Charities and Cor- 
rections, 452. 

Missouri Conference of Charities and Correc- 
tions, 857. 

Mitchell, John, 516. 

Mitchell: "The Silent War," 487. 

Misplaced Burden, 118. 

Moon, R. C, 413. 

More As to State Commissions, 548. 

Moore, Charles S., 49. 

Moore, George, 179. 

Moore, Sarah W., 894, 1056. 

Moors, John F., 45, 418. 

Morgan, J. H., 128. 

Morgan, J. Pierpont, 931, 965. 

Morrow, Prince A., 494. 

Moscowitz, Henry, 693. 

Mosely, Alfred, 283, 369, 371. 

Moses, Jacob M., 113. 

Mrs. Parsons :"The Family and Its Critics", 
475. 

Multiple Dwellings of To-day, 5. 

Muensterberg, Emil, 621, 740, 1016, 1092. 

Munson, James F., 286. 

Museums of Security, 812. 

Mussey, Mabel Hay Barrows, 591. 

Nash, Henry S., 284. 

Nathan, Paul, 269. 

National Civic Federation Meeting, 515. 

National" Child Labor Meeting, 519. 

National Conference of Charities, 304, 327. 

National Consumers' League Annual Meet- 
ing, 1056. 

Nationalization of Civic Improvement, 229. 

National Municipal League, 235. 

National Tuberculosis Movement, 495. 

Near Recollections, 894. 

Nearing, Scott, 555, 778. 

Need for a National Investigation of Wo- 
men's Work, 634. 

Need of Homes for the Aged, 875. 

Need for Constitutional Reform in Ken- 
tucky, 586. 

Need for Merit Methods of Employment, 663. 



Index 



IX 



Neighborhood Work, 684, 1051. 

Neill, Charles P., 717. 

Nelson, N. O., 284, 286. 

New Code Proposed for Cleveland, 6. 

Newcomer and the Night School, 891. 

New Hospital Equipment, New York, 162. 

Newer Ideals of Peace, 599. 

New Jersey's Statutes and the Poor, 1033. 

New Jersey Children in the Street Trades, 
1062. 

New Lead of the New York Conference, 327. 

New Magazine for the Blind, 161. 

New Pillsbury House, 694. 

Newsboy at Night in Philadelphia, 778. 

New Types of Criminals, 177. 

New University House, Philadelphia, 1041. 

New York and the Bureau of City Better- 
ment, 223. 

New York City Hospital Conference, 332. 

New York Courthouse Site, 873. 

New York School of Philanthropy, 266. 

New York State Conference, 266, 299. 

New York State Legislative League, 1060. 

Nicholas, Anna, 106. 

Nichols, Bishop, 45. 

Night Work and Women, 183. 

Night Work Prohibition Declared, 454. 

No More Night Work for Children, 9. 

No Randall's Island Relief in Sight, 269, 348. 

Norbury, Frank Parsons, 940. 

Northwest and the National Conference, 762. 

Notions of a Prison Man, 1012. 

Noyes, Anna G., 185. 

Nursing. 

Training School for Visiting Nurses, 

267. 
School Nurses in Philadelphia, 330. 
Nursing Education, 743. 
Three Years' Course for Nurses, 1109. 

Nye, Wallace G., 1114. 



Oakland's Awakening, 872. 

Oakman, Walter G., 286. 

Objections to the Proposed Bill, 706. 

Of the Breed of Budensiek, 74. 

Of Work and Waywardness, 636. 

Ogden, Robert C, 965, 995. 

Ominous Russian Famine, 785. 

On the Verge of Dependence, 395. 

On the Trail of the Immigrant, 480, 481, 482. 

Opinions of U. S. Consuls on Immigration, 

504. 
Oppenheimer, Moses J., 113. 
Opportunity for Illinois, 932. 
Our Country, 570. 
Osgood, Irene, 45. 
Organized Charity in Its Larger Relations, 

358. 
Orphanage and Its Vision, 291. 
O'Sullivan, Judge, 709. 

Other Ways of Serving the Community, 353. 
Ourselves, 1. 

Outdoor Convict Labor, 129, 137. 
Outline of a Program of Social Reform, 828. 
Ovington, Mary White, 115. 
Oyster Boats on the Chesapeake, 630. 



Palmer, Lewis E., 80, 508. 
Parks and Playgrounds. 



South Park Commission, 434. 

Playground Association of Chicago, 434. 

Playgrounds, School Attendance and 
Child Labor, 585. 

For a New Park on New York's East 
Side, 693. 

Playground Meeting to Be Held in Chi- 
cago, 760. 

Glen Iris, 767, 775. 

The Playground Movement, 885. 

Playground Legislation in Washington, 
967. 

President Roosevelt on Playgrounds, 
968. 
Parsons, Elsie Clews, 475. 
Parsons, Herbert, 284. 

Patent Medicine Law Tnat Will Work, 886. 
Parsons, W. Barclay, 965, 995, 
Patterson, W. R., 99. 
Paulding, James K., 850, 1056. 
Peabody, George Foster, 284, 433, 965, 995. 
Peek, Frances, b99. 

Pending Immigration Legislation, 550. 
Pending Legislation in California, 969. 
Pennsylvania's New Department of State, 

1107. 
Pennsylvania State Forestry Reservation 

Committee, 182. 
People's Institute Idea in Newark, 881. 
People Who Come, 975. 
Percy, J. F., 954. 
Persons, W. Frank, 1081. 
Phelan, James D., 27, 423. 
Phelan, Rev. David S., 717. 
Philadelphia Industrial Exhibit, 360, 437. 
Philbin, Eugene A., 693. 
Phipp, John S., 49. 
Phipps Model Tenement Houses, 49. 
Phipps, Henry, 5, 49. 
Physical and Mental Examination of Public 

School Children in Chicago, 529. 
Physical Cost of Women's Work, 839. 
Physical Economy in Nutrition, 500. 
Pillsbury, Charles S., 695. 
Pillsbury, John S., 695. 
Pink, Louis Heaton, 685. 
Pischel, Emma, 106. 
Plain Facts from Phoenix, 108. 
Plans of the Women's Trade Union League, 

126. 
Playground Legislation in Washington, 967. 
Playground Meeting to Be Held in Chicago, 

760. 
Playground Movement, 885. 
Playgrounds, School Attendance and Child 

Labor, 585. 
Plea for the Handicapped, 279. 
Plehn, C. C, 25. 
Plimpton, George A., 965, 995. 
Podstata, Vaclav H., 942. 
Pond & Pond, 695. 

Poole: "The Voice of the Street," 487. 
Poole, Bertha, 810. 
Poole, Ernest, 262. 
Potter, Edwin S., 185. 
Potter, Henry C, 286, 995. 
Porter, Sir A. de Bock, 65, 66. 
Possibilities of the Law, 711. 



Index 



Poverty: Pantocracy, 755. 

Power to Improve Old Tenement Conditions, 

361. 
Practical Civics, 508. 
Practical Philanthropy, 497. 
Practical Program for Working Men, 469. 
Practicability of Wage Earners' Insurance, 

763. 
Present Situation of Employers' Liability, 

826. 
President Roosevelt on Playgrounds, 968. 
Prince, J. Dyneley, 890. 
Prisons and Pocket Books, 934. 
Pritchett, Henry S., 283. 
Probation in Practice, 980. 
Problem of the Feeble Minded, 957. 
Progress of Child Labor Legislation, 858. 
Progress in the Household, 502. 
Psychopathic Institute, 940. 
Public Care of Dependents and Defectives, 

566, 924. 
Public Education Association, 729. 
Public Education Association Conference, 

1057. 
Public Health Conference, 126. 
Public Opinion Law Proposed, 729. 
Pure Milk in Washington, 875. 



Quarter of a Century's Work in Baltimore, 
357. 



Randall, Frank L., 452. 

Readings in Descriptive and Historic Sociol- 
ogy, 472. 

Real Trap Rock, 265. 

Recent Progress of the Education Bill, 705. 

Recommendations for Massachusetts Tu- 
berculosis Commission, 1060. 

Rediscovering America for the Immigrant, 
183 

Reeder,'R. R., 291, 296, 650, 1098. 

Reformatory Girls, 903. 

Reform in Housing, 163. 

Registration of Tuberculosis, 589. 

Rehabilitation of Buildings and Mechanical 
Equipment, 947. 

Rehabilitation Work in San Francisco, 25. 

Relation Between Standards of Living and 
Standards of Compensation, 304. 

Replacing Furniture, 970. 

Residential Flats, 99. 

Reeve, Arthur B., 506, 791. 

Revive Maryland Charity Conference, 857. 

Rice, Mrs. William B., 1055. 

Richards, Charles R., 365. 

Richards, Charles. T., 9. 

Richards, Ellen H., 502. 

Richardson, Dorothy, 484. 

Richmond. Mary E., 119, 359, 1080. 

Riis, Jacob A., 108, 166, 269, 1083, 1109. 

Ring in the New, 485. 

Riordan, Archbishop, 44, 45. 

Robbins, Hayes, 696. 

Robins, Margaret Dreier, 484. 

Robins, Raymond, 106. 

Robinson, Charles Mulford, 189, 208, 508. 

Robinson, James Harvey, 179. 

Robinson's Modern Civic Art, 509. 



Rockefeller Gift to Education, 884. 
Rockefeller, John D., 884. 
Rockefeller, John D., Jr., 884. 
Roosevelt and Russian Relief, 1032. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, 10, 112, 170, 419, 717, 

968, 969, 1059. 
Ross, Edward Alsworth, 473. 
Ross, Renwick A., 110. 
Roth, David, 709. 
Rothschild, Lord, 269. 
Rothrock, Addison May, 385. 
Rothrock, J. T., 182, 359. 
Russell, Charles Edward, 718. 
Russell Sage Foundation, 1055, 1079. 
Russian Famine Relief Committee, 965, 995. 
Russian Famine Relief Fund, 1108. 
Ryan, John, 321. 
Ryan, John A., 471. 



Sabsovitch, H. L., 8. 

Sachs, T. B., 106. 

Safety Device Exposition, 882. 

Sage Foundation, 1087. 

Sage, Russell, 284. 

Sage, Mrs. Russell, 1055. 

Sailor in Port, Philadelphia, 712. 

Salesroom for the Massachusetts Adult 

Blind, 547. 
Salmon, Lucy M., 504. 

Samuel McC. Lindsay's Appointment, 437. 
Sane Social Sense by Mr. Dooley, 513. 
San Francisco. 

Rehabilitation Work in San Francisco, 
25. 

Sanitary Work in San Francisco, 107. 

San Francisco Relief Fund and the 
Graft Charges, 435. 

San Francisco Relief Situation, 451. 

The Work of Rehabilitation, 725. 

Has the Relief Pauperized, 725. 

Social Work in the Camps, 728. 

Building Difficulties in San Francisco, 
969. 

Task for Fortitude and Delicacy, 626. 
San Francisco Refugees, 725. 
Sanitary Work in San Francisco, 107. 
Sargent, Frank P., 283. 
Savings Insurance Banks for Workingmen, 

887. 
Sayles, John E., 677. 
Schaeffer, Nathan C, 647. 
Schieffelin, William J., 109, 965, 995. 
Schieffelin, Mrs. William H., 1056. 
Schiff, Jacob H., 856, 931, 965, 995. 
Schomes, A. S., 693. 
Schools. 

School Teacher, 124. 

School Nurses in Philadelphia, 330. 

Parents' Associations in the Public 
School, 335. 

National Society for the Promotion of 
Industrial Education, 363. 

Chicago Truancy Conference, 455, 536. 

School as a Social Center, 663. 

School Lunches in Milwaukee, 696, 1104. 

School Feeding Question in England, 
699. 

Sex Instruction in the Schools, 518, 874. 

School Board and the Children, 701. 



Index 



XI 



Significance of the Chicago Truancy- 
Conference, 520. 

Truancy and Home Conditions, 523. 

The Government Takes a Hand, 702. 

The London Common Council Experi- 
ments, 703. 

Recent Progress of the Education Bill, 
705. 

Objections to the Proposed Bill, 706. 

School Feeding Not the Remedy, 707. 

Public Education Association, 729. 

School Inspection in Buffalo, 860. 

Suggested Changes in Boston's Lower 
Grade Schools, 1033. 
School As a Social Center, 663. 
School Board and the Children, 701. 
School Feeding Not the Remedy, 707. 
School Feeding Question in England, 699. 
School Inspection in Buffalo, 860. 
School Lunches in Milwaukee, 696, 1104. 
School Nurses in Philadelphia, 330. 
School Scholarships — A Branch of Child 

Labor Work, 971. 
School Teacher, 124. 
Scientific Socialism, 584. 
Scotoric Labor in the Dark, 140. 
Scott, Justice, 454. 
Schurz, Carl, 1110. 
Seager, Henry R., 828, 965, 995. 
Schon, George L., 165. 
Seligman, Isaac N., 965, 995. 
Settlements. 

What Jacob Riis and a Thousand Boys 
Are Up To, 167. 

Settlement Expansion, 226. 

Southern Kindergarten and Settlement, 
329. 

Settlements' History, 695. 

Lincoln House, Boston, 886. 

Settlement Trial, 870. 

Jewish Toynbee Hall in Berlin, 883. 

Hull House War on Cocaine, 1034. 

Social Settlement and Public Health, 
1037. 

New University House, Philadelphia, 
1041. 

Settlement Meeting Neighborhood Needs, 
1047. 

Columbian Settlement of Pittsburg, 1059. 
Settlements' History, 695. 
Settlement Meeting Neighborhood Needs, 

1047. 
Settlement Trial, 870. 
Sewing Women and Their Sight, 457. 
Sex Instruction in the Schools, 518, 874. 
S. F. Brownsville, 579. 
Shadows, 987. 
Shaw, Howard, 10-6. 
Shea Trial, 105, 788. 
Shepard, Edward M., 286. 
Sherman, P. Tecumseh, 551. 
Shirer, H. H., 165. 
Shishkoff, Nicolas, 930, 965, 99.5. 
Significance of the Chicago Truancy Confer- 
ence, 520. 
Silent War, 478, 479. 
Simkhovitch, Mary K., 118. 
Simkhovitch, Vladimir G., 965, 995. 
Simon, James, 269. 
Sinclair, Upton, 185. 



Sinclair: "The Jungle," 486. 

Situation in France, 7. 

Six Books on Labor Problems, 468. 

Skinner, Lilian Marchant, 975. 

Skutch, Max, 113. 

Smallwood, William C, 456. 

Smith, Charles S., 49. 

Smith, Eugene, 731. 

Smith: "Working With the People," 499. 

Smith, Zilpha D., 267, 1105. 

Social Aspects of a Library, 1108. 

Social Bookkeeping on a National Scale, 

110. 
Social Combat of Disease, 493. 
Social Diseases and Marriage, 494. 
Social Education Congress, 357. 
Social Evolution of a Dispensary, 863. 
Social Geography in the Making, 178. 
Social Forces. 

Ourselves, 1. 

Hearst and Hughes, 3. 

Atlanta, 4. 

Atlanta and the Nation, 123. 

The School Teacher, 124. 

New Types of Criminals, 177. 

Social Geography in the Making, 178. 

A Book to Be Recommended, 179. 

Historical vs. the Economical Method, 
180. 

Other Ways of Serving the Community, 
353. 

Be Content With Your Wages, 355. 

The Message, 419. 

Increased Tenement Rents, 691. 

Knowledge of the Individual, 692. 

Poverty: Pantocracy, 755. 

Income and Relief Measures, 756. 

Industrial Insurance, 879. 
Social Legislation in Washington, 1057. 
Social Settlement and Public Health, 1037. 
Social Significance of the Standard of Liv- 
ing, 299. 
Social Theory and Social Facts, 473, 475. 
Social Thought in Fiction, 484. 
Sociological Problems in the Public Schools, 

1058. 
Sociology and Social Progress, 472. 
Sociology and Social Theory, 472. 
Solomon and Betty Loeb Memorial Home, 

171. 
Some Ethical Gains Through Legislation, 

459. 
Some Practical Results of the New Deser- 
tion Law, 709. 
Southern Immigration Conference, 112. 
Southern Kindergarten and Settlement, 329. 
South Mountain Camp Sanatorium, 359. 
South Park Commission, 434. 
Spargo, John, 179, 464, 497. 
Spargo's Socialism, 464. 
Special Census Reports, 488. 
Special Employment Bureaus for the Hand- 
icapped, 816. 
Spencer, Anna Garlin, 459. 
Spectorsky, Isaac, 891. 
Speyer, James, 931, 965. 
Spirit of Democracy, 461. 
Spratling, William P., 286. 
Standard of Living, 281, 299, 304, 315, 321, 

327. 



Xll 



Index 



State Board of Charities, Maine, 1034. 

State Subsidies in Pennsylvania, 859. 

State Wide Civic Movements, 242. 

State Wide Juvenile Court System, 128. 

State Work House System, 165. 

States Thinking Nationally, 745. 

Stead. F. Herbert, 65. 

Steffens, Lincoln, 242. 

Stein, Simon H., 113. 

Steiner, Edward A., 506. 

Stella, Antonio, 693, 1056. 

Stephens, H. Morse, 454. 

Stillman, W. O., 331. 

St. Louis Milk Commission, 126. 

St. Louis School of Philanthropy, 519. 

Story of Ward L., 187. 

Straus, Isadore, 49. 

Straus, Oscar, 187, 269, 1025. 

Straus, Oscar S. and His Portfolio, 187. 

Street Crap Playing, 684. 

Strong, Josiah, 812. 

Strause, Eli, 113. 

Strunsky, Anna, 362. 

Study Hour for Children, 1050. 

Subsidies to Private Charities, 662. 

Successful Extradition, 709. 

Suggested Changes in Boston's Lower Grade 

Schools, 1033. 
Suggestion of Mayor McClellan, 872. 
Sulzberger, Cyrus L., 965, 995. 
Sweeney, Algernon T., 881, 882, 885. 
Swelt, Helen, 45. 
Sydenham Hospital, 357. 
Sympathy for Russian Freedom, 1031. 

Task for Fortitude and Delicacy, 626. 

Taylor, Graham, 2, 101, 188, 260, 267, 694, 
695, 788, 851, 973, 1025, 1081. 

Taylor, Graham Romeyn, 536, 807. 

Taylor, W. E., 943. 

Teaching the Boers Home Industries, 932. 

Tenement Situation in Buffalo, 70. 

Texts in Sociology, 472. 

The American City; a Problem in Democ- 
racy, '508, 510. 

The City the Hope of Democracy, 508, 511. 

Theories of Social Advance, 459. 

Three Years' Course for Nurses, 1109. 

Throwing the Burden of Truancy on the 
Parent, 535. 

Thurston, Henry W., 542. 

Tierney, Miles, 49. 

To Country and Cottage, 296, 650, 1098. 

Todd, Arthur J., 131. 

To Holiday Shoppers, 356. 

Tolstoi, Leo, 479. 

Torney, George H., 107. 

Trade Unions Among English Women, 1023. 

Trade Unionism and Labor Problems, 470. 

Training School for Visiting Nurses, 267. 

Travelers' Aid Committee, New York, 585. 

Treatment for Poor Tuberculosis Patients, 
1060. 

Treatment for Children, 348, 1117. 

Treatment of the Child, 573. 

Treatment of the Delinquent, 156, 323, 563, 
749, 922. 

Treatment of Tuberculosis, 750. 

Trend of Things, 687, 717, 718, 751, 920, 1030, 
1067, 1109. 



Truancy and Home Conditions, 523. 
Tuberculosis. 

A Year's Fight Against Tuberculosis, 9- 

Tuberculosis in the Smaller Cities, 165, 
177. 

Campaign Against Tuberculosis in New 
Jersey, 456. 

Campaign Renewed in Washington, 330. 

International Congress at the Hague, 
344. 

Turning Trees into Physicians, 359. 

Forest Dwellers for Health's Sake, 377. 

South Mountain Camp Sanatorium, 377. 
385. 

Consumption and Civilization, 493. 

Consumption, Its Relation to Man, 493. 

Registration of Tuberculosis, 589. 

Boston Consumption Hospital, 696. 

Tuberculosis in Illinois Institutions, 
763. 

Examination in Berlin, 875. 

Treatment of Poor Tuberculosis Pa- 
tients, 1060. 

Danger of Sending Consumptives to the 
Country, 1061. 
Tuberculosis in Illinois Institutions, 763. 
Tuberculosis and the Indians, 277. 
Tuberculosis Examination in Berlin, 875. 
Tuberculosis in Illinois, 949. 
Tucker, Frank, 299, 327, 457, 1079. 
Turning Trees into Physicians, 359. 
Tuttle, G. N., 129. 
Tuttle, Lucius, 696. 
Two Books on the Economy of the Home, 

502. 
Two National Boys' Club Organizations,. 

1109. 
Typhlophiles or Friends of the Blind, 405. 

Uniform Medical Records for State Charit- 
able Institutions, 941. 
United Hebrew Charities, 305. 

Valentin Hauy Association, 408. 
Vance, Arthur T., 649. 
Vanderlip, Frank A., 283, 368. 
Vandervaart, Harriet, 106, 455. 
Veiller, Lawrence, 53, 212, 1080. 
Village, Town and City in Civic Co-opera- 
tion, 246. 
Villard, Oswald G., 965, 995. 
Van Kleeck, Mary, 13, 183. 
Vorsanger, Rev. Jacob, 45. . • 

Wade, Frank E., 708. 

Wages of Seamen, 845. 

Wait, William B., 140. 

Wald, Lillian D., 540, 856. 

Walker, Joseph R., 277. 

Walling, William English, 362, 373, 785. 

Warburg, Felix M., 856. 

Ward, George F., 279. 

Ward, James W., 107. 

Ward, Robert DeC., 504. 

Warne: "The Coal Mine" Workers", 470v 

Washington, Booker T., 109. 

Washington of a Mission Visitor, 559. 

Watchorn, Robert, 1056. 

Watson, F. D., 1041, 1110. 



Index 



xin 



Weatherby, U. G., 166. 

Weber, Adna F., 833. 

Webster, George W., 957. 

Weeks, H. M., 286. 

Welfare Work and Child Labor in Southern 

Cotton Mills, 271. 
Wells: "In the Days of the Comet". 487. 
What Can I Do? 403. 
What Jacob Riis and a Thousand Boys Are 

Up To, 167. 
Wheeler, Everett P., 284. 
Whelpley, James Davenport, 506. 
Where There's Common Ground in Civic 

Progress, 188. 
White, Alfred T., 49. 
White, Gaylord S., 1044. 
White, William J., 320, 471. 
Whitlock, Brand, 240. 
Whitnall, Mrs. C. B., 696. 
Whittaker, W. H., 164. 
Wiesenfeld, Mrs. Hiram, 113. 
Wilcox, Delos P., 242, 508, 510. 
Wilder, Amherst H., 285. 
Wilder Charity, 285. 
Wilkin, Robert J., 331. 
Will of Samuel Lewis, 284. 
Willard, Charles D., 237. 
Willard, Josiah Flynt, 849. 
Wilmarth, Mary, 106. 
Wilson, W. T., 705. 
Winslow, Charles H., 9. 
Wise, Stephen S., 697, 723. 



Women Wage Earners and the Law, 349. 
Woodruff, Clinton Rogers, 181, 235, 588. 
Woods, Robert A., 226, 336. 
Woolman, Mary Schenck, 109. 
Woodworth, B. H., 695. 
Worcester's Charities Commission, 1107. 
Work Among the Italian Immigrants, 1056. 
Work and Plans at Stony Wold, 859. 
Work of New York's Tenement House De- 
partment, 11. 
Working for Reform in Omaha, 435. 
Working Hours for Women in Factories, 13. 
Working Prisoners in the Open, 129. 
Working With the People, 483. 
Workingmen's Accident Insurance, 823. • 
Working Women and Children, 697. 
Wright, Carroll D., 468, 759, 879. 
Wright, Lucy, 152. 
Wyman, Julius H., 113. 



Year's Fight Against Tuberculosis, 9. 
Year of the Consumers' League, 861. 
Young Men's Associated Charities in Chi- 
cago, 885. 

Zangwill, Israel, 187, 269. 
Zellar, George A., 944. 
Ziegler, 45. 
Zueblin, Charles, 106. 

Zueblin's: "A Decade of Civic Develop- 
ment," 509. 




THE LATE SAMUEL M. JONES 
"Golden Rvxle" Mayor of Toledo 

Four times elected Toledo's "Golden Rule" mayor against the opposition 
of both political parties, Mr. Jones carried out into the city administration what 
he practiced in his shop by himself, obeying the notice hanging on its walls for 
years. "Rule Governing This Shop. 'Whatsoever ye would that men should 
do unto you, do ye even so unto them'." He succeeded in thwarting the exten= 
sion of public utility franchises on terms unjust to the city, and permanently 
reversed its policy regarding them. His wonderful popular influence not only 
remodeled the police department and other branches of the city government, 
but united the most diverse elements of the population in an almost religious 
devotion to the city's interests. No such demonstration of a whole city's loyalty 
and grief has been witnessed in America, as was made at his funeral. 



CHARITIES 

and The Commons 



Social Forces 

A Foreword FortnigKtly by tKe JLditor 



NEW TYPES OF CRIMINALS 

There are some acts which are forbidden by statute, and for which fine 
and imprisonment are prescribed, which nevertheless may not appear to those 
who commit them to have any particular moral odium. 

Such is the speeding of an automobile, or even the inflicting of injury upon 
an innocent pedestrian who is so unfortunate as not to get out of the way 
of the fast-driven car. One driver, who was also an owner, recently received 
a considerable amount of public sympathy in a fatal accident of this kind, 
and curiously enough it was increased rather than otherwise by the fact that 
his car had once before unluckily killed a little girl. There was no criminal 
offense in the later killing but there had been in the first. The immediate friends 
of the victims of such accidents and a certain portion of the public may feel 
inexpressible exasperation over these violations of the penal code, but in the 
offender, who usually pays his fine cheerfully enough, there is apt to be at 
most a passing regret that he has been so careless as to come into conflict with 
an inconvenient regulation ; and any resolution as to a different manner of life 
in the future seldom goes deeper than a determination to be a little more wary 
of policemen and possibly to secure the services of a more skillful chauffeur. 

That there is a moral sanction for the strict regulation of fast moving 
powerful motor cars, and a moral as well as a civic obligation to obey the letter 
and the spirit of such regulations, is an idea which lingers. 

These reflections are suggested, not by any recent injuries inflicted upon 
pedestrians by automobiles, but by the conviction of two great corporations 
in New York and Ohio of offerees which a generation ago had not been defined 
in penal codes, and which doubtless seem to the business men who performed 
the acts now pronounced obnoxious to the criminal law to be in themselves no 
more reprehensible than speeding seems to the man with the automobile. Con- 
scious of their power in the one case as in the other, they drive ahead in fine 
contempt of statutes, willing for the sake of the speed to take the risks of 
detection and a possible fine. That arrest, conviction, and punishment are 
really probable you cannot make them believe, and that there is any danger 
whatever of incurring the public condemnation, obloquy, and social ostracism, 
which belong as a matter of course to the ordinary criminal, is very far from 
their thoughts. 

Those who are tempted to violate recently enacted statutes whether against 
reckless driving, or rebating, or acts in restraint of competition, must learn 
that they are of precisely the same character as laws against disorderly con- 
i77 



178 Charities and The Commons 

duct, conspiracy, or grand larceny. The new laws, like the old, are necessary 
steps in that evolutionary process by which society seeks, never with complete 
success, to maintain orderly and equitable relations between man and man. 
He who violates an ancient statute is at once branded as a criminal. He 
who disregards a recent ordinance, other things being equal, is almost 
certain to be inflicting the greater injury. There is no moral difference in 
the two actions but there is indicated a difference in the stage at which the 
education of the citizen has advanced. A man may see that it is wrong to 
steal who does not yet see that it is wrong to discriminate between shippers. 
The better the citizen the more completely are the instincts adjusted to the new 
social and industrial conditions ; the more easily therefore is there instinctive 
obedience to new as well as to established laws. The laws in question have 
a perfectly sound ethical basis. Disregard of them is not merely lawlessness 
but immorality, deserving to be visited by severe social condemnation. 

The distinguished counsel for one of the corporations is said to have admitted 
sorrowfully, at the close of the recent trial which had resulted in his client's 
conviction, that in the present state of public opinion it is useless to defend 
rebate cases. That public opinion will become even more pronounced. The 
education of the public is proceeding apace. It will not go backward. Legis- 
latures and courts may devise more effective and expeditious methods of pre- 
venting discriminations, extortionate charges, and monopoly, but there is no 
probability that there will be any relaxation in the opprobrium now cast upon 
them. The public is learning to use that encouragement to fairness and honesty 
in corporate management which President Hadley recommended some months 
ago, the power of public opinion, expressed in extreme instances by social 
ostracism. That even the milder forms of such public disapproval might have 
the effect of influencing the action of juries in criminal cases may not have 
occurred at the time to the author of this advice, but nothing is more natural 
or more encouraging than that the education of public opinion should have this 
result. 

SOCIAL GEOGRAPHY IN THE: MAKING 

The controversy in Chicago last month over the election of a director for 
the Illinois Central Railway invites attention to the reasons for the desire which 
any transcontinental railway might naturally have for intimate relations with 
this important north and south line. It is not merely that it traverses the 
Mississippi valley and is thus at right angles to the Pacific railways. There is 
the further important fact that it has established at New Orleans extraordinarily 
good terminal facilities, and has taken an active part in promoting that develop- 
ment of both export and import trade at the mouth of the Mississippi which 
has already affected the commerce of New York and other seaports. Tramp 
steamers and inconspicuous lines have heretofore carried these goods from the 
water's edge, but if through the future necessity of diverting immigration from 
the port of New York, or for other reasons, important regular steamship lines 
should be established between the European ports and New Orleans, it is diffi- 
cult to set bounds to the commercial development which might follow. 

From New Orleans the natural distributing channels to the north and west 
are the Illinois Central and the Southern Pacific railways, and an understanding 
between them is to be expected, whether they come under the control of a single 



Social Forces 179 

individual or group or retain their present degree of independence of manage- 
ment. Thus the clash and adjustment of large commercial and industrial inter- 
ests are among the social forces influencing the distribution of immigrants, 
the building up of communities, and the supply of products whose rise and 
fall in price have so pronounced an effect on the general standard of living. 

A BOOtl TO BE RECOMMENDED 

A calm survey of the general course of history affords the natural corrective 
for the frenzy and the undue anxiety of the passing hour. By means of such 
an admirable volume as James Harvey Robinson's History of Western Europe 
and its accompanying readings from original sources even the busy man may 
travel again in a dignified - and, if he choose, leisurely, way over the ground 
which may or may not seem familiar because of undergraduate recollections, 
and may or may not be associated in memory with a purely disciplinary and 
perhaps disagreeable process. It is doubtless worth while to secure the training 
which comes from devoting an entire year to the study of a single presidential 
election or to the ramifications of a single obscure engagement in a comparatively 
unimportant war. In that way lies the training and making of a historian. 
Very different is the reading of a volume in which evidences of erudition are 
kept in the background, in which there is no obvious straining after literary 
effect, and no sacrifice of the truthfulness and proportion for the sake of exag- 
gerating the merely picturesque and startling. It is a delightful, stimulating, 
and yet chiefly reassuring and sobering experience. It is thrilling enough — 
the story of the barbarian invasions, the rise of the church, the conversion 
of the north, Charlemagne and his empire, feudalism, the crusades., the hun- 
dred years' war, the renaissance, the thirty years' war, the expansion of Eng- 
land, the French revolution, the unification of Italy and Germany and the in- 
dustrial revolution. The headings are familiar, but are the substance and 
meaning familiar ? Do we realize how little of our feverishly recorded and red- 
ink emblazoned and eagerly devoured activities will have any place in the world 
history which is nevertheless making itself to-day as surely as when Savonarola 
was a mighty figure in Florence, or when, five hundred years before, the church 
was so nearly "dragged down by its property into the anarchy of feudalism" ? 

The Jungle is an important book. It led to the clearing up of the packing 
houses and it has led many to see that things go wrong when business exploita- 
tion is unchecked. Lawson's Frenzied Finance doubtless precipitated the insur- 
ance investigations, and in the seven substantial volumes containing the report 
and testimony of the Armstrong committee there is much profitable reading. 
Spargo's Socialism is the latest exposition of the whole gospel of socialism 
and as such deserves to be examined. Churchill's Coniston draws, in Jethro 
Bass, a new and extraordinary character and contains food for thought for prac- 
tical politicians. Father Ryan's The Living Wage is in the sympathetic, modern 
spirit with traces of the scientific character of a doctor's dissertation. George 
Moore's Memoirs and Kipling's Puck of Pook's Hill promise a treat after their 
very delightful kind. But taking all things together, with a deliberate desire to 
do ample justice to all kinds of books which are likely to be serviceable to those 
who are trying to promote the common welfare, our advice this week is to read 
— and to take a reasonable amount of time in doing it — Robinson's Introduction 
to the History of Western Europe. 



180 Charities and The Commons 

THE HISTORICAL vs. THE ECONOMIC METHOD 

Commending unreservedly as we have the reading of history, and even 
naming a particular book as likely to be of service, we have pleasure in extracting 
from the manuscript of a forthcoming volume the following passage which 
raises the question as to whether there is not an even more profitable occu- 
pation — a question which it is interesting to raise on the opening pages of such a 
civic number as this: 

"A careful reversal of the popular method of reasoning would give a clearer view 
of contemporary life and a corrected impression of the past. It would begin with a 
scrutiny of to-day, retrace history, and predict the future from a knowledge tested 
by joint studies of the two. The other mode of thinking threads an involved path 
beginning in historical episodes, makes a detour around the present, and leads to a 
goal in the future where its followers expect to find new episodes like those they 
began with. The one is an economic, the other an historical method." 

It is a question whether ignorance of the past, or slavery to its ideas and 
traditions, is the greater obstacle to an understanding of present forces and 
tendencies. What is called the historical method in the passage quoted is not 
of course the method of the modern scientific historian, but it is abundantly 
illustrated in the use which is still made of history in religion, politics, and 
social reform. If the contrasting method is economic, there are nevertheless 
those who set up as economists who do not begin with a scrutiny of to-day, 
who neglect to retrace history, and who never reach the point of predicting the 
future. An understanding of the trend of events based on illuminating analysis 
of the present, with due historical perspective, is justly to be demanded of 
the economists, and there are those who have the courage and the necessary 
equipment for this great social service. Professor Patten, in the first series 
of Kennedy lectures in the School of Philanthropy last year, discussed in this 
spirit and with extraordinary success the new basis of civilization — showing 
that it is opportunity, not ability, which needs to be created in order to extend 
civilization downward under the new conditions of permanent prosperity and 
social surplus. President Pladley of Yale University will this year in the same 
course, which opened on Friday, November 2, discuss the Basis of Public 
Morals, and this course will undoubtedly like the other meet the canons of 
the economic method as laid down in the above quoted dictum. President Hadley 
deals in his five lectures with 

Nov. 2. Modern Ethical Ideals. 

Nov. 9. The Ethics of Trade. 

Nov. 16. The Ethics of Corporate Management. 

Dec ' 23 1 The EthiCS ° f Political Activit y- 



CHARITIES 

and The Commons 

TKe Common Welfare 

Paragraphs in PHilantHropy and Social Advance 



American From the bite of a mos- 
Assodation quito to the broad plans of 
Convention, metropolitan park systems 
may seem a far cry. But it indicates the 
wide range of attention which the Ameri- 
can Civic Association gave to the pur- 
pose which dominated every session of 
the Milwaukee convention, October 24- 
26, — the consideration of how our cities 
may become better places in which to live. 
In two directions at least the problems 
engaging the efforts of the association 
are matters of national rather than city 
policy. These are the efforts toward 
forest preservation and in defence of the 
country's greatest scenic possession, 
Niagara Falls. 

Under the title of the Niagara Cam- 
paign President J. Horace McFarland of 
Harrisburg Pa., gave an account of the 
fight waged by the association during 
the last few months. The first gun 
in the campaign was fired when a 
cartoon was published calling attention 
to what might become of Niagara 
if the water power companies had their 
way. Letters from all parts of the coun- 
try began to pour in upon President 
Roosevelt and Earl Grey. Public in- 
dignation merely amused the commercial 
interests involved, until the president's 
message declared that "nothing should be 
allowed to interfere with Niagara Falls 
in all their beauty and majesty," and that 
if "New York state would not move for 
their protection the nation would." This 
alarmed the power companies and the 
fight was on. 

Advertising space was freely donated 
by a dozen or so national publications to 
the value of $2,500. In this the associa- 
tion called for help. Editorials and news 
notes kept the public informed of every 
step in the campaign and after persistent 
agitation a bill introduced by Representa- 
tive Burton of Ohio, passed Congress and 
181 



was signed, on June 29, 1906, by Presi- 
dent Roosevelt. This placed in the Sec- 
retary of War power to regulate the di- 
version of water and the admission of 
power from Canada for the period of 
three years, during which time the presi- 
dent could negotiate a treaty with Great 
Britain. Under the provisions of this 
measure a public hearing was held on 
July 12 at the falls and a decision was 
rendered that no more water should be 
taken in the future than was at that time 
being used. 

The "billboard nuisance" is the object 
of another fight on which the association 
is about to enter. Under the direction 
of Harlan P. Kelsey of Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, vice-president of the department 
of nuisances, agitation for stringent 
legislation covering billboards, the smoke 
evil, and other city nuisances is to be 
started. One of the valuable discussions 
of the convention was held over the ex- 
tension of the police power of the state 
to cover such offenses. 

In discussing the "national impulse for 
civic improvement," Secretary Woodruff 
told of the work of the association. After 
laying stress on the Niagara campaign 
and the proposed fight against billboards, 
he brought out the intimate relation be- 
tween civic art and living conditions. 

Speaking of art as a correction for 
juvenile crime, Mr. Woodruff said: 

Wherever we go we find this situation 
confronting us; new generations of our own 
and of foreign-born children coming up to 
take their place as American citizens, to 
serve as the responsible citizens of the next. 
How necessary it is, then, that these chil- 
dren should receive the proper impulse to- 
wards civic improvement and should be 
guided aright in their education so that they 
may be fully equipped to do their whole 
duty to the people. The school continues to 
be the great factor for the creation and the 
fostering of civic virtue; for the moulding 
of good citizens. 



182 



Charities and The Commons 



The effectiveness of thus interesting 
young people in civic affairs was illus- 
trated by the attendance, as delegates, of 
two students and two teachers from the 
Parker School of Chicago. This school 
has taken an active interest in the work 
since the time of the Niagara campaign 
when it took out a membership in the 
association.. 

Among other papers was one by 
J. T. Rothrock, of the Pennsylvania 
State Forestry Reservation Commis- 
sion. He made the suggestion that the 
great work of reforestation needed in 
eastern forest preserves could be carried 
on with great advantage to the worker 
as well as to the work, by the employ- 
ment of convalescent consumptives. Pro- 
fessor Frederick D. Washburn, state en- 
tomologist of Minnesota, spoke of the 
efforts to exterminate the mosquito and 
declared that good drainage was the ef- 
fective means of securing relief from the 
pest. 

After the discussion of forest reserva- 
tions, resolutions were passed in support 
of the proposed Wisconsin state park at 
the "Dells," and enthusiasm was mani- 
fested for the Appalachian Mountain 
reservations in New Hampshire and in 
in the south. Further discussions of the 
session will be reviewed at other times. 

The convention adjourned after elect- 
ing the following officers : 

President, J. Horace McFarland, Harris- 
burg, Pa.; first vice president and acting 
secretary, Clinton Rogers Woodruff, Phila- 
delphia; vice presidents, James D. Phelan, 
San Francisco, and L. E. Holden, Cleveland, 
O.; treasurer, William B. Howland, New 
York; chairman advisory committee, Robert 
C. Ogden, New York; departments, arts and 
crafts, Mrs. M. F. Johnson, Richmond, Ind.; 
children's gardens, Miss Mary Marshall But- 
ler, Yonkers, N. Y.; city making, Frederick 
L. Ford, Hartford, Conn.; factory better- 
ment, Miss Gertrude Beeks, New York; li- 
braries, Miss Mary E. Ahearn, Chicago; out- 
door art, Warren H. Manning, Boston; pub- 
lic recreation, Joseph Lee, Boston; press, 
Harvey Maitland Watts, Philadelphia; pub- 
lic nuisances, Harland P. Kelsey, Boston; 
parks, Alfred C. Clas, Milwaukee; railroad 
improvement ,Mrs. A. E. McCrea, Chicago; 
rural improvements, D. Ward King, Mait- 
land, Mo.; school extension, O. J. Kern, 
Rockford, 111.; social settlement, Graham 
Romeyn Taylor, Chicago. 

Mrs. Edwin F. Moulton of Ohio was elect- 



ed president of the Woman's Outdoor League 
Department, to succeed Mrs. Edward L. Up- 
ton, who declined re-election. Mrs. A. W. 
Sanborn was elected first vice-president and 
the other officers are as follows: Second vice- 
president, Mrs. J. C. Haines, Seattle; secre- 
tary, Mrs. Agnes McGiffert, Ohio; treasurer, 
Miss Myra Lloyd Dock, Pennsylvania. The 
directors are: Mrs. C. F. Millspaugh, Chi- 
cago; Mrs. Thomas Hoyt Brown, Milwaukee; 
Mrs. Arthur Noble, Santa Monaco, Cal.; Mrs. 
Griffith, Lynnbrook, Mass.; Miss Helen Whit- 
ter Whittier, Boston, and Mrs. E. P. Turner, 
Dallas. 

An Exhibition Grown folks have more 
c <>f civic serious things to bother 

ongestion ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ Q ^ 

nursery conundrum: 

If all the land were apple pie 

And all the sea were ink, 
What should we do for bread and cheese? 

What would we do for drink? 

Yet, after its kind, that is the meat and 
essence of one of the most searching, 
serious and fundamental problems at the 
bottom of modern civilizations — the piling 
up of people in the cities. Every great 
city in the world is growing, — Tokio, 
Moscow, London and Chicago alike. The 
tendency is world wide and the process 
shows ever increasing intensity. 

Some of the social thinkers who reach 
deepest into causes are convinced that in 
the rapid growth of such a city as New 
York, overcrowding is a basal evil — 
ramifying into other and terrible ills such 
as tuberculosis, dark tenements, new 
phases of economic exploitation, spiritual 
apathy and what not. These, the social 
forces of society are grappling with. 
They are preventable — yet not perman- 
ently so until this other, equally prevent- 
able, underlying condition is countered. 
Congestion, they say, is the cause "high- 
er up" — or lower down; the John Doe 
of social disease. Have after him! 

So it is, that in an effort to seriously 
face the facts of overcrowding in this 
large sense, more concretely and compre- 
hensively than ever before, a group of 
New York organizations is planning an 
"exhibit on congestion of population," to 
be held early in the year. Settlements, 
charitable societies, civic organizations 
and public departments will participate. 
It is the intention of the managers^ to 
show exhibits along at least the following 
lines : 



Re-discovering America for the Immigrant 



'8 3 



Growth of density of population; 

Lack of park spaces; 

Models of city blocks showing area con- 
gestion; 

Over-crowding within the dwelling; 

Sweated trades; 

Child labor in tenements; 

Inadequacy of seating capacity in the pub- 
lic schools (part-time system) ; 

Prevalence of tuberculosis; 

Lack of transportation facilities to out- 
lying regions; 

Localization of factories. 

Re-discoveri„ g During the ten days that 
America for the exhibition of J ewish 

the Immigrant. country Hfe wag hdd ^ the 

Educational Alliance in New York city, 
some 50,000 persons, many of them new- 
ly arrived immigrants, were shown by 
means of photographs, charts and lect- 
ures, that there is a place in agriculture 
for the Jew. They saw that all over 
the country Jews may be found on farms 
and some learned for the first time that 
there are organizations that will give 
advice and assistance to those who wish 
to get out in the farm lands. 

The wonder of an old Jewish painter 
was shared by a great many. He had 
finished a sign that explained the work 
of the Jewish Agricultural and Industrial 
Aid Society; how it helped the immi- 
grant to get to the country and how it 
aided him in the new life. "And is it 
really so," he exclaimed. "How is it 
that I never knew about it before?" 

As a direct result of the exhibition the 
rooms of the Industrial Removal Office 
and of the Jewish Agricultural and In- 
dustrial Aid Society have been filled 
with anxious inquirers. It was in many 
ways a re-discovery of America for the 
immigrant. 

Nig wwn rk; A keen anc * widespread in- 
and the terest in the imminent de- 
CourtsI^ cision of the New York 
Supreme Court on the constitutionality 
of the state law prohibiting employment 
of women at night in factories (set down 
in the court calendar for Nov. 7), is 
shown by the many newspaper comments 
on Miss Van Kleeck's article Women's 
Hours of Work in Factories, published in 
the October issue of Charities and The 
Commons. Throughout New York, 
Massachusetts, New Jersey, Illinois and 



other industrial states this decision is 
awaited with anxiety, to sustain or over- 
throw the local court which, as The Out- 
look says, undertook 

to deny the principle underlying the factory 
legislation of an entire century and affirmed 
by the Supreme Court of the United States — 
that the state may interfere where the con- 
tracting parties are not on an equality or 
where public health demands that a party 
be protected against himself. Working 
women and girls, less able to organize for 
self protection, need if they are to fulfill the 
functions of motherhood, to be protected 
against the exploitation of their physical and 
mental life by a greedy and inhuman indus- 
trialism. The churches should actively 
espouse their cause by awakening an ener- 
getic public sentiment in its behalf. Such 
a public sentiment was effective last year in 
the matter of life insurance. This also is a 
sort of life insurance more urgently needed, 
and not only in the city and state of New 
York. 

Announcement was made this week 
that at the request of President Roose- 
velt, Mrs. J. Ellen Foster, special agent 
of the U. S. Department of Justice, had 
been assigned to make a preliminary sur- 
vey as to the condition of working 
women and children. Twice has Presi- 
dent Roosevelt urged in his messages a 
comprehensive national investigation. 
Mrs. Foster's commission is to correlate 
and report on what is now known as the 
basis for legislative action. 

In this connection, importance is lent 
to what is in itself an extremely interest- 
ing survey of existing state laws re- 
stricting the labor of women, published 
in the September Annals of the American 
Academy of Political and Social Science. 1 
Emphasis is laid upon the contrast be- 
tween the European movement towards 
total prohibition of women's nightwork 
in industrial establishments — representa- 
tives of all the civilized governments, 
having met twice during the past two 
years to draw up international agree- 
ments on the subject — and the indiffer- 
ence to such protection in this country. 

The Poor Only four of the fifty-two 
the^unfted* states and territories speci- 
states. fically forbid employment 
of women at night — Indiana Massachu- 
setts, Nebraska and New York. Ohio 

1 Working Women and the Laws : A record of neg- 
lect: Josephine C, Goldmark. 



1 84 



Charities and The Commons 



forbids such work for girls under eight- 
een years. 

With an adverse opinion by the Su- 
preme Court, New York would fall back 
into the black list of states which have 
no legislative protection. Continuing, 
the article says: 

The enlightened European countries are 
as far in advance of the United States in 
fixing by statute the length of the working 
day, as they are in existing or prospective 
laws on night work for women. 

Yet a limitation of working hours is, like 
the prohibition of nightwork, conspicuously 
necessary to preserve the health of working- 
women. The enormous increase of output 
in manufacture which has been held a na- 
tional distinction and superiority, means 
primarily increase in speed, with a corre- 
sponding demand upon the attention and 
strength of the operator. The nervous 
strain involved in attending highly speeded 
modern machines can be compensated only 
by lessening the daily hours of application 
to such exacting labor. 

In this country only twenty states have 
laws restricting hours of labor by the day 
and by the week. 

Meanwhile it is significant that in all cases 
affecting the constitutionality of laws re- 
stricting hours of labor, the assailants of the 
law have not been laborers striving for the 
privilege of nightwork or unrestricted hours, 
but employers to whose advantage it. is for 
them so to labor. When nightwork for 
women is prohibited, employers must replace 
them with men (who are usually paid "time 
and a half" or "double time"), or must in- 
crease the day force. Either alternative 
means increase of expense; hence invasion 
of employees' "rights" are discovered by un- 
scrupulous employers in any law prohibiting 
unlimited hours. But the "right" to work 
all day and all night, apparently assuring 
the individual's liberty, means in practice 
sheer inability to refuse to work whatever 
length of time the employer may choose. 
For refusal means dismissal. As has been well 
said, the "right" to work unlimited hours 
amounts to the "right" to lose one's job — a 
barren privilege! On the other hand when 
law forbids nightwork or* unrestricted hours 
for women, industry ultimately adjusts itself 
to the requirement. The same specious 
argument is used — that "rights" are invaded 
— when laws against child labor are enact- 
ed. As the brief in defense of the child 
labor law recently attacked in California, 
says: "There has been no cry of oppression, 
no contention that the rights of any citizen 
or of any child were invaded thereby, ex- 
cept such contention came from some indi- 
vidual from whom the law was about to ex- 
act a penalty for its violation ... it 
would be with better grace if the solicitude 
for the invaded rights of children came 
from the children themselves, or their par- 



ents, or from someone who is not pecuniar- 
ily interested in the invalidity of the law 
under which it is sought to show the rights 
of children are invaded." 

Committee Some time ago a com- 
AmericMi mittee of fifteen was ap- 
Jews. pointed by Judge Mayer 
Sulzberger, of Philadelphia, acting as 
chairman, to confer, and to name thirty- 
five other American Jews to constitute 
altogether a committee of fifty repre- 
sentative men who could be counted on to 
act as a body on important questions af- 
fecting Jews in America. The country 
has been divided into twelve districts 
and an effort made to select in each dis- 
trict a number corresponding roughly to 
the Jewish population in that locality. 
The following is a list of districts and 
their representatives : 

I. North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, 
Florida — One member — Moses H. Cone, 
Greensboro, N. C. 

II. Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi — One 
member — Rev. D. Philipson, Cincinnati, O. 

III. Louisiana, Texas — Two members — 
Isidor Newman, New Orleans, La.; Isaac H. 
Kempner, Galveston, Tex. 

IV. Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado 
— Three members — Hon. M. Anfaenger, Den- 
ver, Colo; Elias Michael, St. Louis, Mo.; 
Hon. J. Trieber, Little Rock, Ark. 

V. Washington, California, Oregon, Utah, 
Idaho, Nevada — Three members — Sigmund 
Sichel, Portland, Ore.; Hon. M. C, Sloss, San 
Francisco, Cal.; Rev. J. Voorsanger, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

VI. Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, Montana, 
Wyoming, N. Dakota, S. Dakota, Nebraska, 
New Mexico, Michigan — Three members — 
Henry M. Butzel, Detroit, Mich.; Ambrose 
Guiterman, St. Paul, Minn.; Victor Rose- 
water, Omaha, Neb. 

VII. Illinois — Six members — Dr. Emil G. 
Hirsch, B. Horwich, Adolf Kraus, Hon. J. W. 
Mack, J. Rosenwald, Rev. Jos. Stolz, Chicago, 
111. 

VIII. Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio — Three 
members — Dr. L. N. Dembitz, Louisville, 
Ky.; Martin A. Marks, Cleveland, O.; Max 
Senior, Cincinnati, O. 

IX. Pennsylvania, New Jersey — Seven 
members — Dr. Cyrus Adler, Washington, D. 
C; Hon. Nathan Barnet, Paterson, N. J.; 
Rev. Dr. Levinthal, M. Rosenbaum, Hon. 
Mayer Sulzberger, Philadelphia, Pa.; Hon. 
Isador Sobel, Erie, Pa.; A. Leo Weil, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

X. Maryland, Virginia, Delaware, District 
of Columbia — Three members — Dr. H. Fried- 
enwald, Prof. J. H. Hollander, Baltimore, 
Md.; Hon. Simon Wolf, Washington, D. C. 



The Household Organization 



185 



XL Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut — 
Three members — Godfrey M. Hyams, Ferdi- 
nand Strauss, Boston, Mass.; Henry Cutler, 
Providence, R. I. 

XII. New York — Fifteen members — Na- 
than Bijur, Jcs. H. Cohen, Daniel Guggen- 
heim, L. Kamaiky, D. H. Lieberman, Hon. 
E. Lauterbach, E. H. Lewin-Epstein, Prof. M. 
Loeb, Adolph Lewisohn, Dr. J. L. Magnes, 
Louis Marshall, Jacob H. Schiff, Hon. Oscar 
S. Straus, Cyrus L. Sulzberger, of New York; 
Hon. S. W. Rosendale, Albany, N. Y. 

A meeting of the full ' committee will 
be held on Sunday, November 11. 

The Household To take count of the Greek 
X on r the nt back of the modern word 
Palisades.- economics means the 
science of housekeeping and it is in this 
sense — as an experiment in the industrial 
and social organization of the household, 
as distinct from the family or the com- 
munity — that the Helicon Home Colony 
has a special interest right at the outset. 
This is the corporate name finally hit 
upon by the group of people taking part 
in the co-operative enterprise promoted 
by Upton Sinclair, the author of The 
Jungle. Helicon Hall was a boys' school, 
built on a ten-acre plot in the high wood- 
ed hills between Englewood, New Jer- 
sey, and the Hudson. Not only is the 
site a fortunate one, but the building, 
built around an interior palm garden, 
with the rooms opening on balconies, and 
with a great four-fire-placed chimney at 
one end, gives a picturesque setting to the 
venture which is distinctly an asset. 

In the spring, the different families 
composing the colony plan to build indi- 
vidual cottages, using the main hall for 
community purposes and the residence of 
workers and detached persons. A pio- 
neer few have been in residence for 
several weeks, settling, but with this week 
the colony may be said to be in regular 
operation and will shortly number forty 
adults and fifteen children. 

Unlike Brook Farm, membership does 
not imply an obligation to take part in 
household work, but in employing work- 
ers the directors have given preference 
to members offering their services and 
aim to continue only persons who can 
be and who would expect to be treated 
as social equals. During the first month, 
the furnaces have been tended by an 



exotic — an Irish janitor held over from 
less enlightened days whom "we mention 
only in a low. tone of voice," as Mr. 
Sinclair puts it ; but this is not to be for 
long. A Yale senior (Mr. Lewis) and a 
Providence manufacturer who has in 
mind a similar colony (Mr. Randall), are 
to g© into the manual work of the plant. 

The manager of the colony 

The Household • -\ir f r^ xt 

Organization, is Mrs. Anna G. Noyes, 
wife of William Noyes, of 
the faculty of Teachers' College. Here 
there is opportunity for practical appli- 
cation of methods and theories in man- 
ual training and kindred fields in which 
both have specialized. Prof. John Dewey, 
of Columbia, and Edwin S. Potter, of the 
Universal News Analysis, are other di- 
rectors and the children's department falls 
to Mrs. Cora Louise Potter. Mr. and Mrs. 
Potter have two children aged two and 
three-and-one-half and heretofore have 
carried on some experiments in their own 
home in the care of a group of children, 
including some from the East Side. 

The children are to sit at low 
tables in a separate dining room. A 
three-hour forenoon period of kinder- 
garten will be conducted by Miss Bates, 
who leaves an upper West Side school 
for this purpose, and the infant section 
will be under the care of Mrs. Ball, 
mother of a fourteen-months old baby 
as well as of a boy of five. Some of the 
earliest interviews published as to the 
colony seemed to indicate that a "peevish 
child," was an indispensable subscription 
on the part of anyone wishing to join; 
but certainly the children now romping 
about the big house, believing it just 
made for them, are a healthy and cheerful 
looking lot. They will sleep in a common 
room adjoining that of Mr. and Mrs. 
Potter. 

The cook is Mrs. Lillian Davis, a Cor- 
nell graduate, with experience in domestic 
science work. Miss Campbell, Mrs. 
Bertha Wilkins, Mrs. Torrey and other 
of the workers will assist for all or part 
time in kitchen, linen room, laundry, etc. 
The common rooms will be swept and 
dusted by the household staff. Cham- 
bers will be cared for by individual bar- 
gaining between the occupants and work- 



86 



Charities and The Commons 



ers. "Work," it is announced, "will be 
paid for at current market prices and for 
reasonable periods; and the entire ex- 
pense will be divided pro rata; children 
figured separately." 

Vegetarian and meat meals will be 
served at separate tables. This augurs 
well for the smooth going of the house- 
hold and if an equally happy solution 
comes to other of its domestic problems, it 
may prove as unique in results as in plan. 
For with such a group of pronounced 
thinkers in such a building, it is the heat- 
ing apparatus, tempermental and thermo- 
logical which will be given the hardest 
test. Or as one member of the colony 
put it, "We'll succeed all right if we don't 
freeze or fight; but it will be fun, any 
way." Which isn't to say, by any means, 
that the much heralded project is not be- 
ing entered into seriously. 

The New Th< r Boston City Club 
Boston City which was organized a little 

Club. 4.u u 

more than a year ago, has 
just leased the building at 9 and 11 Bea- 
con street, corner of Somerset, and once 
housed in its own quarters there is every 
prospect of its making as distinct a con- 
tribution to Boston as the City Clubs of 
Chicago and New York have done in 
those cities. The stated object of the 
organization is very simple — to bring 
together in the friendliest way men who 
are interested in the city of Boston and 
the problems of its growth. It includes 
in its membership men who are prominent 
in the various social clubs, business enter- 
prises, and labor organizations of Bos- 
ton, state and city officials, and a large 
number of young men "who are willing 
to take an active part in the effort to ad- 
vance the best interests of Boston." The 
executive committee is equally broad in 
membership. The house will contain a 
moderate-priced club restaurant and it 
is expected to have two hundred at 
luncheon every day. The plan is to have 
prominent state and city officials from 
other parts of the country as guests at 
frequent intervals; smokers, dinners, etc. 
The lines of interest along which these 
meetings will crystalize will be a matter 
of development, but there is significance 
in the fact that the club is within on block 



of the Court House, a block and a half 
of the City Hall, and a block and a half 
of the State House. The officers are : 
Geoffrey B. Lehy, President. 
Henry L. Higginson, Vice-President. 
William S. Youngman, Secretary. 
Richard Waterman, Asst. Secretary. 
David F. Tilley, Treasurer. 

Executive Committee. 
E. A. Filene, Chairman. 
E. A. Grozier. E. G. Preston. 

J. W. Beatson. H. L. Higginson. 

R. G. Morris. J. C. Pelletier. 

G. H. Tinkham. F. V. Thompson. 

C. V. Dasey. A. E. Wellington. 

Henry Abrahams. 
Finance Committee. 
James J. Storrow. 

T. B. FlTZPATRICK. 

E. A. Filene. 

The congress A number of educational 
on social organizations will c o- 

Education. ° , 

operate in carrying out a 
Social Education Congress to be held in 
Boston Nov. 30, Dec. 1 and 2. The ses- 
sions planned are extremely suggestive — 
general meetings at Tremont Temple de- 
voted to such topics as education for 
citizenship, the school as a social organ- 
ism, the school and family, industrial 
education and the education of the con- 
science. There will be section meetings 
in the mornings, on the following topics : 
University and School Extension ; Health 
Education; Special Classes for Trouble- 
some Children; Industrial Education; 
Commercial Education ; Self-organized 
Group Work in the Schools; Social 
Training in Infancy and Early Child- 
hood. 

The following executive committee is 
in charge and further details can be ob- 
tained from the corresponding secretary, 
Frank Waldo, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, Boston: 

James P. Munroe, Chairman, President 
Social Education Club. 

Paul H. Hanus, Secretary Harvard Teach- 
ers' Association. 

Edward M. Hartwell, Chairman Education 
Committee, 20th Century Club. 

Agnes Irwin, President Woman's Educa- 
tion Association. 

Augustine L. Rafter, Assistant Superin- 
tendent of Schools, Boston. 

Eugene D. Russell, President Massachu- 
setts State Teachers' Association. 

Colin A. Scott, Secretary Social Education 
Club. 

Charles H. Thurber, Frank B. Tracy, Dora 
Williams and Robert A. Woods. 



Mr. Straus and His Portfolio 



187 



Mr. Straus and His Portfolio 

Lee K.. FranKel 

Those of our readers who have fol- 
lowed President Roosevelt in his efforts 
to bring about legislation for the com- 
mon welfare and who have studied with 
care and eagerness his various pronun- 
ciamentos directed toward social up-lift 
will congratulate him on the courage and 
sanity which he has shown in his ap- 
pointment of Oscar S. Straus to the 
secretaryship of commerce and labor. 

This appointment is of more than or- 
dinary interest to the social worker. In 
the department of Commerce and Labor 
have been grouped a series of activities 
not narrowly related to government but 
which more and more daily must be con- 
sidered as coming under governmental 
supervision and regulation. These ac- 
tivities are of as intimate and vital con- 
cern to the general public as are ques- 
tions of finance or of agriculture. The 
internal condition of the country, as rep- 
resented by the status of its workmen, 
or by the influence of immigration is 
equally if not more important than the 
question of the protection afforded to our 
borders by the army and the navy. The 
relations of capital to lat>or, — the regu- 
lations of accumulated wealth, go hand 
in hand with the protection of the na- 
tion's credit or improvement in the postal 
facilities. 

It is obvious that to carry to a suc- 
cessful fruition the policy which the 
United States has adopted in the estab- 
lishment of this new Department of Com- 
merce and Labor, it is highly necessary 
that the guiding spirit should be a man 
who has not only the necessery tech- 
nical training but who shall be in sym- 
pathy with the many interests involved. 
Mr. Straus has both. His life has been 
devoted to a study of national and inter- 
national issues. As a historian, he has 
made researches into the beginnings of 
American history. His most notable 
publications in this field are The Origin 
of the Republican Form of Government 
in the United States, and The Develop- 
ment cf Religions Liberty in the United 
States. As minister to Turkey, Mr. 
Straus became conversant with those 



finer details of diplomacy, to which he 
has devoted himself in the last few years 
and which have made him so influential 
in the councils of the National Civic 
Federation and in adjusting the conten- 
tions between capital and labor which 
have come before that body. Unques- 
tionably Mr. Straus' legal training will 
stand him in good stead in administering 
the laws that have been passed by Con- 
gress directed towards ameliorating con- 
ditions of work and in curbing the power 
of the so-called "trusts." 

One of the most important departments 
that will come under Mr. Straus' superin- 
tendence is the Bureau of Immigration 
and Naturalization. Here, too, the new 
secretary is in touch with the situation. 
His wide acquaintance with international 
politics and in particular with the Jewish 
question, will enable him to remove any 
unnecessary red tape and conduct the 
bureau, first of all, with the strictest ad- 
herence to the requirements of law, but 
with sufficient of a humanitarian spirit 
to recognize that individuals have rights 
and that there may be exceptional in- 
stances, in which exceptional methods 
must be resorted to. 

It is a distinct source of satisfaction 
to recognize further in the president's 
appointment that broad spirit of toler- 
ance which he has shown, we believe with 
deliberation and intent, in the appoint- 
ment of Mr. Straus, who while he ranks 
foremost for his Americanism, is at the 
same time a noteworthy Jew. Mr. 
Straus has always been identified with 
the Jewish problems both here and 
abroad. He has been a member of the 
councils of many Jewish organizations, 
is one of the directors of the Hebrew 
Orphan Asylum of New York city and 
was selected by Baron de Hirsch to form- 
ulate plans for the distribution of the 
enormous funds which he gave for the 
benefit of the oppressed and persecuted 
Jews of Russia. Only recently Mr. 
Straus has been selected by Israel Zang- 
will, president of the Jewish Territorial 
Organization, as one of a Geographical 
Commission of Five, whose duty it will 
be to ascertain the most desirable lands 
or countries towards which the present 



1 88 



Charities and The Commons 



migration of Jews from Russia may be 
directed. 

Church and state have so long been 
separated in the United States that such 
a condition here has become axiomatic. 
It must, nevertheless, be a distinct pleas- 
ure to all who are engaged in the social 
up-lift and who view all social endeavor 
from the standpoint of a common 
brotherhood, to realize that in his pres- 
ent cabinet, the president has taken cog- 
nizance of the fact that while we are all 
united in a common humanity and while 
we recognize but one true Americanism, 
those who make this profession, may 
yet differ in their religious beliefs. Recog- 
nizing this, the president has given ample 
evidence of breadth in appointing 
Charles J. Bonaparte, a Roman Catholic, 
a former president of the National 
Municipal League and long identified 
with philanthropic movements in Balti- 
more, to the position of secretary 
of the navy, and in advancng him 
to the attorney-generalship. The ap- 
pointment of Mr. Straus, a Jew, to the 
secretaryship of commerce and labor 
now gives representation in the nation's 
policies to the three most prominent re- 
ligious denominations. That it will add 
to the spirit of good will among the peo- 
ple of the United States cannot be doubt- 
ed. And this too is a part of the social 
uplift. 

Where There's Common 
Ground in Civic Progress 

Graham Taylor 

The possibility of assembling at any 
one point of view the writers and topics 
in this civic number is a significant sign 
of our own times. Their appearance 
here in Charities and The Commons 
registers a way-mark of social progress. 
It indicates whence the progressive move- 
ments of our day have come and whither 
they tend. 

Not long ago such things would have 
been regarded as mutually exclusive at 
least for practical purposes. Such men 
as here write upon them would have re- 
garded the positions from which they are 
doing their work as having little or noth- 
ing in common. The unity of human inter- 



ests have for the most part been left to 
be expressed by idealists, poets and phil- 
osophers. The world-view of the phil- 
osophers has indeed attempted to estab- 
lish centers of unity as abstract as those 
of Kant and Hegel or as synthetic as 
those of Spencer. Ecclesiastics have 
sought as vainly to unite humanity under 
a single ecclesiastical authority as im- 
perial politicians to mass mankind under 
successive empires. And they have one 
and all contributed at least to the possi- 
bility of a more united spirit and co- 
operative effort among men. But prac- 
tical people who have gone on unifying 
their own work and bringing together 
those naturally allied in doing it, have 
been the real promoters of co-operation 
for progress. 

At length the very progress each group 
of them made in its own field laid others 
under tribute. No one line could be 
independently run parallel. They would 
curve and interweave. Charles Booth, 
for instance, in his persistent determina- 
tion to sound the depths of poverty and 
unemployment in London, soon found 
himself investigating poverty-producing 
industries and all the conditions of trade 
and labor. His great analysis of Life 
and Labor in London is as valuable a 
contribution to industrial history and 
economic literature, to political science, 
civic administration and practical politics, 
as to the arts of philanthropy. The em- 
phasis both in the work and literature of 
the relief of poverty turns more and more 
toward "preventive and constructive 
philanthropy" as we are forced to work 
more interdependently under the condi- 
tions of closer contact in the modern 
world. 

Nevertheless there are not a few so in- 
tensively at work in their own special 
lines, that they not only fail to recognize 
these vital inter-relationships, but protest 
against any theoretical or practical recog- 
nition of them as unscientific and detri- 
mental to efficiency. This very natural 
and excusable feeling upon the part of 
some even of our ablest and most experi- 
enced people, much more those of nar- 
rower range of culture and experience, 
is to be expected and respected. It is 
moreover to be considered a safe-guard 



The City of the Future 



189 



against the too rapid or too easy oblitera- 
tion of those spheres of specialization 
within which the precision of thought and 
the efficiency of action have been so es- 
sentially promoted. It is also to be con- 
ceded that any less distinct specialization 
may readily result in a temporary de- 
crease in the volume and effectiveness of 
any given effort. The political economist 
as stoutly as the trade unionist or class 
conscious socialist may protest that 
neither the law of supply and demand 
nor economic justice should be interfered 
with by charity. But history demon- 
strates that "the charity of to-day be- 
comes the justice of tomorrow," as truly 
as the luxuries of the past become the 
economic necessities of the present. The 
theorists on the freedom of contract and 
laissez-faire are forced to admit as a right 
what has been granted as a concession 
that the organization of industry and col- 
lective bargaining are indispensable to 
industrial progress and liberty. Physi- 
cians and economists, charity workers 
and trade unionists, are forced by the 
instinct of self-preservation to unite with 
boards of public health, visiting nurses, 
city building commissioners and associa- 
tions for better housing, factory inspect- 
ors and women's clubs, in the anti-tuber- 
culosis crusade and many another move- 
ment for public safety. 

Even those practical politicians, muni- 
cipal reformers and militant organizations 
for the radical re-organization of city 
politics and administration, than whom 
no citizens are more wary of entangling 
alliances, are finding out that there is 
more in common than they thought be- 
tween their success and the aims and 
methods of those at work in other ways 
for the common good. Party leaders and 
especially some of them who come to be 
governors of states, are acknowledging 
here and there by their acts, if not in their 
partisan ideals and speeches that the bad 
administration of state charitable and re- 
formatory institutions is bad party poli- 
tics, and that to serve the state the best 
by a non-partisan, scientific administra- 
tion of its humanitarian service, is to 
serve their party the most. The militant 
reformers, also, without whose fighting on 
the firing line the bettering of social con- 



ditions and civic administration would 
be impossible, are obliged to acknowledge 
the essential contributions to their own 
ends made by other persons and in other 
ways, and are recognizing as allies and 
colleagues the efficient leaders of the 
civic betterment movement, the local im- 
provement associations and even the con- 
structive charity workers and promoters 
of social philanthropy. 



In loyalty to just such community of 
interests the journals now merged in 
Charities and The Commons agreed to 
serve their own very distinct aims in a 
wider way by combining their ideals, 
constituencies and staffs in the united 
service of the common cause. Not only 
has there been no abandonment of any 
distinctive purpose, but the fulfilment of 
the purpose of each has been distinctly 
furthered by the co-operation of the en- 
larged staff and the circulation among the 
greatly increased clientele. While no 
more expert work was formerly done 
along philanthropic lines in Charities its 
application has been broadened by the 
wider scope and more varied and widely 
scattered constituency. While The Com- 
mons has suffered no restriction of scope 
or liberty, the material its staff supplies 
has been reinforced by an added strength 
of suggestion for its own field, and the 
support of the effective work done in 
closely related spheres of thought and 
activity. The educational and imme- 
diately practical value of Charities and 
The Commons is greatly enhanced by the 
farther reaching plans now possible for 
scientific investigation and treatment of 
conditions, and for adding those "human 
interest" touches of real experience with- 
out which academic work cannot be trans- 
lated into practical civic, social, industrial, 
or philanthropic achievement. 

The City of the Future 

Charles Mvilford Robinson 

The physical character of the Ameri- 
can city of day after to-morrow — or 
even, one may hope, of to-morrow — can 
be anticipated by putting together the 
picturesque description of its beginning 
and early development in the article 



190 



Charities and The Commons 



contributed by Mr. Kent to this number, 
and the summary by Mr. Woodruff of 
the forces that are moulding it. "How 
many," asks Mr. Woodruff, "of those 
who are thinking and planning for the 
city of the present, of the next year or 
two, can see the city of the future, of 
the next generation, of the next cen- 
tury?" Mr. Kent's clear vision of the 
conditions from which it is rising, and 
his own and Mr. Woodruff's description 
of the forces affecting it, make the vision 
discernable. 

Finding cities unprovided for in our 
early national life, Mr. Kent notes that 
they appeared in it like waifs, "ragged, 
barefoot, neglected." With their in- 
creased size, they have become "over- 
grown towns, prodigal sons nearly all of 
them, that have squandered their sub- 
stance in riotous living." For it is only 
recently, he points out, that we have 
realized the meaning of the city — "the 
highest social expression," and have dis- 
covered that the "fundamental social de- 
mands are law and order, education, 
recreation, and beauty." 

As regards the aspect of the city, the 
two latter demands — to which there 
should properly be added facility in the 
transaction of its business — are mainly 
of importance. Mr. Woodruff himself, in 
dwelling on the satisfaction of the need 
for law and order and education, seems 
scarcely to appreciate at its true worth 
the equal urban demand for physical 
betterment. And yet, in the conclusion 
of his article, a quotation from Presi- 
dent Eliot having called to mind the co- 
existent "physical and material" needs, 
he does speak also of these, and observes 
that all the forces for good are working 
together to make the city "a better, 
cleaner, healthier, and more desirable 
place in which to live." 

In both articles stress is laid on the 
growing power and value of awakened 
democracy, and the increasing recogni- 
tion "that the rights of the community 
are higher and more important than 
those of the individual." So we find, 
says Mr. Woodruff, laws and ordinances 
in increasing numbers, regulating the 
height and construction of buildings, re- 
quiring the widening of streets, and for- 



bidding the use of soft coal; and there 
are, he asserts, "over 2,000 improvement 
societies," standing for such things and 
working for them, with representation 
in nearly every city, town, and village 
in the country. Such are the forces re- 
moulding our cities physically ; such is the 
condition from which they must be re- 
moulded; and such is the import, civic, 
social, and even sociological, of the 
"civic improvement" effort out of which 
is to come, in its visible aspect, the city 
of the future. 

What these forces are leading us to 
may be seen, in part, in the re-made and 
handsome cities of Europe. Mr. Kent 
explains why urban development has 
been slower with us. But now it has 
begun, and in the end it is almost certain 
to bring forth results better than 
Europe's. We have less to undo than 
there was need of in those cities; we 
have the example of their experiences — 
successes and failures — by which to 
profit; but above all, once roused, we 
are stronger than they, richer, more 
courageous, more confident, resourceful, 
and daring. The American city of the 
future, it may be expected, will be the 
most splendid city of the world. 

It is interesting to note the gradual 
crystalization of the civic improvement 
efforts; and the recent taking, in city 
after city, of the first long, positive 
step — in comprehensive grasp of the 
whole problem, as distinguished from 
petty paring and patching — toward the 
concrete realization of the dream of the 
"city beautiful." This is the ordering 
of authoritative plans toward which the 
city is to grow through an indetermin- 
ate period of years, with assurance that 
henceforth every step of development 
will count in the right direction and 
that no opportunity shall be lost. The 
lately developed demand for these re- 
ports is fairly significant, in the broad 
view, of an epoch in our urban develop- 
ment. Themselves a logical result of the 
forces moulding the city of the future, 
they will become in their turn one of 
its most vital forces. The light that 
they are spreading means locally, in each 
instance, the morrow's dawn. 



How to IVeduce Our Prison Population 



Samvael J. Barrows 
President of the International Prison Congress 



i. — We must stop making criminals. 
Society must frankly face its own re- 
sponsibility. Its aim should be a pound 
of prevention instead of an ounce of 
cure. An earnest woman in New York 
city, Mrs. Henry Parsons, started a farm 
garden in one of the worst quarters 
on the west side known as "Hell's 
Kitchen." It was not long before the 
policeman on the beat admitted that to 
set boys raising radishes and lettuce was 
to decrease perceptibly the number of 
arrests in that ward. The multiplication 
of vacation schools, public parks, recrea- 
tion piers, gives a chance for boys to 
work of! compressed energy which if it 
has no vent will begin by breaking city 
ordinances, and from misdemeanors will 
break into felonies. 

The decrease of the prison population 
in England was ascribed in some meas- 
ure by the English prison commissioners 
to the increase in manual training, which 
has made it interesting as well as profit- 
able to earn an honest living. Increase 
manual training in the schools and then 
by child-labor laws see that children have 
an opportunity to go to school a suffi- 
cient number of years and we shall 
strengthen immensely the moral bul- 
wark against crime. 

Since, under various estimates, from 
seventy-five to ninety per cent, of crime 
is due to or connected with intemperance 
we see how greatly our prison population 
could be reduced by the reduction of in- 
temperance. 

Here again the question is forced 
upon us directly, not only of the respon- 
sibility of the individual to society, but 
of the responsibility of society to the in- 
dividual. 

2. — Multiply children's courts and 
child saving agencies. The establish- 
ment of children's courts which have 
made great progress in the United 
States, and are being studied with great 
earnestness abroad, is an indication that 
society is coming to its senses. With 
the administration of blindfolded justice 

191 



our criminal courts have been cars of 
Juggernaut, crushing out the young life 
under the wheels of penal repression. Our 
police courts in dealing with children 
have been part of our crime-making 
machinery. The children's court now 
becomes a part of our life-saving agen- 
cies. The experience of Denver shows 
that seventy-five per cent, of children 
can be saved without committing them 
even to reformatory institutions. The 
children's court marks the greatest ad- 
vance in judicial procedure in this cen- 
tury. It has helped too to reveal to us 
the need of organizing those preventive 
agencies spoken of above which may fore- 
stall even the action of the court by de- 
creasing the number of offences. Judge 
Lindsey has shown us how much can be 
effected through a closer co-operation 
of the schools and the court. 

Just as I am writing this article a 
prison worker at Nashville, Tennessee, 
informs me that three boys, from twelve 
to fourteen years of age, are now serving 
a term of years in the Tennessee state 
prison for stealing. They are all white 
boys and one of them, twelve years old, 
has been sentenced to nine years im- 
prisonment. The state of Tennessee is 
not the only state that needs to establish 
juvenile courts for the salvation of its 
children. 

We shall still need societies for the 
protection of children against cruelty and 
vice, our juvenile reformatories, our 
cottage farms, and placing-out system. 
Our boys need not so much to be ar- 
rested as to be developed. The chil- 
dren's court cannot do it all ; it will help 
to sift the cases. Investigation shows 
that confirmed rounders in prisons are 
made from neglected youths. Every 
boy or girl saved at the threshold means 
an empty cell in prison. 

3. — Extend and improve our proba- 
tion system. Experience has shown that 
thousands of cases of adult first offenders 
can be treated better without imprison- 
ment. In Massachusetts, starting from a 



192 



Charities and The Commons 



small beginning, probation work has 
grown from year to year. A few figures 
will show the growth in that state : 

Numbers placed on probation: 
Year 

1892 5,197 

189G 5,767 

1900 6,201 

1901 6,887 

1902 7,360 

1903 8,140 

1904 8,790 

1905 9,418 

Thus in the last eight years 57,760 
persons have been placed on probation 
in Massachusetts who otherwise would 
have swelled the prison population. 

In France as many as 24,000 persons 
have been placed on probation in a sin- 
gle year. Belgium is making large use 
of the same method. England is extend- 
ing its use of the first offenders' act. 

The advantage of probation is not only 
that it reduces the prison population, 
thereby reducing the cost to the state, 
but that this large body of men are not 
taken out of the ranks of labor, that the 
breadwinner is not taken from the 
family, and that in cases where fines 
are imposed they may be paid in in- 
stalments to the probation officer. There 
is opportunity also to make restitution 
to the victims of crime. 

4. — Abolish the fee system. Under 
this fiscal sysem the country sheriffs 
are paid so much a head for entrance 
and discharge fees and so much a week 
for the board of prisoners. The system 
is a relic of past ages, but under our 
methods of county government it pre- 
vails in many states. The Prison Asso- 
ciation has been conducting a campaign 
against this iniquitous system in the state 
of New York. We have found that in 
the counties which have substituted a 
salary system for the fee system the jail 
population has been reduced from ten 
to fifty per cent., and in the same ratio 
the expenses of the county. The history 
of the fee system in New York state 
alone ought to suffice to condemn it be- 
yond all apology. It reeks with scandal. 
In one of our counties apple pickers were 
systematically run into the jails as 
tramps ; though they were discharged 
on trial the sheroff made a good deal 
of money out of the county from their 



temporary imprisonment. In some of 
the southern states, where a large sum 
of money is made by contractors and 
the state by the labor of prisoners, the 
temptation is to run men into prison 
for the sake of what can be made out 
of their labor. In our jails at the north 
where idleness exists this temptation 
does not arise; but it appears in another 
form. The sheriff keeps a hotel called 
the jail ; he makes his money out of the 
boarders, and the prisoner and the 
county treasurer suffer thereby. In 
Westchester county and Kings county, 
New York, the reduction of the jail pop- 
ulation by abolishing the fee system has 
been fifty per cent. 

5- — Extend the reformatory system. 
The reformatory system properly ad- 
ministered has proved a success. We 
can safely assume that seventy-five per 
cent, of those who after successful re- 
lease on parole earn their absolute dis- 
charge, live as law abiding citizens. In 
well conducted state prisons, with edu- 
cative and industrial influences, which 
are essentially reformatory methods, 
good results are also obtained. Prisoners 
committed to jails on the other hand, 
are placed in an invironment which tends 
to make them worse than they were be- 
fore. They are started on the road and 
the state pushes them a little further 
in the same direction. No maledictions 
pronounced against our jail system can 
paint too blackly the moral gloom of 
these penal institutions. They are breed- 
ing places of crime ; they multiply recidi- 
vists. When we send a man to prison 
it should be to submit him to influences 
which will develop his will, improve his 
intellect, educate his hand, strengthen 
his moral force, and awaken religious 
aspiration. We must add correction to 
prevention. A prison system which does 
not correct is a failure. Our jails are 
loafers' halls ; make them hives of in- 
dustry and the tramp population which 
infests them will be reduced to a mini- 
mum. 

In New York state alone there are 
10,000 misdemeanants who ought to have 
reformatory treatment and for whom 
the state makes no provision. While 
the number of commitments will not be 



Maxim Gorky's Socialism of Culture 



J 93 



reduced at first by sending them to a 
reformatory instead of to jails and peni- 
tentiaries many of them would be saved 
from becoming recidivists and thus 
forming a part of the annual prison 
population of the state. 

6. — Rehabilitate the discharged pris- 
oner. When a man comes out of prison 
influences should be invoked to keep 
him from going back again. One of the 
best of these is the parole system under 
which he is released conditionally after 
work and shelter have been provided 
for him. How much better is this than 
the cruel method of sending him out on 
a certain day without work and without 
a home and without money! It is time 
this antiquated system was abandoned. 
The state should do all that it is neces- 
sary to do for a man while he is in 
prison, namely, educate him in habits 
of honesty and industry and give him a 



share of his earnings ; when he goes out 
he should find as soon as possible his 
own place in society. The helping hand, 
the kindly friend, must do here what can- 
not be done by the state. In Canada, 
Major Archibald of the Salvation Army 
has had excellent success in following 
the Swiss method of securing a patron 
for each man coming out of prison who 
will be to him a guardian and a friend. 
Sometimes under the parole system the 
employer accepts this responsible office. 
It is a critical time in the history of a 
man when he comes out ; it is a critical 
time for society. But if society has done 
for him what it should do when he is in 
prison by moral, religious, and industrial 
training, and if the friendly hand is ex- 
tended to him when he comes out, the 
chances are more than good that this of- 
fender will not again swell the prison 
population. 



Maxim Gorhy's Socialism of Culture 

John Martin 

[Mr. Martin is Known for His worh in London at the time the 
Fabian movement first made itself felt in municipal administra- 
tion there under the Common Council. He has done considerable 
work in this country as lecturer, writer, and head of a Harlem 
branch of the People's Institute. During the months of Maxim 
Gorhy's stay in this country, the Russian novelist was a guest of 
Mr. and Mrs. Martin at their home on Staten Island and at their 
camp in the Adirondachs.] 



With gentle raillery and elegant scoff- 
ing Matthew Arnold in his book Culture 
and Anarchy exposed for England the 
brutality of the lower classes, the Philis- 
tinism of the middle classes and the bar- 
barism of the upper classes. At that time 
his criticism hardly touched America be- 
cause here upper classes, rich, idle and 
barbarous had not yet been developed, 
and the poverty of the lower classes 
had not become chronic. Hard work 
was the portion of most Americans 
whatever were their differences in 
wealth; football and other "barbarous" 
sports were not yet the main features 
of a university education and the pro- 
portion of the population working in 
factories and mines and brutalized by 
toil and drink was far less than in the 
old world. 

Even to-day, taking the country 



through, the stratification of society is 
not fixed, and the marked differences of 
culture and character which Miatthew 
Arnold traced in England cannot be dis- 
cerned. But, in the opinion of Maxim 
Gorky, • like Arnold, viewed our so- 
ciety with the eyes of a man of letters 
and a philosopher, America, fat, com- 
fortable and stodgy, like the English 
middle classes, is grossly Philistine. 
Though Gorky is a socialist, his defini- 
tion of the term would amaze and dis- 
concert most x\merican socialists. His 
ideal of society is not one of physical 
comfort, not one in which everybody can 
loll on soft lounges in steam-heated 
apartments. He was more depressed by 
the mental squalor of the well-to-do 
classes in America than by the physical' 
squalor of the poor immigrants in lower 
New York. A wider distribution not 

, ni m'jdl -gniriifid 



194 



Charities and The Commons 



of wealth, but of culture is what we 
need. When he visited with me the 
hamlets in the Adirondacks that are 
exclusively occupied by laborers and 
farmers, he saw, not villages of poor 
people but small towns of villa-owners. 
'Those people poor!" he exclaimed, 
when reference was made to a working 
farmer on a typical rough hill-farm, 
"how can you call a man poor who lives 
in a house with so many windows, who 
owns cows and horses and poultry and 
who eats heartily three times a day." He 
could not understand why we should be 
anxious to increase wages. Already, he 
said, workmen here have a plethora of 
material goods; their souls are stifled 
with fatness; they, like the rest of the 
Americans, have no idealism. He was 
saddened to find that people who had 
come to America steeped in poverty but 
elevated in spirit had gained the world 
but lost their souls. "Creatures that once 
were men" would describe to him not 
more the debased denizens of a Russian 
doss-house than the bloated occupants of 
American theatre stalls. 

Gorky once asked why I was agitating 
for the public ownership of the railroads. 
"Because," said I, "under public owner- 
ship the workmen will be better paid 
and more humanely worked, fares will 
be reduced — ". I got no further. "That 
would not interest me," he exclaimed, 
"if the workmen get a little more money 
they will only becone the more stupid. 
I don't care to see men become better off 
—but better." 

When first I realized his disapproval 
of the economic scheme of socialist sal- 
vation I asked him "What do you think 
is the kind of activity necessary in 
America for the advancement of social- 
ism?" His reply showed how far the 
idealism of the Russian and the spirit- 
ualism of the prophet are distant from 
the materialism of the Anglo-Saxon. I 
expected him at least to recommend the 
dissemination of the works of Karl Marx 
and of other studies in economics. 
But no. "Circulate cheap editions of 
the classics," he said, "the great his- 
toric^, novels, poems and dramas; pro- 
vide picture exhibitions for the wage- 
earners'' kind lectures on natural science. 
Expand vthe souls of your people by 
bathing th\-m in the same culture that all 



noble men enjoy. Remember that the 
peasant and the workman are like you 
and that the same influences that will 
make you a man of noble stature will 
also raise them above the ground." He 
was impressed much more by the scant- 
iness of the supply of books in such 
rural libraries as he saw than by the 
grandeur of the library buildings in the 
cities. He was always proudest to dilate 
upon the vast, the incredibly numerous 
editions of solid works which the Rus- 
sian peasants absorb. He was scornful 
of the paltry numbers of good books 
issued by American firms, and of the 
infantile stage of culture to which our 
much-illustrated magazines testify. 

While we may claim that our critic 
based his deductions upon too limited 
an observation, his fundamental objection 
may well give us pause. So recent is 
the awakening of social compunction 
in America and so dire are the ills that 
arise from the unregulated distribution 
of the national income, that it would be 
harmful to check the enthusiasm that 
goes into the work of charity organiza- 
tion societies, child labor committees, 
tenement house exhibitions, or, on the 
other hand, into propaganda for radical 
industrial reorganization. But may it not 
be the case that "These things ye should 
have done and not have left the others 
undone?" In the Emersonian period 
young men were exhorted to hitch their 
wagon to a star ; now they are told rather 
to heap it high with corn and potatoes. 
So freighted it will usually rumble along 
a low road. "We cultivate literature on 
a dish of oatmeal" is a hard motto for 
young writers ; but there is no improve- 
ment in substituting for it, "We cannot 
think on less than a five-course dinner." 

In to-day's tide of good things there 
is danger of forgetting that the object 
of all our reforms is the development of 
men — men full-breathed, bright-eyed, 
healthy; well-fed, to be sure — but also 
men high minded, fully informed, well- 
developed. Men's bodies must be saved, 
for in this land of plenty it is a proof of 
collective stupidity that any should suf- 
fer want ; but the body is not the whole 
of man; and in our effort to eradicate 
poverty we should not forget that be- 
yond the material wants are culture and 
character. 



TKe Evolution of a Sunday ScKool 



MartKa Berry 



"Within the year, at a great educational meeting in Rentuchy, 
a young Georgia -woman told of the worh which she had built up, 
starting -with an old shell of a house in the midst of the piney -woods, 
away from railroads and civilization. So -wide-spread -was the need 
she articulated, so human and telling her story of the ambitions of 
the children of the poor -whites, that not only did the local papers 
of that convention town pay their respects in editorial courtesies 
a column long, fervid and of ripe Southern courtliness, but the 
heads of some of the foremost educational institutions -who -were 
present were equally enthusiastic. It is to be hoped that the need 
she shows will appeal equally strong to those -who can help 
financially. 




A crying need in the 
South is industrial educa- 
tion for the poor white 
people. A great deal has 
been spent upon the Indians 
and Negroes and they have 
institutions all over the 
Southland where they can 
receive practical industrial 
training. Throughout the 
southern states a large por- 
tion of the people among 
the hills and surrounding 
country have no opportuni- 
ties whatsoever, except the 
small country school which 
is supplied for a few 
months with a teacher who 
is supposed to meet the 
needs of all who come, no 
matter what their ages or 
classes may be. One of the 
problems to be met in the 
South is the establishing of 
practical industrial schools 
for the class of white 
people who are too poor to educate 
their children. The "New South'' 
which we so eagerly await can only 
be realized when we have established 
schools of this kind. Among the moun- 
tains of our Southland many lives 
are going to waste through ignorance 
and lack of educational advantages. 
It is mostly a rugged, industrious but un- 
educated population whose principal asset 
is children. For some years I have been 
a close observer of the condition of the 
poorer class of farm children in north 
Georgia. 

Perhaps there is no better way to illus- 

195 




*- 



trate the need of such 
schools throughout our 
Southland than by giving 
my actual experience in the 
origin and development of 
a school I have founded 
near my home in Rome. 
Georgia, in this Cherokee 
region, with the Cumber- 
land range for a northern 
and the Blue Ridge for an 
eastern boundary. Just 
eight years ago, as I was 
sitting in the little log cabin 
on my home place, which I 
had fixed up as a study, I 
observed some little chil- 
dren playing about in the 
grove. It was Sunday, and 
I called them in and told 
them some religious stories. 
These children became in- 
terested and brought others 
the next Sunday after- 
noon. Through this work 
on Sunday afternoons my 
interest in the country people around was 
aroused, and I resolved to do something 
more for their benefit than could be done 
through this little log cabin Sunday 
school. For four years I labored in or- 
ganizing Sunday schools and day schools 
in the remote districts of my county. Still 
I realized that even with this chain of 
day schools employing several good 
teachers, I was not reaching the real need 
of these country people, and that a home 
school where these boys could be trained 
daily and where they would receive re- 
fining influence would do more for them 
than anything else. It seemed best to 



The Evolution of a Sunday School 



199 



take the boys, because they had from the 
first shown the greatest interest, and then 
they could help on the farm and with 
the carpentry work. 

In 1902, after four years of painstak- 
ing labor, the Boys' Industrial School 
came into existence. I deeded one hun- 
dred acres of land and built a small school 
house and modest dormitory. The school 
was incorporated under the laws of our 
state, and a board of trustees elected. 
Additional rooms were needed for the in- 
creasing number of pupils and a second 
dormitory was built. The industrial de- 
partment of the school needed buildings 
and a barn, work-shop, laundry and dairy 
were added. The buildings were erected 
by the pupils under the supervision of an 
expert carpenter. There is no hired help 
about the school. All the cooking, scrub- 
bing, farm and carpentry work, in fact 
everything about the place is done by the 
pupils. A tuition fee of only fifty dollars is 
charged for a term of eight months. 
This includes board, tuition, washing and 
all incidentals. Other improvements are 
being made from time to time, as the 
school is able to meet the expenses of 
building - . 

Our boys and pupils understand that, 
as we have very little outside help in our 
work, it is of the utmost importance to 
work with economy, frugality, earnest- 
ness, promptness and thoroughness. As 
an example of how such discipline is 
heeded and carried out, we had a boy 
who complained of his assistant in the 
kitchen as being too wasteful. He de- 
clared that he would "peel his potatoes 
too thick" — a thing which to his mind 
and teaching meant a loss to him per- 
sonally and to every boy in the school. 

I had an invitation to attend a Sunday 
school several miles from the school. 
Another of the boys asked me to take 
dinner with his mother, who lived near. 
On Saturday, Ben came to me with a re- 
quest to go home. When I asked him 
why he wanted to go then, he said, "Well, 
you know, I wrote and asked Ma to have 
the house all cleaned up when you got 
there, but I'm afraid she don't know how, 
so I want to go and get it all scrubbed 
up before you come." When I arrived 



the next day, Ben had scrubbed with so 
much vigor that the floors were quite 
damp and his mother told me that since 
Ben had been going to the Industrial 
School "he'd rather scrub than eat!" 

Some of our pupils living eight miles 
away from the schoolhouse begged us to 
come and start a Sunday school at a 
place called " 'Possum Trot." Encour- 
aged at this show of interest, we found 
an abandoned schoolhouse at " 'Possum 
Trot," and we immediately took posses- 
sion, and opened a school. The first 
Sunday that I taught there, the roof 
leaked so badly that my muslin dress was 
wet. I told the people that we must have 
a new roof by next Sunday. Some of 
them answered that "it mought not rain 
for a month!" I said, "Yes, but it 
mought." I then told the men that, if 
:hey would get the boards, I would bring 
the nails, and that everybody who worked 
on the house would be treated to lemon- 
ade. The house was covered and ready 
for use by the next Sunday. 

Old clothes given to the school are 
sold to the boys, who pay for them by 
working on their holidays, at the rate of 
five cents an hour ; a suit of clothing being 
sold to them for twenty-five or fifty cents. 
An amusing incident occurred, which il- 
lustrates in rather a comical way, the 
good-natured, earnest willingness of the 
boys to work for what they get. Last 
spring a large box of clothing was do- 
nated to the school. In it was a sober 
bishop's suit of black broadcloth. This 
was bought for the sum of fifty cents 
by a young man of twenty years of age, 
who was not quite stout enough to fill it. 
On his appearance in the schoolroom the 
next day, a hurried note came to me from 
the teacher, requesting me to implore 
the wearer of the big bishop's suit not 
to appear in it again in the schoolroom, 
because his rather imposing and decidedly 
misfit ministerial appearance awed the 
other pupils, and made it impossible for 
her to conduct her duties with her usual 
firmness and dignity. This was, indeed 
a comical situation, and called for all my 
powers of diplomacy. I called the un- 
suspecting young man aside, and after 
warmly praising his industry, I told him 
that the suit he wore with so much pride 



200 



Charities and The Commons 



was too nice for school wear and ought 
to be kept for Sundays and state occa- 
sions. He agreed good-naturedly, and 
the bishop's suit did not appear in the 
schoolroom again. 

At the close of our school in May 
of last year, the governor of Georgia 
was invited to make an address and to 
hear the boys speak. The schoolhouse 
was crowded to overflowing, the people 
having come for thirty miles. One poor 
woman, who had parted with her only 
cow to keep her boy at the school, was 
among those present. Picture to your- 
self this poor white Southern woman, this 
dear mother, who had sacrificed all she 
owned, to see her boy an educated and 
useful man — sitting there, weeping, but 
glad and proud — as she saw her boy re- 
ceive the prize for the best speaking. 

The demand of country boys for 
admission is forcing the trustees to 
meet with their requests, and the success 
of the solution of the problem which con- 
fronts the South to-day will be decided 
as rapidly as people who believe in the 
advantages of education, will rally to aid. 
Over one hundred applicants were re- 
fused during the last term because there 
was not room enough for them. The 
school has no endowment fund. It 



started with a small paid up capital and 
a surplus of great faith and has contin- 
ued to grow year by year. It has al- 
ready accomplished marked results in fit- 
ting the poor boys of north Georgia for 
useful and honorable careers. "Help me 
to be a man," has been the cry of the 
students and in their assistance the teach- 
ers have failed not. Each graduate 
has taken a prominent position in the 
duties he has assumed, and each boy is a 
missionary, I might say, to the commu- 
nity in which he lives. 

This experiment has given so many 
poor boys their sole opportunity to obtain 
a practical Christian education that I 
feel like urging such schools all over the 
South, with charges nominal and curric- 
ulums of such elasticity as to include 
the most illiterate element, while offer- 
ing a door of hope to those whose ambi- 
tion stimulates them to careers which 
contemplate a broader field of action than 
that marked out by the farm. 

The temple of knowledge is not to be 
found by searching through far lands ; 
it stands here at our hand. Nor are the 
great men and the leaders to come mys- 
teriously from some distant place; they 
are here at our doors, pleading for a 
chance. 




Miss Berry gathering up children on the road to 'Possum Trot Sunday School 



CHARITIES 

and The Commons 



The portraits of a typical 
group of practical achievers 
irt American civics are pub- 
lished on succeeding pages. 

Jane Addams 

Robert W. de Forest 

Walter Fisher 

Tom L. Johnson 

Joseph Lee 

Henry B. F. Macfarland 

Charles Mulford Robinson 



Four Civic Broadsides 



1. ORGANIZATION and THE MUNICIPAL MOVEMENT 

To be followed by others on city hoviseKeeping', 
city plan, city transportation. 

Edited by Graham Romeyn Taylor. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



Henry Bruere, New York 
Georg'e C SiKes, Chicago, 
Georg'e W. Conn, McHenry, 111. 
Michael M. Davis, New YorK 
Victor Elting, Chicago 
Mayo Fesler, St. Loviis 
Ed-ward T. Hartman, Boston 
David P. Jones, Minneapolis 

Clinton Rogers 



William Kent, Chicago 
J. Horace McFarland, Harrisburg' 
Charles Mxilford Robinson, Rochester 
Graham Taylor, Chicag'o 
Lawrence Veiller, New "YorK 
Brand WhitlocK, Toledo 
Delos F. Wilcox, Detroit 
Robert A.. Woods, Boston 
Woodruff, Philadelphia 




JANE ADDAMS 

It is not too much to claim for the founder of the foremost social settlement 
an America that she is Chicago's most widely known and useful citizen. Prom Hull 
House, through all the seventeen years of strenuous life and labor, has Miss 
Addams identified herself with the city and with all classes and interests of its 
citizens, as no one else has or could. Her civic achievements range from the 
most exact and exacting reports on civic and industrial conditions to the enact- 
ment of far=reaching legislation and to varied and effective personal and organ- 
ized action. As chairman of the School Management Committee of the Chicago 
Board of Education, she now more than anyone else influences the interior admin- 
istration of the city's great school system. 




ROBERT W. deFOREST 

It was as first tenement house commissioner of New York — a public office 
assumed in the face of professional and business demands — that Mr. de Forest 
made an original contribution to constructive civic reform. Upon him fell the 
responsibility of organizing a new and hitherto untried municipal department 
conceived along distinctive American lines and affecting intimately both the 
home life of the common people and a vast property interest. At the time this 
-new department was organized there were nearly 83,000 tenement houses in the 
City of New York, and more than two=thirds of its entire population were living 
in them. It was a task to which he brought experience won as chairman of the 
"New York State Tenement House Commission in 1900, and as president since 
1888 of the New York Charity Organization Society. He is vice-president and 
-General Counsel of the Central Railroad of New Jersey and an officer or director 
in other large business enterprises. The breadth of his interests may be inferred 
from his present official connection with the Municipal Art Commission of the 
•City of New York, of which he is president, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
of which he is an officer and a trustee, the Provident Loan Society for Philan- 
thropic Pawnbroklng, of which he was a founder and first president, and the New 
York Botanical Garden, the Presbyterian Hospital and the National Child Labor 
Committee, of each of which he is a director. 




WALTER L. FISHER 

The later triumphs of the Municipal Voters' League of Chicago are due to 
the forceful and astute leadership of Walter L. Fisher more directly than to any 
other person or force in the league or in the city at large. With a broad grasp 
of the political situation as a whole, and a mastery of minute campaign details, 
he has been able with boldness and tact so to play persons and forces over 
against each other as to enable the league to seize and wield with overwhelm- 
ing success the balance of political power in aldermanic elections. His legal 
ability and expert knowledge of the traction situation clearly designated him 
as the one man in all Chicago best qualified to serve the city as Special Counsel 
to the Local Transportation Committee of the City Council, in settling the very 
serious complications involving the traction companies and the municipal owner- 
ship policy of the city. 



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MAYOR TOMIL. JOHNSON 

"The best mayor of the best governed city in the United States" is Lincoln 
Steffens' tribute to Cleveland's thrice elected mayor. His rescue of the city's 
rights from the exploitation of corporate greed, and his constructive achieve- 
ments in building up a People's City, have earned him not only a national but an 
international reputation. His direct address, ready wit, easy command of him= 
self and the facts and forces in hand and an altogether winsome, forceful and 
effective personality mark him to be one of the most vigorous and successful 
leaders in American municipal politics. 




JOSEPH LEE 



When you come to discuss him from the point of view of civic accomplish- 
ment and putting a lively human element into movements for the common good, 
Mr. Lee hits out in so many directions that he absolutely won't be compressed' 
into a paragraph. The best way to show what he stands for is to tell of the 
spirit which has been put into the Boston Town Room, his gift to the Massachu- 
setts Civic League, of which he is vice=president. Here is embodied the very 
purpose of the league: to give practical and modern application — in metropoli- 
tan Boston, in the factory towns of an industrial commonwealth, and in the 
quaint villages of the Bay State — to the spirit of the old=time New England town 
meeting. The Town Room is a cross between a "cozy, old-fashioned library, a 
studio and a workshop" — possessed of a "corporate, this=is=your=own«=home" sug- 
gestion belonging to the guild halls of the old world. It has opened its doors 
at 4 Joy Street to show "what our commonwealth is as the expression of a moral, 
purpose." 




HENRY D. F. MACFARLAND 

As president of the Board of District Commissioners since 1900, Mr. Mac- 
farland occupies an altogether unique position with respect to the problems of 
the urban community. The capital of the great democracy of the world is utterly 
void of democracy in its governmental organization. To the credit of Commis- 
sioner Macfarland and his associates be it said that the spirit, if not the letter,, 
of modern America has in no small measure been conserved. A resident of 
Washington since the Civil War and prominent in its civic affairs, he was chair- 
man of the National Capital Centennial Committee in 1900, delivering the address 
at the White House and taking an active part in the celebration out of which 
grew the Senate Park Commission and its plans for the beautification of the Dis- 
trict. In the furthering of these plans of physical improvement and also in the 
movement to make Washington a model city in social and economic environment,. 
Mr. Macfarland has contributed in a large way. 




CHARLES MULFORD ROBINSON 

The San Francisco disaster and opportunity has called attention anew to the 
vast importance of planning for a city and its growth upon lines which consider 
broad human needs as well as "the city beautiful." The deviser of city plans, 
both for remaking and future growth, is taking place to which he is entitled 
among the first rank of civic achievers. Charles Mulford Robinson of Rochester 
has already served the needs of Colorado Springs, Columbus, Syracuse, Denver, 
Honolulu and Oakland, Cal. His work in Oakland had just commenced last spring 
when the disaster occurred. He asked whether it was desired that he continue. 
"Continue?" said the mayor. "Of course you must go on. We need your rec- 
ommendations now more than ever." 



TKe American City Electorate 



"William Rent 
President Chicago Municipal Voters* League, 1900-1901 

[One of Chicago's first reform aldermen, Mr. Rent fought His 
■way into the city council and represented the 32nd "Ward from 
1895-1897, -when barely a dozen of the sixty-eight men of that 
body were even suspected of being honest. As a member of the 
Municipal Voters' League and its President in 1900 and 1901, he 
carried the fight on and out until now there are scarcely more than 
a dozen of the seventy aldermen -who do not bear the endorse- 
ment of the league.] 



It is not an accident that American 
cities have heretofore failed disgrace- 
fully. Almost alone among the nations, 
England, our prototype, was so protected 
by her island cliffs and by the wooden 
walls of her shipping as to enjoy a con- 
tinuity of national existence that was 
not inherently urban. Nineveh, Baby- 
lon, Jerusalem, Athens, and Rome — 
these, the names of cities, were also the 
names of nations, their outlying prov- 
inces might expand or be cut off but the 
nation stood or fell with its capital city. 

The United States grew out of the 
federation of thirteen Englands, loose 
flung over a continent. We did not in- 
herit the urban traditions nor did any 
aggressive foreign foe make necessary 
the defense to be found only behind 
city walls. Our cities came unwelcomed 
and unprovided for into our national 
life. They grew up ragged, barefoot, 
neglected. They found no adequate ex- 
pression or voice in our political scheme, 
which contemplated no urban needs be- 
yond those of the town, nor method of 
government beyond the town meeting. 
Down to the present time the survivals 
of this town theory are serious impedi- 
ments in the path of almost every Ameri- 
can city. 

Our people failed to realize that the 
city, historically and inherently, is the 
most important and permanent political 
unit. 

In the beginning the states claimed 
the patriotic allegiance of their citizens, 
while the nation owed its life to what 
the states dropped in the hat that was 
passed around at the constitutional con- 
vention. In those days there were no 
great cities nor any great questions pe- 
culiar to urban life. 

209 



Little by little the artificial state boun- 
daries have been erased in the aquC-regia 
of powers delegated to the nation, and 
the policies and politics of our country 
have become less local and broader in 
their scope ; but never bearing any legit- 
imate relation to the municipal electo- 
rate in its municipal problems. Out- 
side the political pale, misunderstood 
and cursed, our cities have continued to 
grow. No small portion of our people, 
seeing them starved, dyspeptic and de- 
graded has "deplored that unnatural mi- 
gration to crowded centers, that results 
in congestion, breeds pollution and 
threatens the life of the nation." This 
wail is as useless and as ridiculous as 
that in which Virgil indulged when plead- 
ing for the simple rural life, he depicted 
impossible idealized male and female 
sheep-herders with urban clothes and ur- 
ban vices. 

It is not unreasonable to say that until 
lately there have been no cities in the 
United States. There" have been a 
large number of overgrown towns, prodi- 
gal sons nearly all of them, that have 
squandered their substance in riotous liv- 
ing and only when, in the version of the 
negro preacher, they have been stripped 
of their undershirts, have they "come to 
themselves." "For as a man thinketh, 
so is he," and the bountiful gifts of the 
city only exist for the citizens that can 
appreciate them. 

It is only for a short period that we 
have seen what the city means. We now 
know it to be the highest social expres- 
sion. We now know of the incalculable 
wealth produced by the labor-saving de- 
vice of propinquity, and are vaguely con- 
scious that the community should retain 
what the community has created. We 



2IO 



Charities and The Commons 



recognize the possibilities for the high- 
est sort of co-operation, and the strength 
and understanding that comes of human 
neighborhood. 

The city Next to lack of urban tra- 
within S the dition we can trace the neg- 
Nation. j ect f t h e c i t i es to other 
things that have usurped the city's 
share of public interest. National parti- 
sanship was naturally the overwhelming 
issue in the days when men were too 
scattered to meet on any other common 
ground, and during the terrible slavery 
struggle that culminated in the Civil War, 
partisanship, both North and South was 
interwoven and almost synonymous with 
patriotism. 

During the twenty years that fol- 
lowed, the cities grew amazingly but 
still the tom-toms were beaten and our 
people lined up along the bloody chasm 
of the past. Then and thereafter came 
the evil days of the sack of the cities. 
For behind the barricades of national 
partisanship the voters were divided, and 
corruption held the balance of power. 
Men began to discern the danger and 
sought by theoretical charters to remedy 
the evil. One prophetic movement was 
steadily advancing toward the better 
time, the resistless spread of the merit 
system. All else was ineffective because 
it did not touch or arouse the electorate. 
It needed the last bitter dregs of dis- 
grace to prepare men's minds for the 
crusade that was to follow. 

Along academic lines there were adopt- 
ed charters of all kinds and descriptions. 
One type was an attempt to vest great 
powers in a mayor, a sort of elective des- 
potism. In other cases the virtuous 
rural districts were to save the wicked 
city from itself by managing its police 
force. The Pennsylvania legislature 
went so far as to provide for an anni- 
hilation of home rule. On the one hand 
the living cities, were by law, but sup- 
pliants at the feet of the moribund states, 
and on the other they were stifled by 
irrelevant partisanship and ruled by 
ignorant, irrelevant and vicious votes. 

The earliest lessons of non-partisan- 
ship were eloquently preached by the 
grafters and the boodlers. To-day no re- 
former can equal them in clear demon- 



stration, and yet even now it is roared 
from the stump, that the president needs 
a thief elected as alderman, or that some 
other worthy national cause demands a 
crooked assessor. 

An American city electorate — that is 
the highest need of Democracy to-day. 
Good government is not enough, it must 
be our government. The enlightened 
despotism of Diaz is not teaching civics 
in Mexico for Mexico is not ready to 
enter college. It is teaching the lowest 
class in the social kindergarten, but in 
that class Mexico must remain until the 
traditions of brigandage and revolution 
are schooled out of her people. Our 
great experiment will never be marked 
a proved success, until our greatest prob- 
lem is solved, the problem of governing 
our cities honestly and in the interests 
of all their law-abiding citizens. 

The Human No power from on high 
With!n g the will do it for us; no 
City - academic discussion can 

produce an effect; no charter can be 
self-acting. We shall never respect laws 
that are not our laws, nor will a Car- 
negie library ever have the dignity of 
a tax-founded public institution. The 
tale of the origin of the Ten Command- 
ments has in it an archaic interest, for 
it shows how people once felt the need of 
leaning on the extra-human, the super- 
natural. But we know that Moses never 
brought those words of wisdom from the 
cloud capped mountain and that they 
were no new inspiration of the Hebrew 
God. We know how in sweat and tears 
and blood of men they were dug from 
the kitchen-middens, the scattered libra- 
ries of an ancient world, that they were 
the formulated wisdom of human ex- 
perience. Otherwise they would not 
have held their power. 

There is an ever recurring disap- 
pointment at the slowness of our prog- 
ress. Do you remember how Thor 
pulled away at the horn of the mead and 
was disgusted at the little impression 
made upon it? Do you remember how 
he was solaced by finding out that he 
had been trying to drink up the ocean? 
It is at once the despair and the re- 
ward of the individual that in our civic 
struggles he is dealing with vast masses 



The American City Electorate 



211 



of men. The progress of Democracy is 
slow, but when anything is accomplished 
a great deal has been done, all of us 
are rising or falling together. Thus to 
hammer, to drive in, a "realizing sense" 
of things municipal, has taken years and 
years of fiery zeal and immeasurable 
energy, but not one particle of honest 
effort has been wasted. The lessons are 
taking hold and bearing fruit; the cities 
are coming to their own. 

It seems strange that we city dwellers 
should have gone so far astray and 
should have failed to link our urban 
conditions next to our family life. 
Light, air, water, sanitation and trans- 
portation, we must have as primary 
physical necessities; law and order, edu- 
cation, recreation, and beauty, — these 
are fundamental social demands. Not 
one of these essentials can in anywise 
find expression or place in the policies 
of national parties. For none of them 
can the cities look to the state. They 
must be worked for by each community 
and obtained under home rule, through 
the service, the struggle and the sacri- 
fice of the municipal citizen. The prayer 
of the cities to the states should be the 
short prayer of the French Revolution — 
"Let us alone." That is the charter 
needed, the charter of unrestricted home 
rule in all municipal needs. 

The insistent near-at-hand demands 
of the city will not weaken the spirit 
of national patriotism. The school of 
municipal civics at which the attendance 
is compulsory, will better fit men to act 
with intelligence in the broader field. 
Ignorance and neglect of the meaning 
of a flag for which men are willing to 
die, is a combination altogether too com- 
•mon. It is in the cities where all that 
is best and highest in human life 
flourishes, and has always flourished, 
that the meaning of patriotism must be 
found in a sanity and continuity of 
public service ; more in living for others 



than in ignorantly dying for a cause that 
may be wrong. 

The Mustering ^ S °, ne wh ° haS enlisted 

for Municipal for the war and who has 
been down amidst the 
fighting, I rejoice in the many new 
activities of the cities and the vast bur- 
dens they are certain to assume. For 
only by directly taking charge of the 
common necessities that are inherently 
monopolies will the municipal govern- 
ment act in its full capacity as custodian 
of the commonwealth. 

It is only when the municipality ful- 
fills its allotted tasks that it will reach 
the dignity and the position that it 
should assume in the life of the citizen. 

It is only when the city dweller ap- 
preciates the wonderful enrichment of 
life that the city can afford, and is will- 
ing to strive with patient strength to 
throw open the doors of social oppor- 
tunity that he is worthy of the name of 
citizen. 

Through the evil days of turmoil, 
graft and incompetence the army of the 
city electorate has been mustering, not 
in one community but in many. The 
message which once had a far-off sound 
has become vitally interesting to millions 
of Americans. Elmer Howe's inspiring 
summary would have had few readers 
a decade ago, and it was but yesterday 
that the "reformer" was as threadbare 
a jest as the "mother-in-law." 

The program of municipal advance- 
ment is coming into "clearer and clearer 
outline, for the story of the wrongs, the 
faults, the diseases, the needs, and the 
aspirations of the cities is practically the 
same throughout the country. 

The struggle of and for Democracy 
must be primarily an urban struggle. 
Out of the congested masses of men, 
through their own voice in representa- 
tive government, will come humanity, 
opportunity, and justice that will bless 
the individual, ennoble the city and make 
more glorious the nation. 



The City Club of New YorK 

Lawrence "Veiller, Secretary 



The City Club of New York, estab- 
lished in 1892 for the purpose of "secur- 
ing permanent good government for the 
city of New York," is one of the pioneer 
civic organizations in this city. As a 
result of its fourteen years' experience 
the club has adopted the principle that 
in order to carry on civic work success- 
fully, it must be entirely free from poli- 
tics. The attitude of the club during 
the campaign of 1905 illustrates this 
non-partisan position. No declaration 
was made in favor of either Republican 
or Democratic candidates, or even of the 
independent candidacy of District At- 
torney Jerome. The trustees believe 
that the strength of the club as an or- 
ganization for good government is 
greatest if it refuses to take sides in 
election contests. It is thus in a posi- 
tion to co-operate with or criticize both 
administrators and legislators with an 
effectiveness which would be impossible 
if a position had been taken for or 
against these men when their names 
were presented to the voters for elec- 
tion. In other words, the club believes 
that the same organization cannot ad- 
vantageously work for both "men" and 
"measures." It has chosen "measures" 
for its field, leaving to other organiza- 
tions the important work of securing 
the election to office of the best quali- 
fied men. 

The club is unique in that it combines 
the social life of a club house, equipped 
with all modern conveniences, with the 
civic work its members are endeavoring 
to carry on. Its success since its organ- 
ization in 1892 has proved the wisdom 
of this policy. During the fourteen 
years of its existence the club has grown 
steadily in strength and influence by 
reason of the character of the men who 
constitute its membership and the pres- 
tige it has secured from results accom- 
plished. Its membership, which now 
amounts to 1,349, includes with few ex- 
ceptions all the men who have been 
prominent in the efforts to give New 
York city a clean, business-like adminis- 
tration, and to protect its interests 

212 



against legislative attack. Its two main 
lines of work are watching the work of 
the state legislature — helping defeat bad 
legislation affecting this city, and secur- 
ing the passage of good legislation ; and 
carefully studying the work of various 
branches of the municipal government, 
securing the correction of abuses, where 
abuses exist, and stimulating municipal 
officers to progressive and constructive 
work. 

Among the club's achievements dur- 
ing the past two years, to which only 
the briefest allusion can be made, are 
the following: 

working ^ P re pared and secured 

for the the passage of the law ex- 

CivicGood. tending the term of the 

mayor, comptroller, the borough presi- 
dents and the president of the board of 
aldermen from two to four years, thus 
doing away with political campaigns 
every two years and permitting each city 
administration to accomplish important 
public improvements and to carry out a 
definite policy. 

It has prevented the destruction of 
the parks of the city by defeating a plan 
to construct a railroad through one of 
the most beautiful portions of Bronx 
Park, and through other parks in the city. 

It has prevented the construction of 
new elevated railroads in the congested 
quarters of the city, as well as the ex- 
tension of the existing elevated roads 
in those neighborhoods, thus protecting 
the health and comfort of a quarter of 
a million of people. 

It originated the joint movement of 
civic bodies for securing an adequate 
water supply for the city and succeeded 
in so arousing public sentiment that the 
city and state administrations have 
taken active steps toward the solution 
of this important problem. 

It has formulated and presented defi- 
nite plans for the solution of the Brooklyn 
Bridge problem, and has done important 
constructive work in preventing the crea- 
tion of similar conditions in connection 
with the new bridges. 



The City Club of New York 



213 



It inaugurated the movement for the 
abolition of those vile resorts known as 
"Raines Law Hotels" and, in co-operation 
with other organizations, secured the pas- 
sage of legislation which is now accom- 
plishing this end. 

It prepared and secured the passage of 
a measure giving the police commissioner 
full authority to regulate street traffic. 

It has offered definite plans for the 
solution of the so-called "Pushcart prob- 
lem," and upon its suggestion a com- 
mission was appointed by the mayor 
which has investigated this important 
subject and made definite recommenda- 
tions for the solution of the problem. 

It exposed the connection existing be- 
tween the poolrooms and the Western 
Union Telegraph Company and present- 
ed to the community the moral issues in- 
volved, with the result that the Western 
Union Telegraph Company has aban- 
doned this unlawful and immoral busi- 
ness. 

It has defeated legislation which would 
have saddled upon the taxpayers of New 
York an unnecessary annual increase of 
$1,000,000 in the salaries of city em- 
ployees. 

It has actively opposed and helped to 
defeat measures which would have pro- 
vided old-age pensions for all city em- 
ployes, irrespective of age or disability, 
and which would have involved a heavy 
and unnecessary burden upon the taxpay- 
ers of this city. 

It has helped to secure legislation seek- 
ing to end the disgraceful conditions by 
which applications for franchises have 
been "held up" for indefinite periods in 
the Board of Aldermen, and has secured 
the passage of legislation safeguarding 
the conditions under which future fran- 
chises may be granted. 

It has helped to defeat serious at- 
tempts made to break down the benefi- 
cent provisions of the tenement house 
law and of the child labor laws. 

For Better It has constantly guarded 

statef and the city's interests by watch- 

City. } n g legislation at Albany. 

Every bill that is introduced in the legis- 



lature is carefully scrutinized by the 
club's legislation committee. What this 
means can be best understood when it is 
known that during the session of 1906 
there were 3,900 bills introduced. Of the 
bills which the club opposed ninety-six 
per cent failed to become law; of the 
bills which the club favored twenty-five 
per cent were enacted. 

During the last two sessions of the 
legislature this work has been very great- 
ly extended. A unique system of legis- 
lative information has been established, 
by which immediate information is se- 
cured from Albany in regard to the pro- 
gress of all bills introduced, as well as 
notifications of all hearings either before 
a committee of the legislature, before the 
governor, or before the mayor of this 
city. 

This detailed information has proven 
so valuable to other civic bodies, as well 
as to business organizations and to many 
individuals, that a legislative bureau has 
been established upon a business basis 
as a separate organization, although it is 
run in connection with the work of the 
secretary's office and of the legislation 
committee of the club. 

The club is equally active in watching 
municipal administration. It has been 
able to secure the co-operation of the city 
administration almost as often as it has 
been necessary to oppose it. 

The success and prestige that the club 
has attained in municipal affairs must be 
attributed largely to- the conservatism 
and fairness with which it has dealt with 
every subject brought before it. But 
though conservative, in the sense that it 
has avoided undue haste in reaching or 
acting upon its conclusions, the club's 
action, when a line of policy has been de- 
termined, has been aggressive and un- 
compromising. It has had the support 
of public opinion in its important under- 
takings in a remarkable degree — a sup- 
port reflected, it is felt, in the character 
of its constantly growing membership. 
The club, in brief, is fulfilling what, in a 
sense, is its main purpose — that of serv- 
ing as a natural center of the city's civic 
activity and interest. 



The City Club of Chicago and its Committee 

Plan 

Victor Elting, President 

As in the case of Chicago, the holding of a -world's exposition 
in St. Louis brought there -what might be called a series of 
concentric municipal problems. To their solvation and to the 
sustained work which maKes for the greatest social usefulness 
of local government and municipal equipment, the Civic League 
and its secretary- have given in full measure. 



All of the greater American cities 
count among their citizens a large and 
ever increasing number of men who feel 
a genuine interest in the public welfare 
and are conscious of a sincere desire 
to take some part in the movement for 
the betterment of the political, social 
and economic conditions which surround 
them. These men are confined to no class 
in the community and are within no 
lines of political faith. Their opinions 
upon questions of public importance and 
upon the means and methods of accom- 
plishing reform, differ as widely as do 
their material possessions and their so- 
cial environment; yet they are united 
in their belief that existing conditions 
in our cities should be made better and 
that their duty as citizens requires that 
they make some individual effort to that 
end. Of these friends of good govern- 
ment, a limited number are allied 
with existing organizations doing a spe- 
cial work; the remainder have found no 
available opportunity of joining the 
movement of reform. Everywhere the 
need has come to be recognized that 
such men be brought together upon a 
common meeting ground, in order that 
by friendly acquaintance, exchange of 
views, and united activities, intelligent 
and effective co-operation in the work 
for good government may be secured. 

To meet this need in the 
of rg thi z ci!, b n city of Chicago, so far as 

might be, the City Club of 
Chicago was organized. Its object, as 
set forth in the charter of December 16, 
1903, was the investigation and im- 
provement of municipal conditions and 
public affairs in the city of Chicago, and 
the establishment and maintenance of a 
library and other facilities of a social 
214 



club for the use of men who desire to 
co-operate in the accomplishment of this 
purpose by non-partisan and practical 
methods. One hundred and sixty mem- 
bers were enrolled at the beginning by 
invitation. Club rooms of an unpre- 
tentious character were secured, afford- 
ing comfortable meeting places and li- 
brary and restaurant facilities. It was 
the aim of the organizers to establish a 
club of truly democratic character to 
which all men interested in the better- 
ment of municipal conditions would be 
attracted, and from which no eligible 
person would be barred by reason of the 
expense incident to membership. Ac- 
cordingly it was established that there 
should be no initiation fee and that the 
annual dues to regular members should 
be $20. The resolution of organization 
likewise provided that for the purpose 
of placing membership in the club with- 
in the means of particularly desirable 
persons who might otherwise be unable 
to join, the board of directors was au- 
thorized to abate the whole or any part 
of the dues of not more than twenty-five 
such members in any one year. 

Upon this plan the club began its life. 
From the beginning it has steadily 
grown in membership and now has upon 
its rolls more than 700 active members. 
It may fairly be said that every shade 
of political and economic opinion enter- 
tained by law-abiding citizens of Chi- 
cago at the present day is represented 
upon the membership. Enlarged club 
quarters, still unpretentious in their 
character, now provide dining rooms, 
committee rooms and commodious meet- 
ing places for the use of the members 
and of the various committees. It is 
a gratifying fact that the use of the club 
quarters by other civic organizations, 



The City Club of Chicago and its Committee Plan 215 



and their boards and committees, is of 
almost daily occurrence. A feature of 
the club has always been a table d'hote 
luncheon served at small cost. 

In the carrying on of its work the club 
has sought to accomplish three things in 
particular : 

First: To promote the free public dis- 
cussion of all matters of public interest 
and importance. 

Second: To inaugurate organized and 
thorough investigation of municipal con- 
ditions wherever necessary and practicable. 

Third: To enlist a large number of men 
in active and intelligent co-operation in the 
effort to promote the public welfare. 

Discu^ons ** promoting the first of 
and in= the above objects the club 

vestigations. hag hdd upQn each Satur _ 

day afternoon of the active months of 
the year, an open floor meeting for the 
discussion of some question of present 
importance in the community. These 
meeting have been largely attended and 
have been given wide notice in the pub- 
lic press. Both sides of disputed ques- 
tions are always represented upon the 
floor, and the club has been fortunate in 
gaining for these discussions a reputa- 
tion for fairness which has contributed 
largely to their success by securing the 
attendance of the champions of unpop- 
ular causes. 

In promoting the second of the ob- 
jects stated, the club has inaugurated 
two investigations of particular impor- 
tance. One was the investigation and 
report upon the discipline and adminis- 
tration of the Chicago Police Depart- 
ment, made by Alexander R. Piper, Cap- 
tain United States Army (retired). 
The other was an investigation and re- 
port on the municipal revenues of Chi- 
cago by Charles Edward Merriam of 
the University of Chicago. These in- 
vestigations were carried on under the 
auspices of the club with funds donated 
for the purpose by two public spirited 
citizens. The reports were printed and 
published and obtained a wide circula- 
tion. The work of Professor Merriam 
is of particular value at the present time 
as an aid to the work of the charter 
convention now at work in the drafting 
of a proposed new charter for the city 
of Chicago. It is the first scientific ex- 



position ever attempted upon the all im- 
portant subject of the city's revenues. 

The . The most important un- 
Committee dertaking of the club, 
however, has been the or- 
ganization of its committee plan. The 
directors of the City Club from the 
time of its organization were im- 
pressed with the belief that accurate in- 
formation as to existing conditions is a 
prerequisite to any successful effort at 
reform. They believed that investigation 
along single lines, prompted by indi- 
vidual opinion or chance suggestion, 
though often productive of good results 
might well in the case of the City Club 
result in the expenditure of the re- 
sources and energy of the club upon 
subjects relatively unimportant. They 
believed that in no better way could a 
broad view of municipal conditions be 
obtained and the relative necessity for 
improvement be judged than by special 
survey of the whole field of municipal 
activity by small groups of men, 
each having a particular interest in 
the subject matter of its inquiry. 
They realized too that the material 
resulting from the examination of 
so wide a field would afford a valua- 
ble contribution to the cause of good 
government and a distinct aid to the 
workers in that cause. The City Club 
had always endeavored to make it plain 
that in its proposed activities it would 
never permit itself to encroach upon the 
work of other organized societies doing 
a special work or attempt to usurp their 
functions ; and in developing the com- 
mittee plan the directors made it plain 
that the results of the committee work 
would be available in proper cases to 
all friends of reform in municipal affairs 
wherever working or however allied. 

Another consideration of importance 
was that if such a plan could be evolved, 
it would permit the engagement of a 
large fraction of the club's members 
in active service, — an object very much 
to be desired. It was the intention of the 
originators of the plan that each com- 
mittee should necessarily undertake elab- 
orate investigations, but rather that each 
should survey its own field of operation 
with care and intelligence and should 



2l6 



Charities and The Commons 



then act as the occasion required and 
the conditions permitted. It was in- 
tended that the committee should in- 
vestigate and report upon the good as 
well as the bad conditions which were 
disclosed within their field of operation. 
The disclosure of good methods of ad- 
ministration is often a great aid toward 
the abolition of bad methods in other 
places; and one of the strongest induce- 
ments to public servants to exert them- 
selves in the performance of their duties 
is the knowledge that their efforts will 
be given publicity and that public ap- 
plause will follow where it is deserved. 
In the effort to carry out these ideas 
the committee plan was evolved. 

In February, 1906, the directors of 
the club authorized the appointment by 
the president of twenty-one special com- 
mittees to be charged with the duty of 
investigation and report upon municipal 
and other conditions in the city of Chi- 
cago. 

The committees were the following: 

Municipal revenues. 

Municipal expenditures and accounting. 
Local transportation. 
Gas and electricity. 
Public education. 
Streets and alleys. 
Buildings. 
Water supply. 

Harbors, wharves and bridges. 
Public health. 
Parks and public grounds. 
Fire protection. 
Police service. 
Civil service. 
Drainage and sewerage. 
Elections. 

Charitable, reformatory and penal insti- 
tutions and agencies. 
Industrial conditions. 
Municipal art. 
Smoke abatement. 
Telephone rates and service. 



Organized 
for Work. 



The committees were con- 
stituted of five members 
each. It was firmly be- 
lieved that a smaller number might 
prove insufficient should division of la- 
bor be required or incapacities occur ; 
while a larger number would lessen the 
feeling of individual responsibility which 
was looked upon as an absolute necessity 



for a successful result. Each of the 
committees was given power to asso- 
ciate with itself such other members of 
the club as might be interested in the 
subject matter assigned to such com- 
mittee, and might appoint a sub-commit- 
tee from its own number or from 
the general membership of the club sub- 
ject to the approval of the committee on 
public affairs. 

It was provided that the work of the 
committees should be under the general 
supervision of the committee on public 
affairs, the standing committee of the 
club in charge of the investigation and 
discussion of public affairs ; and should 
be subject at all times to the control of 
the board of directors. It was likewise 
provided that none of the committees 
should have power or authority to com- 
mit the club upon any question of public 
policy and that no report of any such 
committee should be published or dis- 
tributed among the members of the club 
or elsewhere without the authority of 
the board of directors. Each of the 
committees was charged with the duty 
of presenting to the club annually a for- 
mal report in writing upon the matters 
within its jurisdiction and of reporting 
at other times when required by the 
board of directors. It was understood 
that the committees should be afforded 
every aid by the directors, and that in 
proper instances the result of their la- 
bors should find quick public expression 
in print or through the open floor dis- 
cussions of the club. 

The actual formation of the commit- 
tees was accomplished in the spring of 
the present year. A communication was 
addressed to the members of the club 
setting forth in detail the committee plan 
and asking that those members of the 
club who were willing and able to give 
their service to the club should so de- 
clare and should indicate the committees 
of their especial choice. It was under- 
stood by all that those undertaking to 
serve would be required to give what- 
ever time to the work which it demand- 
ed. It was particularly urged upon the 
members that those before inex- 
perienced in committee work of the 
character proposed should lend their aid 
to the plan. 



The City Club of Chicago and its Committee Plan 



Caring for ^ s a resu lt of this invita- 
surpius tion, 175 members, or more 

Workers. than one _ fourth of the 

active membership of the club, volun- 
teered for the work. This was a num- 
ber far in excess of the full complement 
of the committees. The committees 
were thereupon filled from the volun- 
teers, each composed of men who had 
expressed a particular interest in and de- 
sire to serve upon that committee. To 
care for the surplus of volunteers the 
chairman of each committee was ad- 
vised of the names of those who had 
volunteered for his commitee but had 
not been appointed thereon and each 
chairman was instructed to avail himself 
of the services of those men. 

The twenty-one committees are now 
at work. While the progress of their 
labors cannot be here recorded, it may 
be said that the committee plan is al- 
ready a success. These many non- 



partisan and disinterested workers may 
be relied upon to give substantial aid to 
the cause of good government. 

In closing this view of the committee 
plan, attention may be called to one re- 
sult of importance which may be looked 
for. There are in every community too 
few effective workers in the cause of 
good government, and Chicago affords 
no exception to the rule. There as else- 
where the real burden of the work falls 
upon the shoulders of the few who by 
reason of their peculiar abilities, their 
training and their zeal for the cause are 
able to accomplish practical results. 
From those engaged under the plan here 
described it is believed that many men of 
marked ability will come to the front 
to swell the ranks of the qualified 
workers for municipal improvement. 
That in itself will be a fine achievement 
for the committee plan. 



Commercial Organizations and Civic WorK 



Mayo Fesler 

Secretary of the Civic League of St. Loviis 



In conversation recently with the di- 
rector of a strong commercial organiza- 
tion in one of our western cities I ques- 
tioned him in regard to the civic work 
which his association was doing. His 
reply was, "We are not doing anything 
in that line. We confine our efforts to 
strictly commercial questions — the im- 
provement of the city as a trading and 
manufacturing center." Fortunately this 
limitation on the field of work of the 
commercial organization — the most influ- 
ential and powerful associations in our 
cities — is rapidly being removed as busi- 
ness men come more and more to realize 
that the commercial prosperity of a city 
cannot be separated from its civic prog- 
ress. 

The old idea of the scope and aim of 
an association composed of the mer- 
chants and manufacturers was the 
"booming" of the city as a place of busi- 
ness, a gcod location for manufacturing 
plants and a favorable shipping point; 



and any movement on the part of the cit- 
izens to put restrictions on these indi- 
vidual business interests, in the effort to 
make the city a more comfortable and at- 
tractive place of residence, was looked 
upon as a direct menace to its commer- 
cial supremacy. This prejudice is by no 
means yet dispelled. Let a railroad com- 
pany's request for a right of way into a 
city be opposed because it cuts through a 
choice residential district or fails to elim- 
inate grade crossings and the most pow- 
erful argument made against the opposi- 
tion is this old prejudice that you are 
checking the commercial growth of the 
city. If a really serious attempt is made 
to abate the smoke nuisance the alarm is 
sounded that you will drive factories 
away from the city. If a city is so pre- 
sumptuous as to place restrictions on in- 
dustrial plants in order to protect the 
health of the employes, city legislators 
are warned to go slow. When the death 
roll in Chicago from grade crossing acci- 



21 



Charities and The Commons 



dents grew to such an alarming extent 
that the public conscience demanded pro- 
tection, the most obstinate and effective 
argument against track elevation was the 
danger of driving the railway terminals 
out of the city. 

But these arguments are fast losing 
their potency. While it is true that the 
strategical position, as a point for manu- 
facture and exchange, is the chief factor 
which in the first instance determines 
the location and size of a city, it becomes 
relatively a less dominating factor as the 
city increases in population. As a city 
grows its complete dependency upon 
trade and commerce rapidly decreases ; 
and trade and commerce, on the other 
hand, become more and more dependent 
upon the city. Railroads, factories and 
business activity bring people, but people 
must live; they must be governed; life 
must be made comfortable; pleasures 
must be provided and so the large city 
as a corporate unit with all of its wealth, 
prestige and multiform interests becomes 
eminently bigger than any individual or 
corporate interest. When the citizens 
begin to realize this they begin to sub- 
ordinate these individual interests to the 
well-being of the whole city. 

Furthermore, a commercial center in- 
vites into its gates visitors — retail mer- 
chants and shop keepers from the sur- 
rounding country and travelers from 
everywhere. In order to have them tarry 
awhile and return again, the city must be 
made attractive — which means clean 
streets, pleasant homes, good transporta- 
tion facilities, parks and boulevards and 
stately public buildings. In short, a city 
cannot, in the modern sense of the word, 
maintain a commercial supremacy un- 
less it maintains at the same time a high 
civic life. 

Civic improvements have 

Ad a ve aty! n * their commercial value. 
The Greeks long ago real- 
ized this fact. We are inclined to think 
of the Hellenes as artists only. They 
were business men first and artists after- 
wards. They were a maritime and com- 
mercial people. Their ships brought the 
products of the fields, forests and mines 
from the surrounding Mediterranean 
and from the shores of the Euxine and 



the Aegean Seas. Then they built their 
cities so that they would attract trade. 
They knew that stately and beautifully 
decorated public buildings were the 
most effective form of advertising they 
could devise. They built the Acropolis 
of Pericles and long after Athens lost 
her commercial supremacy and exhausted 
her mines her people lived on the income 
which they drew from traveling Rome. 

It is impossible to estimate the actual 
profits which Paris derives annually 
from her parks, boulevards and public 
buildings. Napoleon III never dreamed 
of the enormous income which he was 
guaranteeing his capital when he re- 
built the city in the early fifties. Bank- 
ers have estimated that Americans spend 
upwards of $500,000,000 annually in for- 
eign countries. It is safe to say that 
Paris receives at least one-fifth of this 
vast sum, the profits from which are 
probably as great as are the profits from 
pork to Chicago, shoes to St. Louis or 
beer to Milwaukee. 

Vienna's position as the center of life 
and commerce for eastern Europe, draw- 
ing to it all the rank and style not only 
of the Austrian states but of eastern Ger- 
many, Poland, Russia and the Balkan 
states, is due not entirely to its geograph- 
ical position but in a considerable meas- 
ure to the beauty and attractiveness of 
its encircling boulevards, the dignity and 
splendor of its public buildings and the 
civic orderliness which is apparent every- 
where in that beautiful city. 

Our own national capital is an illus- 
tration of this same principle. Sixty 
years ago foreign ministers preferred to 
live in Philadelphia and suffer all the 
inconveniences of travel back and forth 
to Washington rather than live in the 
capital with all of its municipal squalor. 
To-day Washington with its clean and 
well paved streets, its excellent street car 
service, its system of beautiful parks and 
drives, and the stateliness of the nation's 
public buildings, is the mecca for thou- 
sands of visitors annually and is rapidly 
becoming the winter resort for the na- 
tion's wealthy and fashionable citizens. 
As its wealth and population increase its 
commercial importance is likewise aug- 
mented. 



Commercial Organizations and Civic Work 



219 



At a recent meeting of a commercial 
organization in California were a number 
of representative business men, members 
of the Merchants' Association of San 
Francisco. They had been invited to tell 
the newly organized Commercial Club 
how to make its city grow. The key 
note of every address at the banquet was, 
"reach out for the tourist business, and 
the way to do this is to beautify your 
city. Exploitation by advertising is not 
wholly ineffective, but a beautiful and 
attractive city is far more effective. Peo- 
ple then will do the advertising for you." 

Honest municipal government, clean 
streets, comfortable homes, and civic 
beauty are as valuable a commercial asset 
to a great city as are railroads, steam- 
boats, and smoking factories, and not 
until the commercial organizations of a 
city realize this, and set about to secure 
these conditions will they be accomplish- 
ing the most for the commercial inter- 
ests of their members and for the general 
welface of the city. 

Happily, in a number of our cities we 
find that the leading commercial organi- 
zations with all their financial power 
and prestige are grappling with the mul- 
titudinous municipal problems confront- 
ing them and are devoting as much at- 
tention to these civic questions as they 
are to their immediate commercial in- 
terests. 

The Cleveland Pr obably the most widely 

Chamber known of these associa- 

ommerce. t j ons fe foe Cleveland 

Chamber of Commerce, with its 1,600 
members, more than 500 of whom are 
doing active committee work either in 
connection with commercial or civic 
problems. The chamber has eight stand- 
ing and twenty-two special committees. 
Of this number thirteen can be classed 
as committees with primarily civic func- 
tions. Their activities extend to every 
phase of the city's life. A simple enu- 
meration of the thirteen committees will 
indicate this: Education, legislation, 
municipal art gallery, benevolent asso- 
ciations, group plan, housing problem, 
industrial, municipal sanitation, music 
hall, re-adjustment of streets, taxation, 
and water supply. IS! or are their duties 
purely perfunctory as is often the case in 



civic and commercial organizations. They 
are actually working and are consider- 
ing carefully and conscientiously the 
questions referred to them. 

The education committee has investi- 
gated the condition in the public schools 
and found them greatly over-crowded. 
Many children, it was learned, were com- 
pelled to attend school in basements and 
other unsuitable quarters and the city 
on account of having reached its taxing 
limit could afford no relief for these con- 
ditions. So the committee went before 
the state legislature and secured legis- 
lation which oermitted the city tc call 
for a bond issue and a tax levy to remedy 
these evils. The chamber does not itself 
supply the remedies but it forces the state 
or municipal government to furnish 
them through wise legislation and proper 
administration. 

One of the unique undertakings of the 
Cleveland Chamber of Commerce is its 
effort to apprehend and prosecute 
persons representing fraudulent solicit- 
ing schemes. So successfully has this 
work been carried on by the committee 
on benevolent associations, that fraudu- 
lent soliciting is practically eliminated 
from the city. This committee's work 
goes further. It has made an exhaust- 
ive investigation of all the charitable in- 
stitutions of the city both large and small, 
has required of them a fixed standard of 
efficiency by refusing to grant them a 
card of endorsement unless this stand- 
ard is complied with, has succeeded in 
eliminating unnecessary institutions by 
consolidating old ones attempting to 
cover the same field, and has assisted in 
establishing new charities where the con- 
ditions demanded. So satisfactory and 
popular has the work of this committee 
proven to be, that it has become very 
difficult for a solicitor for any cause to 
obtain funds without first visiting the 
Chamber of Commerce, submitting his 
credentials and receiving card of endorse- 
ment signed by the secretary. No more 
valuable service can be rendered to the 
cause of true charity than this very prac- 
tical way of preventing the benevolence 
of the average business man from being 
abused. 

We might discuss in detail the work 



220 



Charities and The Commons 



of the municipal sanitation committee in 
its investigation of the sanitary conditions 
of the public schools, the system of street 
cleaning in Cleveland, the food inspec- 
tion ordinances, tuberculosis prevention 
and the general sanitary conditions in 
the crowded portions of the city; or the 
work of the industrial committee in its 
efforts to improve the conditions of the 
employes in stores, offices and factories 
by securing legislation which requires 
reasonable hours and comfortable and 
sanitary surroundings for the laborers; 
or the work of the housing committee 
which has made a comprehensive investi- 
gation of the housing conditions, pub- 
lished its report and secured the adop- 
tion of an up-to-date building ordinance 
which will make a serious housing prob- 
lem for that city impossible ; or the work 
of the committee for the renaming and 
renumbering of the streets. Any and all 
of these committees have demonstrated 
reasons for being. 

„. . The civic activity, however, 

Civic Interest % • •, i J * . , 

Aroused. which has probably 
brought most credit and re- 
nown to the chamber is its successful 
advocacy of the magnificent group plan 
for public and quasi-public buildings 
which is to adorn the lake front. This 
improvement when completed will give to 
Cleveland a gateway which for dignity 
and beauty will hardly be surpassed in 
any city in the world. Individual minds 
may have conceived these plans, art 
leagues and architectural clubs may have 
initiated the movement, but it required 
the practical and powerful backing of the 
Chamber of Commerce to bring together 
the diverse interests in favor of the com- 
prehensive plan for the grouping of the 
various public buildings along a central 
mall extending from the public square 
to the lake front. Nor is the chamber 
satisfied with having inaugurated the 
plan and secured the necessary legisla- 
tion. The chamber's committee is jeal- 
ously watching every step in the progress 
of the plan toward its completion. For 
example: When the designs for one of 
the group — the new federal building, 
were made public and the chamber's com- 
mittee learned that sandstone, a Cleve- 



land product, was to be used instead of 
granite, it at once expressed its disap- 
proval, enlisted the support of the cham- 
ber, secured the appointment of a dele- 
gation to proceed to Washington and 
register its protest. The delegation as- 
sisted by the Ohio representatives at the 
national capital secured from the govern- 
ment officials the substitution of granite 
in the place of sandstone ; thus establish- 
ing the style of material to be used in the 
entire group. This is only one of the 
many illustrations where the chamber 
has forced selfish local interests to sac- 
rifice themselves to the general welfare. 
In a thousand ways it is proving what an 
effective agency a commercial organi- 
zation can be in uniting the progressive 
forces of a great city for its upbuilding 
and for the creation of a true civic spirit 
among all classes of its people. 

The chamber would not have it un- 
derstood that its activities are primarily 
civic for they are not. It is first of all 
a commercial organization intent upon 
promoting the commercial and manu- 
facturing interests of the city of Cleve- 
land, but it has long since learned that 
one of the most effective methods of ac- 
complishing that object is to make Cleve- 
land a comfortable place in which to live 
and an attractive place for merchants, 
visitors and travelers. 

The Chamber of Commerce is looked 
upon by some as an ultra-conservative 
body because it has decided adversely 
on certain suggested municipal policies 
such as a municipal lighting plant and a 
subway system for the downtown sec- 
tion, but this cautiousness only strength- 
ens the confidence of the mass of the 
citizens in its ability to weigh with care 
and precision, the many municipal ques- 
tions brought to its attention. The peo- 
ple of Cleveland have found by years of 
experience that the Chamber of Com- 
merce is unmoved by partisanship or the 
selfish interests of any of its members 
and that it looks upon public questions 
purely as a matter of public welfare. So 
when the chamber has reached a conclu- 
sion on a question of civic policy its con- 
clusions are accepted and acquiesced in 
by the general public. 

The spirit of the Cleveland chamber 



Commercial Organizations and Civic Work 



221 



seems to have been contagious. Detroit, 
Buffalo and Pittsburg have modeled their 
commercial organizations after it. Bos- 
ton and Washington are seriously con- 
templating similar action. The Pitts- 
burg chamber which has for some time 
fostered the movement for a "Greater 
Pittsburg," i. e. the consolidation of con- 
tiguous municipalities into one great 
city, is now reaping the reward of these 
efforts in the annexation of the city of 
Allegheny, which will give Pittsburg a 
population of over 500,000 and raise it 
to the rank of the seventh instead of the 
thirteenth city in the Union. The pres- 
ent administration of the chamber has de- 
clared that the commercial and indus- 
trial success of Pittsburg is merely the 
foundation for the higher development 
of the city, and that the energies of the 
organization will now be turned to broad- 
ening its field of work and engendering 
in the business life of Pittsburg more 
concern for the city's architectural and 
political development. 

„ . Another interesting illus- 

San Francis- . . . ^ . - 

co's Merchant tration of an influential 
Exchange. commer cial association 

which is doing quite as much civic as 
commercial work is the Merchants Asso- 
ciation of San Francisco which recently 
gave its "reconstruction dinner" in the 
St. Francis Hotel amid the ruins of the 
old San Francisco and committed itself 
in the "spirit of April 18th," to the new 
and more beautiful city. This organiza- 
tion with its 1,400 members has stood 
not only for the material and commercial 
welfare of the city but for social and 
civic progress in its best and highest 
form. The 1905 report of the board of 
directors shows a great variety of civic 
activities — ballot reform, purification of 
elections, protection of the civil service 
laws, improvement of transportation, 
prevention of tuberculosis, and the va- 
rious phases of public works. 

The association, realizing that a de- 
termined attack was being made on the 
civil service provision of the city charter, 
instituted legal proceedings in five dif- 
ferent cases and secured injunctions pro- 
hibiting the payment of salaries to men 



who were illegally employed. The legal 
department of the association also as- 
sisted the district attorney in the prose- 
cution of a number of election fraud 
cases which resulted in the conviction 
and imprisonment of two of the offend- 
ers. Last year twelve different bills 
were passed by the California legislature 
at the request of the association. They 
were laws providing for purity of the 
ballot, extension of the primary law, the 
successful prosecution of election frauds 
and certain exemptions from jury service. 
In municipal legislation it helped to se- 
cure the passage of an ordinance pro- 
viding for free flower markets; one pro- 
viding for properly guarded sidewalk 
elevators and one requiring the removal 
of overhead wires from the business dis- 
tricts. 

Last year the association employed, 
at considerable expense, the expert ser- 
vices of the chief engineer of the New 
York Rapid Transit Commission to 
frame a plan for the proper develop- 
ment of the street railway system for 
the city of San Francisco. Mr. Parsons 
visited the city, made a thorough study 
of the situation and submitted a practi- 
cal report which cleared the atmosphere 
of many conflicting opinions in regard 
to that question. Various other munici- 
pal activities can be attributed to the 
Merchants' Association, such as the 
erection at its own expense of a public 
convenience station and isle of safety at 
one of the street crossings and the pro- 
motion of the movement to erect a tu- 
berculosis sanatorium. 

Crippled as it has been by the recent 
loss of its new building and all of its 
documents, the Merchants' Association 
has set its face toward the reconstruc- 
tion of the city on bigger and broader 
lines, and judging from its influence and 
success in the past it will play an im- 
portant part in the civic growth and de- 
velopment of the new San Francisco. 

„ . . , At the other extreme of 

Merchants' . ,, 

Association of the country is the Mer- 

New York. chants > Association of New 

York, which has shown great activity in 

civic movements. Its efforts, however, 



222 



Charities and The Commons 



have been directed more to the inves- 
tigation and publication of reports on 
abuses existing in the city. In 1904 a 
committee of the association undertook 
the investigation of the telephone ser- 
vice of the city of New York for the 
purpose of securing a reduction of the 
rates then prevailing. A thorough ex- 
amination and an exhaustive report by 
the committee resulted in an aggregate 
reduction of about $1,525,000 per year 
to the telephone subscribers. 

The same year the association ap- 
pointed a committee to inquire into the 
gas and electric lighting service. The 
committee employed expert service, 
made its investigation and published a 
comprehensive report showing the situ- 
ation in each borough. Satisfied that 
some steps should be taken to regulate 
the charges for gas, the committee ap- 
peared before a committee of the state 
legislature at Albany and argued for the 
appointment of a gas commission which 
should carefully examine into the cost 
of producing gas and accordingly regu- 
late its price to the consumer. The com- 
mission was appointed and their first 
examination and report has resulted in 
legislation which has given to the city 
of New York eighty cent gas. 

The association has taken prominent 
part in the recent movement to secure for 
the city a water supply sufficient for all 
public necessities and an auxiliary supply 
for fire protection. Its last annual re- 
port states that in the field of city ad- 
ministration, its activities are constantly 
increasing and that its relation to the 
important municipal problems must be- 
come more and more intimate. This 
policy may appear to go beyond the let- 
ter of the object for which the associa- 
tion was formed, namely, "to foster 
trade and commerce," yet in reality it 
is in full harmony with that purpose. 
Its officers appreciate the fact that they 
are not entering upon a new sphere 
of action when they concern themselves 
with civic conditions but are only cul- 
tivating a little more intensively their 
legitimate field of operation. For they 



are alive to the fact that civic improve- 
ments promote trade and commerce. 

The limitations on this article will not 
permit a presentation of the active civic 
work of the Business Men's League of 
St. Louis in securing well paved streets, 
a convention hall, and much desirable 
legislation for that city; or the Com- 
mercial Club of Kansas City which has 
rendered valuable aid in securing a 
boulevard and park system of consider- 
able extent and unusual beauty for that 
municipality; or the effective efforts of 
the Buffalo Chamber of Commerce in 
securing an honest and effective ad- 
ministration of municipal affairs in that 
city, or the score of other active organi- 
zations which are gradually broadening 
their scope to include more than the 
merely commercial and material interest 
of the municipalities which they repre- 
sent. 

It is not at all likely that business or- 
ganizations will supplant voluntary civic 
associations in our American cities, but 
they will, no doubt, gradually encroach 
upon the field of work heretofore occu- 
pied exclusively by the latter. It is a 
good omen for the future of our poorly 
governed American cities when actively 
engaged business men through their 
wealthy and powerful commercial or- 
ganizations begin to interest themselves 
in the general improvement of their 
cities. A city after all is primarily a 
great business establishment in which 
thousands of stockholders are interest- 
ed. Its show-windows must be taste- 
fully arranged. It must furnish to its 
stockholders and visitors the same com- 
forts and conveniences which its com- 
peting neighbor can supply. It must 
make itself attractive if it hopes to draw 
strangers within its doors. Far-sighted 
business men in most of our wide-awake 
American cities realize this and in their 
advocacy of municipal improvements 
they are becoming actively alive to the 
plain Anglo-Saxon business proposition, 
"it pays." 



New YorK and tKe Bureau of City Betterment 

Henry Bruere 

[After four years' experience in social worh in Boston and. 
Chicago, Mr. Bruere organized tKe Bureau of City Betterment 
in New YorK, in January of 1906, and continues in charge of 
its staff to date. During l^O^-S He -was connected -with tKe In- 
ternational Harvester Company of Chicago, in tKe capacity of 
■welfare manager at tKe McCormicK WorKs on tKe "West Side. 
There Ke organized a technical school for the advancement of 
the boys and men employed in the factory, along industrial 
lines. He also organized a successful -worKmen's club among 
the employees at the McCormicK plant and other neighborhood 
men, resigning the directorship of that institution after its estab- 
lishment in its present -well equipped club house.] 



The Bureau of City Betterment is an 
experiment in the direction of achieving 
greater efficiency in city administration 
through the agency of publicity. The 
bureau was established eight months ago 
to collect information regarding the gov- 
ernment of New York city for the use 
of the members of the Citizens Union 
and the general public. The idea un- 
derlying the formation of the bureau 
was that capable and thoroughly ef- 
fective administration of the city can be 
permanently realized only if the public is 
equipped through knowledge of the facts 
to direct the policy of its government and 
to select competent servants. The short 
tenure of office of its important officials 
imposes upon the city the necessity of 
deciding anew, at brief intervals, into 
whose hands its common business shall 
be entrusted and how it shall be con- 
ducted. To make these decisions intel- 
ligently, the community must understand 
what has been done, and what left un- 
done. 

The insurance investigation has taught 
many of us that it is unsafe to judge of 
the merits of an administrative body on 
a general statement of its achievements. 
Unless we can judge the value of these 
achievements in the light of our needs 
and the opportunity for satisfying them, 
we shall find ourselves in the position of 
those policy holders who were invited 
to rejoice in the solvency of the com- 
panies while their directors battened on 
the profits. 

Effective publicity in municipal ad- 
ministration has not yet been attained. 
The political interests of any adminis- 
tration in power forbid the publication of 
the facts of that administration except 
along positive lines. Even the positive 
statements of results produced have 
hitherto been made neither with regular- 
ity nor in a form readily understood by 
223 



the public. Often, indeed, reports of the 
operations of the departments are per- 
functory and misleading. The press has 
not fulfilled its full function with respect 
to publishing information on the city's 
affairs. Even when a newspaper is non- 
partisan and unbiased, its necessary de- 
votion to incidents of the hour renders it 
incapable of learning the facts respect- 
ing the conduct of a department. 

The men responsible for 
« Public 3 Spirit, the establishment of the 
Bureau of City Betterment 
believed that a disinterested investiga- 
tion into the administration of the city 
and the publication of the results of such 
investigation, in a manner intelligible to 
the average, preoccupied citizen, would 
contribute in an important way to the 
solution of probably the most vital pres- 
ent problem, a rational organization of 
city life and the conduct of the proper 
functions of the municipality. Their 
aim was to cultivate in the public a con- 
trol over its business — to better condi- 
tions in New York city by enlisting the 
intelligence and co-operation of as many 
as possible of those whose lives are 
largely shaped by the manner in which 
the city is administered. 

The Bureau of City Betterment is, as 
yet, hardly more than a germ. In it 
only the first step has been taken towards 
fulfilling the purposes of its founders. 
With respect to the administration of 
the city of New York, with its four 
million inhabitants, its annual budget of 
$120,000,000 and its army of 60,000 em- 
ployees, a bureau with four investigators 
and a small budget can be only sug- 
gestive. 

During these first months of its ex- 
istence, the work of the bureau has been 
along two general lines : 



224 



Charities and The Commons 



(i.) Investigation of citizens' com- 
plaints respecting delinquencies of the 
departments in performance of their du- 
ties and removal of the cause of com- 
plaint in co-operation with heads of de- 
partments. 

(2.) Detailed inquiry into certain 
phases of the municipal business. 

The citizens' complaints have been re- 
ceived for the purpose of bringing the 
bureau to the notice of citizens and to 
promote the efforts of local groups in 
the Citizens Union to secure betterment 
in their local conditions. Several organ- 
izations of men have systematically co- 
operated with the bureau by calling to 
its attention conditions which had been 
neglected by the authorities. In one in- 
stance a local group reported a block of 
unsanitary houses to the bureau for in- 
vestigation. The interest of this group 
and the activity of the bureau has al- 
ready resulted in the vacation of twenty- 
four of these houses by order of the 
Tenement House Department and the 
demolition of six. Several of the in- 
vestigations of the bureau have been 
suggested by citizens' complaints. 

In connection with its detailed inves- 
tigations the bureau has steadily em- 
ployed publicity. It has constantly fur- 
nished the press with "stories" in which 
are incorporated the results of its in- 
quiries. In this way the findings of the 
bureau have been disseminated and call- 
ed to general attention. Its statements 
through the New York press are placed 
before several millions of readers. 

An account of some of the 
Accomplished, lines of the bureau's in- 
quiry and the results that 
have followed from them will be sug- 
gestive of the opportunities which 
abound for service through the publica- 
tion of facts. At the outset the bureau 
published a statement showing that near- 
ly all the city departments violated spe- 
cific charter requirements by failure to 
publish reports of their activities at 
stated intervals. This was followed by 
an analysis of the increases in the de- 
partmental payrolls during the last half 
year without reference to allowances 
made for salary purposes in the annual 



budget. A similar analysis was pre- 
pared for a succeeding period and again 
published in the press. At the end of 
the next period several newspapers, fol- 
lowing the example of the bureau, pre- 
pared and published an analysis of sal- 
ary increases on their own initiative. In 
consequence of the publication of these 
statements and the discussion they evok- 
ed, a rule was adopted by the Board of 
Estimate and Apportionment and the 
Board of Aldermen deferring all re- 
quests for salary increases for consider- 
ation with the budget. As a result of 
this action the mayor appointed a com- 
mission to reclassify the civil service and 
to provide a more equitable basis for 
its gradation. 

The bureau called attention in the 
press to the opinions of engineers of 
standing and a report of a former water 
commissioner, to the effect that the city 
sustained an enormous annual loss of 
water through preventable waste. It 
was suggested that the installation of 
water meters by the city would put an 
end to loss due to defective fixtures and 
carelessness. Immediately after discus- 
sion of this matter in the press and 
awakening of the interest of the admin- 
istration in the loss of water through 
preventable waste, a measure was passed 
in the legislature enabling the commis- 
sioner of water supply to make tests to 
determine finally the exact extent of the 
loss of water due to leaky fixtures and 
careless waste. 

A detailed investigation was made by 
the bureau into the operations of the 
Department of Street Cleaning whose 
budget exceeds $6,000,000 a year. In- 
formation concerning that department 
which had not hitherto been published 
was presented to the public. The re- 
sults of this inquiry were embodied in 
pamphlet form and widely distributed. 

The bureau has thus taken up subject 
after subject. As a result of the inves- 
tigation and the publication of its find- 
ings, an incompetent official occupying 
an important position has been removed ; 
a commission has been appointed to de- 
vise means for abolishing a system 
which results in the city's deriving rev- 
enue from leasing houses which violate 



New York and the Bureau of City Betterment 



225 



the tenement house law and the health 
regulations; suits against the street rail- 
way companies for more than $1,000,000 
due for unfulfilled obligations will be 
pressed by the city — suits which the cor- 
poration counsel had permitted to re- 
main inactive for three years. The 
bureau has made a special study of the 
organization of the Police Department 
and has in preparation a report on the 
police problem in New York city. In 
co-operation with the finance committee 
of the Board of Aldermen it has care- 
fully reviewed the estimates for the bud- 
get of several of the larger city depart- 
ments. In this way the Board of Alder- 
men has been provided with information 
respecting the estimates for the budget. 
Without the co-operation of the bureau 
the finance committee of the Board of 
Aldermen could not have secured in- 
formation upon which intelligent criti- 
cism of the departmental estimates could 
be based. In the past the Board of Al- 
dermen have contented themselves with 
approving the budgets prepared by the 
Board of Estimate and Apportionment, 
although they have full power to take 
original action upon them. 

At this time the bureau is engaged 
upon a detailed analysis of the organi- 
zation and expenditures of the Depart- 
ment of Health and has employed for 
this purpose several expert accountants. 
From this analysis it is hoped that in- 
formation will be secured which will in- 
dicate how the work of the department 
may be increased in effectiveness and 
which will make it possible for the fi- 
nancial authorities of the city to allow a 
budget adequate for the health needs of 
the city. 

The investigation of the Department 



of Health is being conducted with the 
full co-operation of the commissioner of 
health and the heads of the departmental 
divisions. The commissioner is in thor- 
ough accord with the bureau's purpose 
in making the investigation and it is ex- 
pected will avail himself of the results 
of its analysis of his organization. 

The bureau has in press and will pres- 
ently issue in book form, a detailed study 
of the administration of the Borough of 
Manhattan. This study relates to those 
bureaus grouped under the control of 
the president of the Borough of Man- 
hattan and deals largely with the ques- 
tion of public works in that borough. 
This study will embody the results of 
the most detailed investigation yet made 
by the bureau and will throw much need- 
ed light on the present administration 
of the Borough of Manhattan. 

In order to keep in touch with the 
progress of the city, the bureau sends 
a representative to report the actions of 
the Board of Estimate and Apportion- 
ment and the Board of Aldermen at all 
their meetings. These reports are 
placed at the disposal of a committee of 
young men who are especially interested 
in the activities of the legislative bodies 
of the city. The bureau has secured the 
confidence of leaders in the Board of 
Aldermen who now frequently request 
its advice on matters before them. 

The experience of the bureau has in- 
dicated many lines along which its work 
might be profitably and effectively ex- 
tended. A popular control of the city's 
affairs can only be attained by the pub- 
lication of facts concerning those affairs. 
To secure an adequate publication of 
these facts in the future is the hope of 
the bureau. 



THe Settlement Movement 



VI 



Settlement Expansion 

Robert A. Woods 
South End House, Boston 

[The fact that in His article for the settlement series, Mr. 
Woods makes such a stirring contribution to this civic number is 
proof positive of the interplay- of all those movements mailing 
for the common welfare. And the subject is one on which the 
headworKer of South End House, Boston, should be heard. Under- 
graduate worh at Amherst, special courses at Andover Theologi- 
cal Seminary, travel and investigation in Europe, followed by a six 
months residence at Toynbee Hall, London, afforded the equip- 
ment he brought to the South End in 1891. Pre-eminently is he a 
man with a philosophical bach ground to his neighborhood worK, 
yet one indefatigable in inductive studies of the facts and move- 
ments which condition the life of the community. Witness his 
worh as editor and author of The City "Wilderness (1898) and 
Americans in Process (1902) and the investigations of ethnic 
factors in the Boston population, the Negroes in Boston, lodging- 
house dwellers, etc., which have been carried on by members of 
his staff. Mr. Woods has been a member of the Boston Public 
Bath Commission since 1897, and within a month has taKen tem- 
porarily the secretaryship of the important State Commission on 
Industrial Education examples of those contributions to practical 
constructive undertaking's which make his quiet far-sighted daily 
work one of the dependable resources of Boston's civic life.] 



When the first settlement house was 
established in this country a little less 
than twenty years ago, it seemed a vain 
hope that the time might come when 
there would be settlement houses in all 
the more crowded districts in our great 
cities. Yet within so comparatively 
short a period this possibility is within 
sight of realization. The numerical in- 
crease of settlement houses in this coun- 
try is in fact only less remarkable than 
its cause — the change in the sense of 
social duty which has come over the 
American people as a whole. It cannot 
be long until in all large American cities 
every working-class district will be pro- 
vided with a local center, devoted to so- 
cial improvement. It seems altogether 



likely, also, that in towns and villages 
we are to see a rapid development of or- 
ganization for social welfare. The fact 
that there are now in the state of Massa- 
chusetts some two hundred village im- 
provement societies is suggestive of the 
powerful tendency in this direction. 

With the spread of such enterprise, 
the vitality of the settlement movement 
has been expressed on the one hand in 
the uniformity of fundamental working 
principles, and on the other hand in the 
variety which comes from the distinctly 
individual character possessed by nearly 
every settlement house. In several in- 
stances settlement houses, while devoting 
themselves thoroughly to the ordinary 
round of local social needs, have each 



Previous articles in this series : 

I. March 2— Whither the Settlement Movement Tends. Graham Taylor, The Commons, Chicago. 
II. April 7— The Settlements ; Their Lost Opportunity. Florence Kelley. 

III. May 5— Education bv Permeation. Samuel Barnett, Toynbee Hall, London. 

IV. June 2— The Social Value of the Festival. Rita Teresa Wallach, Nurses' Settlement. Mew York. 
V. Sept. 1— Settlement Organization. Mary Kingsbury Simkhovitch, Greenwich House, New York 



226 



Settlement Expansion 



27 



developed certain marked specialties in 
social work which have made them influ- 
ential far beyond the limits of the neigh- 
borhood for which they are responsible 
or the cities which provide their moral 
and financial support. In one case, 
that of Hull House, we see a settlement 
taking a position among the chief moral 
landmarks of a city's civilization. The 
time has now arrived when the settle- 
ments are undertaking a larger form of 
organization among themselves for the 
sake of securing to the individual local 
centers the fullest advantage which may 
come out of the experience and the 
achievements of all the others and in 
order to accomplish those larger results 
which can be brought about only by ac- 
tion in broad and general ways through 
a city in its entirety. The very parochial 
character of the work of the local set- 
tlement house, — its universality within 
its fraction of the city — suggests the 
coalescence of all such local schemes into 
something comprehensive and inclusive. 

organization Promising beginnings in 
Among this direction have been 

Settlements. made ^ Chicag0) New 

York and Boston. The Chicago Federa- 
tion of Settlements has had a regular 
organization and meetings for some eight 
or ten years. The New York Associa- 
tion of Neighborhood Workers includes 
representation from fifty-four neighbor- 
hood houses. In Boston federation has 
come about by districts. The South End 
Social Union, which has existed for 
some years now includes fifteen settle- 
ments and other neighborhood centers 
in that section of the city. A similar 
union including the North and West 
Ends was organized a little over a year 
ago. An interesting association has 
recently been formed among the several 
settlements established in the different 
cities of northern New Jersey. In case 
of all of these federations some time is 
given to comparison of view as to specifi- 
cally local work, but the main interest 
consists in concerted effort on the larger 
scale toward bringing to bear general 
public sentiment, municipal action and 
state legislation upon the common, gen- 
eral problems which settlements meet. 
Beginning some thirty years ago agen- 



cies for the relief of poverty and dis- 
tress in our cities were organized so as 
to include the whole city in detail within 
their scope. This development, however, 
was. centrifugal, and moved in reverse 
direction from that by which the work of 
the different settlements is becoming co- 
ordinated. The central charitable so- 
cieties found it necessary for the sake 
of economy and of greater strength to 
district the city and to organize in each 
of the districts a local alliance of forces 
which should ?.n its turn be as inclusive 
as was the general alliance in which 
the scheme centered, and with whkh it 
began. 

The combination of forces among the 
settlements begins from the local dis- 
tricts and works toward a central fed- 
erated unity. The prime reason for this 
is the fact that the settlement is engaged 
in recovering for the city the idea of the 
neighborhood. This suggests the set- 
tlement's reason for existence and carries 
with it the settlement's most distinct and 
compelling aim. Not only the planting 
of a settlement but all its early stages of 
growth must have to do above all with 
securing the confidence and all-around 
co-operation of the local neighbors. It 
is hardly conceivable that any settlement 
or group of settlements should be es- 
tablished to head toward some large 
scheme for the city as a whole before 
patiently going through the stage during 
which a full knowledge of local condi- 
tions is gained and the social initiative 
of local people to some extent elicited. 
Above all other forms of social effort 
this sort must be as little as possible gal- 
vanized from without and as much as 
possible a vital unfolding from within. 

T . . M Another consideration 

The Impor- . , 

tance of which shows that settle- 
Local Effort. ment wQrk must alwayg fo _ 

cus in the local district is that it seeks 
a comprehensive and complete scheme of 
human betterment, which can be worked 
out only by small community units. It 
strives not only for the all-around build- 
ing up of personal and family life and for 
detailed district sanitation and moraliza- 
tion, but for that development of local 
social welfare which can come only 
through social unity among the people 



228 



Charities and The Commons 



themselves. The settlement seeks to 
bring members of as many different so- 
cial classes as possible into a common 
varied intercourse and co-operation. It 
particularly contrives how to bring into 
working relations persons of different 
nationalities and religions who live all 
about the settlement. Such close-range 
service is so involved with the funda- 
mental problems that in large part de- 
termine the positive upbuilding of the 
bone and sinew of our industrial and 
political citizenship that the settlements 
must never be expected to relax their in- 
tense and fundamental hold upon local 
neighborhood life. 

It is obvious, therefore, that in the ex- 
pansion of settlements so as to fill out 
a broad program for an entire city, the 
settlements must follow their own di- 
rection of expansion and must retain un- 
confused their own essential quality and 
character. This being understood, there 
is every reason for hoping that in cities 
where settlement work has made con- 
siderable headway there should be or- 
ganized movements on the one hand to 
fill in what is lacking in the way of set- 
tlement or other similar centers in neigh- 
borhoods where civic initiative is at low 
ebb, and on the other for a general com- 
bination of settlement forces not merely 
for fellowship and conference but for 
large plans of aggressive action. This 
broader formation is indeed required by 
the local work itself. Some of the needs 
which confront the settlement can be 
met by going around the corner and 
dealing at first hand with some humble 
individual. Other needs expressing 
themselves insistently under the eye of 
the settlement worker can be dealt with 
only by going to the City Hall or perhaps 
to the State House. 

^/^ESZZ^The more realistic and more 

Combination . . . . 

Essential for human influence in munici- 

Leglslatlon. pal r tf om whkh has be _ 

come apparent during the past six or 
eight years owes much to settlement 
work; and further movement in this 
same direction is waiting for the parti- 
cipation of a collective body of settlement 



workers in an effort to influence the city 
to undertake larger responsibilities in the 
way of comprehensively meeting human 
needs, particularly in those sections 
where the struggle of life is most severe. 
The settlement spirit has made its con- 
tribution to the new point of view of 
human service in the various professions 
and callings ; to the new conception of 
social organization of the personnel of 
the factory and the store; and to the 
larger scheme of responsibility which is 
being assumed by most of the city 
churches. A general settlement organi- 
zation can more fully influence and be 
influenced by all such tendencies. It can 
more surely be in reciprocal touch with 
the larger measures for political and 
moral reform, with the labor movement 
and with the various aspects of social 
unrest. At present there are individual 
settlements which undertake systemati- 
cally to be in connection and in co-opera- 
tion with all these outcroppings of the 
larger social life of the city ; but so great 
a responsibility is likely to overload the 
local settlement and weaken it for meet- 
ing its own neighborhood opportunity. 
Combination is essential when settle- 
ments are confronted with numerous and 
urgent necessities in the way of just and 
timely legislation. Individual settle- 
ments, spurred by the cruel withholding 
of the opportunities of life from the chil- 
dren of their neighborhoods, have thrown 
large measures of strength into the move- 
ment for abolishing child labor, and into 
the positive correlative of that move- 
ment which is leading toward a com- 
prehensive system of industrial education. 
There should be in all our states a fed- 
eration like the Massachusetts Civic 
League, including local social workers of 
all sorts throughout the state, in city and 
town and village, which would secure to 
each local agency all the values that 
come from free interchange, and would 
center the combined intelligence and mo- 
tive of this large, well-marshalled body 
upon the problem of creating a system of 
laws fitting and appropriate to the actual, 
contemporary issues of life. 



The Nationalization of Civic Improvement 



229 



A Nation This lo S ic ma Y even be 

Organized for continued so as to include 

Righteousness. ^ ^^ ^ & ^^ M 

every stage in this expansion of the set- 
tlement, the settlement may, and some 
of us hope it will, lose one by one its 
functions and finally perhaps it may part 
with its identity. If in any such way 
there can be spread the infection of that 
noble ideal of "the nation organized for 
righteousness," such a loss would be 
abundantly repaid. It is cheerful to note 
in this connection that during the past 
few years the national administration 
has taken remarkable steps in the way of 
applying to the whole life of the coun- 
try those standards of wholesome family 
life, unaffected human intercourse, and 
progressively just dealings in daily af- 
fairs between man and man, for which 
the settlements in their little neighbor- 
hoods have been persistently striving. 

Not long ago a banker, inveighing 
against what he considered the fatuity 



of some part of the president's policy, 
said, "I cannot see that he has ever had 
any business training whatever. His 
only experience has been that of a kind 
of philanthropic work." It certainly is 
a matter of keen interest to all social 
workers that the president had an indis- 
pensable part of his preparation for his 
office in meeting at first hand the prob- 
lems of life throughout all the crowded 
quarters of a great city. It may prove 
to have been not the least point of dis- 
tinction in Mr. Roosevelt's administration 
that he was above all a typically neigh- 
borly person; that within his hospitable 
reach he included all sorts and conditions 
of men, women and children throughout 
the length and breadth of the country; 
that even his state papers have to every 
citizen a certain flavor of local acquain- 
tanceship; and that for the first time in 
recent history the whole nation has been 
held as it were in the bounds of a single 
great neighborhood. 



TKe Nationalization of Civic Improvement 

J. Horace McFarland 
President American Civic Association 



[As master printer, naturalist and citizen, the influence of Mr. 
McFarland Has been thrown consistently toward what mahes for 
the beautiful in workmanship and in urban conditions. He has 
been a prominent factor in bringing about the merging of the 
organizations forming the American Civic Association.] 



About five years ago, 
when a concrete plan of 
improvement for the city 
in which I live began to 
be talked of, an effort was 
made to see what had been 
done in other cities, and to 
find, if possible, some na- 
tional source of informa- 
tion along the various lines 
involved in the projected 
improvements. By writ- 
ing to the city authorities 
and sometimes waiting 
two to six weeks for an 
answer, a rather unimport- 
ant but certainly volumin- 
ous mass of information 
was received. Little of it was up-to- 
date; none of it was co-ordinated; and 
in some cases our requests for informa- 




J. Horace McFarland 



tion were treated with ab- 
solute silence. 

We came to have the 
idea in consequence of this 
experience that we had 
been selected in some way 
as a special spot for an out- 
break of the civic gospel. 
Our work was carried 
through with singular suc- 
cess as to the campaign, 
and as to the beginning of 
the actual physical efforts 
involved, we yet retained 
the idea that we were prac- 
tically alone in the feeling 
for general improvement, 
as well as in a disposition 

to execute upon that feeling. 

There soon came some demand from 

other cities for knowledge of what we 



2;o 



Charities and The Commons 



had been doing. Mindful of our own 
experience, and being at that time the 
secretary of the local municipal league, 
I answered such inquiries promptly and 
as fully as I could. Each new inquiry 
opened my eyes a little wider to the fact 
that instead of my own home town hav- 
ing been selected as the only place for 
an outbreak of improvement, we were 
simply in the focusing point of one out 
of scores and hundreds of similar move- 
ments, more or less well-directed and 
executed, and springing up without ap- 
parent reason all over the United States. 
The surplus of literature we had from 
our local campaign was soon exhausted, 
and there has been since a great demand 
for the reprinting of some of the publi- 
cations, all of which evidence the general 
interest. 

A suggestion was made to me about 
this time with relation to a connection 
with the American League for Civic Im- 
provement. Its correspondence and lit- 
erature showed that national improve- 
ment was in the air. With the appeals 
from north, south, east and west for 
help, and the desire for better things thus 
manifested, there came a feeling that it 
was time for the subject of civic im- 
provement to be considered along broad- 
er lines. I was convinced that to be 
efficiently guided such a general senti- 
ment needed to be handled by one na- 
tional organization. So I was glad to 
do what I could to help combine the 
American League of Civic Improve- 
ment and the American Park and Out- 
door Art Association. 

Our achievement in Harrisburg was 
of rather an unusual character, in that 
it represented a gathering of all the need- 
ed improvements into one propaganda 
movement. We had here no parks; 
worthy the name; we were drinking ty- 
phoid-polluted water, commingled with 
coal dust; we had no system of street 
cleaning and but few paved streets ; our 
drainage system was weak in places and 
conspicuously bad in one important part 
of the city. By the action of a few in- 
terested citizens a fund was raised with 
which expert opinions were secured upon 
our needs and upon possible remedies 
of the ills which beset us, these opinions 



being discussed and found practical of 
adoption as a course of action. Another 
fund was raised in order to educate the 
whole people of the town to the sup- 
port of the necessary loan for carrying 
out the whole scheme. The campaign 
thus instituted was short, sharp and 
spectacular, and aroused much enthusi- 
asm in the city and considerable interest 
in nearby places. It was successful, and 
the improvements were promptly begun. 
It is only incidental to the story to say 
that they have proceeded so far with 
gratifying success. There has been only 
one notable variation from the promises 
made to the people. We have not had 
to raise the taxes as expected because 
the feeling of prosperity which followed 
the institution of this work has set 
the town afire for all manner of advancing 
effort, with the result of increasing valu- 
ations, so that a material higher tax rate 
has not been required. 

I only mention this instance in order 
that I may trace the spread of a great 
interest in like improvements. First, 
one city wanted to know how this thing 
was done; the same lantern slides and 
much the same talk was found to be effi- 
cient in arousing another town ; then 
another city was interested; and in due 
course the story has been told from St. 
Louis, in the west, to Portland, Maine, 
in the east; and from Toronto in the 
north, to Richmond, in the south. 

Each place thus touched has itself be- 
come a local center of improvement ef- 
fort. The effort has not always been 
efficient, but it has always started the 
growth of what I may term the civic 
bacillus, and I know now of no instance 
in which that bacillus, once getting into 
the veins of a community, has been en- 
tirely killed. Indeed I know of no 
remedy for it, I am glad to say! Even 
personal partisan politics, applied by way 
of graft-seeking office-holders, will not 
more than deaden the civic impulse. 

But while these cities were "taking no- 
tice," scores and hundreds of smaller 
communities were inquiring. They still 
continue to inquire, and the questions 
are diverse in details, but one in impulse 
From settled old Massachusetts, to new- 
ly-born Oklahoma; from the wide reach- 



The Nationalization of Civic Improvement 



23 



es of Florida and Texas to the lumber 
camps of Michigan, the inquiries come, 
and every inquiry means the same thing 
— the desire for better and more beauti- 
ful living conditions. 

There is a vast difference in the detail 
of these inquiries, as I have indicated. 
Within a week I have been asked to en- 
courage a little town in New Mexico in 
its endeavor to keep the hogs and do- 
mestic animals off the streets, as a pre- 
liminary for street cleaning and park 
improvements, while at the same time 
answering a query for information as to 
the establishment of swimming pools 
from an Indiana city. In a Missouri 
town a woman wants to know how she 
can get rid of objectionable and unneces- 
sary fences, erected from an ulterior mo- 
tive by a neighbor who is but new in the 
country; while a broad movement for 
the reduction of the billboard nuisance 
is springing into life in the east. In 
fact a great railroad asks advice as to 
how it may rid the edge of its right-of- 
way of objectionable signs; and one of 
the greatest national advertisers asks at 
nearly the same time whether I think 
it will not be good business to cut out 
billboard advertising. Every day sees 
inquiries from a half dozen or more 
states, and along all lines, showing that 
civic improvement is unquestionably a 
country-wide movement. 

Another advance is in the 
PretY Helps, treatment of these matters 

by the public press. A 
few years ago scanty attention was paid 
in a general way to movements for civic 
advance. If a town was to have filtra- 
tion or better sewers, some little local 
notice was made of it; the mutilation of 
beautiful trees by the erection of a pole 
line called for no comment or for a mere 
mention; parks were esteemed as luxu- 
ries; playgrounds were unknown; and 
school gardens were yet a dream. What 
a change there has been in the way the 
press looks on all these things ! One 
can hardly open a paper from any region 
without seeing some allusion to local or 
public improvement. The clipping 
sheets of the American Civic Associa- 
tion are availed of all over the country 



and the facilities of that Association do 
not suffice to supply one-half the infor- 
mation demanded and eagerly republish- 
ed. The newspapers have discovered play- 
grounds ; they own that parks are worth 
while ; they believe in saving trees ; they 
dislike the spread of poles; they are 
usually willing to print matter showing 
the evils of billboards. 

A few years ago the great magazines 
had little to do with matters of civic 
improvement. Again what a change! 
One magazine of enormous national cir- 
culation has devoted a page to beautiful 
America for three years, and had philan- 
thropically expended large sums of 
money in prizes to foster the removal 
of objectionable billboards and the im- 
provement of home surroundings. Other 
important periodicals are printing arti- 
cles upon parks and upon the advances 
in governmental conditions in our cities 
and towns, upon the rights of the people 
in respect to fresh air and attractive 
streets. They are comparing us with 
Europe and South America, and every 
other place from which information and 
inspiration can be drawn. 

Moreover, newspapers have them- 
selves taken up definite campaigns. In 
Seattle, for instance, the Post-Intelli- 
gencer has caused the cleaning up of the 
city, and created a vastly hotter senti- 
ment in respect to all matters affecting 
the people as a whole. In Framingham, 
Massachusetts, a local weekly has main- 
tained for several years a department de- 
voted to the intimate civic interests of 
the town. 

The Spirit * nave n0t answere< ^ the 

Behind the question how civic improve- 
Growth. ment h as become a coun- 
try-wide movement. Frankly, I cannot 
answer it, except to voice my own belief, 
which is that in the fulness of time 
God has put it -into the hearts of our 
American citizens in the forefront of 
Christian civilization, to make the habita- 
tions of men more cleanly, more sightly, 
and more comfortable; to act for all the 
people in unselfishness rather than for 
the individual in selfishness ; to endeavor 
in some sense to give us here on earth 
in our urban habitations conditions at 



When Civic Righteousness Gets to be " Good Copy 



m%mm\^,^$y Chicago Experts Warn Detroit 



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Clnb oJ Abnaea ; 
Present Sjstem. 



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M«y [PLATFORM OF THE MUNICIPAL VOTERJS' LEAGui 1906. 



For Key see page 234 



THe Stirring Co-operation of tKe American Press 




For Key see page 234 



2 34 



Charities and The Commons 



least approximating those of the beau- 
tiful wild into which our forefathers came 
a few generations ago. 

Just this same intangible but no less 
effective spirit, it seems to me, has caused 
the country to rally to the defense of the 
great natural beauties which in times 
past have been assailed by commercial- 
ism without exciting any more than pass- 
ing comment. Both the Republican and 
Democratic conventions in the state of 
New York, while nominating personali- 
ties as different as oil and water for the 
great office of governor of the Empire 
State, yet practically united in a strong 
statement that Niagara must be pre- 
served. The forestry movement is no 
longer a possibility ; it is an actuality. 
The assault on the White Mountains has 
reached its maximum, and I believe the 
people will soon assume their own in that 
natural resource for health and beauty. 
All over the country there is this same 
spirit present. I have not seen a more 
striking evidence of it than occurred a 
few days ago locally, where in the case 
of preparation for a great spectacular 
event, those charged with the financing 
of the city's display refused to accept 
an opportunity offered to make $500 
from the erection of a grand-stand in 
a place which would even slightly inter- 



fere with the beauty of a park develop- 
ment of the city. It seems to me that 
this refusal was significant of a total 
change of sentiment, for the men who 
made the objection to the grand-stand 
were among those known as hard-headed 
financiers, who are usually considered 
to esteem the dollar as paramount. 

I cannot, in conclusion, have any other 
feeling than that the next five years is to 
witness a vast development of this al- 
ready national tendency toward improve- 
ment. There is no reason why the citi- 
zen of Oshkosh, Wisconsin, should not 
have as comfortable park facilities as the 
citizen of Boston, Massachusetts, and he 
is likely to demand such facilities, It 
has been found that improvements pay 
financially as well as morally. With the 
firmly-rooted conviction that there is a 
definite purpose over all this, I look to 
see so great a change within the time 
mentioned as cannot appear other than 
marvelous. This improvement will be 
advanced more rapidly, just as the indi- 
viduals who have the feeling act upon it 
more promptly and more efficiently. That 
they may so act, and that America may 
be the most beautiful country in the 
world, as it is the most progressive, is 
the reason for the effort that is being 
put forth by many earnest workers. 



Key to Page 232 

1. Record-Herald — Chicago City Club. 

2. Argus-Leader — Sioux Falls, S. D., National Municipal League. 

3. Chronicle — Chicago, Chicago City Club. 

4. Times — Detroit, Detroit Municipal League. 

5. Times — New York City, National Municipal League. 

6. Tribune — Chicago, Chicago City Club. 

7. Herald — Boston, Massachusetts Civic League. 

8. Framingham Tribune — South Framingham, Massachusetts Civic League. 

9. Tribune — Harrisburg, Pa., American Civic Association. 

10. Press — New York City, People's Institute. 

11. News-Letter — Seattle, Washington, American Civic Association. 

12. Record-Herald — Chicago, Municipal Voters' League. 

13. Herald — New York City, People's Institute. 

14. Tribune — Chicago, Chicago City Club. 

15. North American — Philadelphia, National Municipal League. 

16. Evening Post — Chicago, American Civic Association. 

17. Times-Star — Cincinnati, American Civic Association. 

Key to Page 233 

1. Gazette — Kalamazoo, Michigan, Civic Improvement League. 

2. Evening Post- — New York City, New York City Club. 

3. News — Galveston, Texas, American Civic Association. 

4. Herald — Boston, Massachusetts Civic League. 

5. Free Press — Detroit, Municipal League. 

6. Advocate — Newark, Ohio, National Civic Association. 

7. Herald — New York City, People's Institute. 

8. Sun — Indianapolis, Ind., American Civic Association. 

9. Times — Seattle, Washington, National Municipal League. 

10. Framingham Tribune — South Framingham, Mass. Civic 

11. Telegram — Worcester, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Civic 

12. World — Toronto, American Civic Association. 

13. Journal — Richmond, Va., American Civic Association. 

14. Times— McKeesport, Pa., American Civic Association. 

15. Press- — Atlantic City, N. J., National Municipal League. 



League. 
League. 



Forces Moulding tHe City of tKe Future 

Clinton Rogers "Woodrviff 

Secretary of the National Municipal League and President of the 
Board of Registration Commissioners for Philadelphia 

[As secretary of the National Municipal League, president 
American ParK and Outdoor Art Association, secretary Ameri- 
can Civic Association, counsel of the Philadelphia Municipal 
League, secretary of the Public Education Association, special 
Indian Commissioner, member for two terms of the Pennsylvania 
Legislature, author of the personal registration amendment 
to the Pennsylvania Constitution, and in many other ca- 
pacities, Mr. Woodruff has been a leader in giving national 
scope and co-ordination to the civic movement. 1 



''Hundreds of people," 

Ruskin says in his Modern 

Painters, "can talk for one 

who can think, but thou- 
sands can think for one 

who can see." How many 

of those who are thinking 

and planning for the city 

of the present, of the next 

year or two, can see the city 

of the future, of the next 

generation, of the next 

century. Very few indeed 

if Ruskin is right, as I be- 
lieve he is. And yet how 

are we to discuss the forces 

that are to mold the city 

of the future unless we 
have a prevision of that city? 
can see whither present forces are tend- 
ing? 

Perhaps we can best forecast the city 
of the future by considering the forces 
that are now operating in that direction : 
by considering those which have created 
the city of the present and are still at 
work. As I declared in an address some 
years ago, "Human problems ever seem 
to be full of paradoxes, until you con- 
strue paradox to mean reciprocal. " The 
city of the future depends upon the 
forces now at work, and the forces now 
at work depend upon our conception of 
the future. This sounds paradoxical 
until we construe it to mean reciprocal 
and then we have comparatively clear 
sailing. 

The most patent single factor now at 
work in molding our municipal life and 
welfare is the movement toward de- 
mocracy. In every direction we see 
manifestations of this tendency. No- 
where has the situation been more ade- 

2 35 




Clinton Kogers Woodruff 

Unless we 



quately and effectively 
summed up than in^a. re- 
cent article in The Outlook 
on The Trend Toward a 
Pure Democracy, by Philip 
Loring Allen, one of the 
editors of the New York 
Evening Post. In this ar- 
ticle Mr. Allen points out 
that "with the development, 
or better, resuscitation, of 
a sound, informed and vigi- 
lant public opinion in this 
country, as manifested in 
many victories over privi- 
lege in the very recent past, 
there have been developed 
new agencies for the ex- 
pression of that same public opinion. The 
people are assuming more direct control 
than ever before of our public affairs. 
The referendum, the initiative, the recall, 
the neighborhood town meeting, the de- 
mand for the popular election of senators, 
the unprecedented growth of independent 
voting, and ballot reform may properly 
be considered as merely different aspects 
of a larger tendency which is bringing 
this nation, even while it grows in size, 
closer to the conditions of a pure de- 
mocracy." 

This force is more actively and more ef- 
fectively at work in our cities than in any 
other part of our body politic. The fight 
of the past two decades has been to break 
down the barriers which have protected 
certain privileged classes and kept the 
people from their own. Political ma- 
chines as we have known them will be 
difficult if not impossible of construc- 
tion and certainly of maintenance in a 
true democracy. Our neople are 
coming to see and appreciate this and no 



236 



Charities and The Commons 



small part of the strength of the demo- 
cratic movement is due to that appre- 
ciation. 

Hand in hand with this democratic 
tendency in our municipal life has gone 
a demand for efficiency in administra- 
tion. Good government and democratic 
government have not always been syn- 
onymous terms. Walter L. Fisher 
boldly declared several years ago that 
Chicago could wait a few years for im- 
proved street car service until the people 
had settled the question as to who was 
going to determine the conditions of the 
settlement. In other words, that effici- 
ency could wait on democracy. 

Chicago seems to have settled that 
question. In her legislative depart- 
ment, at least, the people have as- 
serted and established their rights and 
now the question of efficiency is being 
considered with a substantial assurance 
that it will be determined from the stand- 
point of the people's welfare. 

The numerous good government clubs, 
citizens' associations and law enforce- 
ment societies which have multiplied so 
rapidly of late have been and are inter- 
ested primarily in efficient government. 
Their first insistence has been upon an 
honest enforcement and administration 
of the law and in this they have done 
and are doing a notable work — but of 
necessity their influence and value are 
likely to be temporary, except as they 
tend toward the creation of honest mu- 
nicipal habits on the part of the offi- 
cials and electors. 

The striking work of the Citizens' 
Association of Chicago in unearthing 
official malfeasance on the part of court 
clerks is to be highly commended — but 
to be fully effective it must make a 
repetition of such practices difficult, and 
eventually impossible. So with the work 
of the Law and Order Society of Phil- 
adelphia, which for years has success- 
fully supervised the enforcement of the 
license laws in that city. The saloon 
keepers obey the law, but the "speak 
easy" keeper has continued his nefari- 
ous practices of illicitly supplying li- 
quor to his friends and neighbors, "ac- 
commodating his friends with a little 
liquor," as one ward leader described 
the practice. While the Law and Or- 
der Society may from time to time 



convict, his is a matter of police ad- 
ministration. When that is lax he 
flourishes; when that is strong and 
vigorous he disappears. The police 
are lax or vigorous as public sentiment 
is lax and quiescent or vigorous and 
militant. 

The democratic movement would be 
without promise if it were not accom- 
panied by the increasing demand for ef- 
ficiency and the spread of education. 

Growth of Education in many re- 
Educationai spects is the greatest fac- 

ovements. ^ ma kj n g f Qr a f u t ure 

city in which the rights, privileges and 
comforts of the whole people will be 
deliberately and intelligently cared for ; 
democracy without education is dan- 
gerous and futile. Democracy and ed- 
ucation will make for a regenerated civ- 
ilization. 

Since 1894 the number of organiza- 
tions dealing with municipal questions 
has multiplied many times. Then there 
were less than fifty, now there are 
1,054. Then they were confined to a 
few communities ; now every city and 
town has one, and if we include the im- 
provement societies, we may say with 
truth, every town, village and hamlet, 
for there are over 2,000 improvement 
societies in the United States at the 
present time. 
, When I think of what some of these 
local municipal leagues, associations 
and societies have accomplished in the 
way of arousing public sentiment, edu- 
cating workers and carrying forward 
an active propaganda, I am filled with 
courage and high hope as to the future. 

It is no slight accomplishment that 
so many men and women of intelli- 
gence and public spirit have banded 
themselves together to advance the 
common weal. It is most significant, 
alike of the present and the future that 
business bodies like the Merchants' As- 
sociations of New York, Chicago, and 
San Francisco, to mention three typi- 
cal instances, are devoting their time, 
energies and splendid talents to a con- 
sideration of municipal problems. 

Universities, colleges and high 
schools have taken up the question. 
They are giving courses in civics and 
municipal governments. They are af- 
fording their students abundant oppor- 



Forces Moulding the City of the Future 



237 



tunities to come in contact with inspir- 
ing movements and their leaders, so 
that they may be quickened and edu- 
cated. The rapid adoption of such a 
book as Charles D. Willard's City Gov- 
ernment for Young People, is a straw 
indicating the direction of the current. 

President Hadley of Yale believes 
that the people can only be saved by 
the educational process. If that be so, 
then the American people are in the 
way of salvation, because never has the 
educational process been more gener- 
ally and effectively maintained. 

Americans are being educated by 
events, by disclosures, and the persist- 
ent propaganda of the numerous mu- 
nicipal organizations. Young Ameri- 
cans are being educated at their desks 
and on every side by concrete illustra- 
tions. They are mightily influenced 
by the example of strong men and true, 
who are giving of their lives and tal- 
ents to the salvation of our American 
cities. The niches for civic heroes are 
being rapidly filled to the consequent 
development of a sounder public con- 
science. 

President Eliot of Har- 
vard described in an ad- 
dress before the National 
Municipal League, another factor 
making for a regenerated city : 

The movement which this league leads 
has been greatly strengthened by the devel- 
opment in the last ten or fifteen years of the 
social sense, as it stands opposite or over 
against the individual right — what we used 
to call the individual right. Those rights 
are undoubtedly diminishing in number and 
are always subject to new restrictions. Nec- 
essarily so, because we have learned that 
the exercise of what we used to regard as 
unquestionable individual rights becomes a 
serious injury to society at large, so serious 
that it must be checked by legal, efficient 
methods. 

When a man comes into a street of good 
houses and puts up a twenty-story building, 
he is within the exercise of his right as we 
used to understand it, but he is exercising 
a right that nobody ought to oxercise with- 
out restraint in a civilized community. 
Every city owes it to itself to regulate the 
height of buildings by the width of the 
street, as is universally done in the good 
cities of Europe. I mention these facts be- 
cause they seem to me to give what might 
be called a physical or material support to 
the efforts of this league. They are sure to 
make city populations more and more 



Laws for 

the Social 

Welfare. 



anxious for the sound, business-like, safe 
administrations of the great agencies on 
which the comfort of these urban communi- 
ties depends. 

Our cities are coming to recognize 
that the rights of the community are 
higher and more important than those 
of the individual. That the highest 
interests of the latter are best sub- 
served through a cultivation, protec- 
tion and enforcement of the rights and 
interests of the former. So we find 
laws and ordinances in increasing num- 
bers regulating the height and con- 
struction of buildings, still others re- 
quiring the widening of streets, pre- 
scribing the methods for the removal 
of refuse of all kinds, and forbidding 
the use of soft coal. All of which fifty 
or one hundred years, nay, twenty-five 
years ago, would have been considered 
an unwarranted interference with per- 
sonal liberty. 

I trust I may, in conclusion, refer 
without immodesty to certain concrete 
factors that may be legitimately con- 
sidered as factors molding the city of 
the future: The National Municipal 
League and the American Civic Asso- 
ciation. 

These two bodies composed of pub- 
lic-spirited citizens and officials, are de- 
voting their energies and abilities not 
only to a solution of existing problems 
but to such a solution as will yield the 
largest measure of beneficent results 
for the present and future. They are 
conducting an active educational prop- 
aganda that is creating a new sense of 
public responsibility and duty. They 
are training workers who in their re- 
spective localities form the nuclei 
around which constructive forces are 
forming. They are strengthening and 
solidifying the public sentiment which 
makes for progress and righteousness. 

The one dealing with political and 
administrative problems, the other with 
improvement questions, each supple- 
ments the other. The city of the fu- 
ture, enlarged, ennobled, glorified — 
this is what each is working for, 
through efforts directed toward mak- 
ing the city of to-day, a better, cleaner, 
healthier and more desirable place in 
which to live. 




From tKe Mayor's Point of View 

The City Official and Volunteer Organizations 

David P. Jones 
Mayor of Minneapolis 

Mayor Jones stepped into power when the notorious Mayor Ames fled the 
city. He stood for election on the issue of moral cleanliness and driving out 
corrupt alliances with vice. Although himself a business man he found his worst 
enemies in business interests which believed that a more or less "wide open" 
town was necessary for trade. These joined hands with both political machines 
to down him. It is significant that he was elected by the workingman vote on 
a platform of "keeping the lid down." Mayor Jones is at present engaged in a 
hard=fought campaign upon the same lines. 



The great progress made along the 
lines of civic betterment during the past 
few years leaves no room for doubt as to 
the great value of the co-operation of vol- 
unteer civic organizations with city offi- 

238 



cials in checking the influence of all spe- 
cial interests inimical to public welfare. 
These organizations of whatever sort and 
to whatever end, have served a double 
purpose in bringing about better munici- 



From the Mayor's Point of View 



39 



pal conditions — they have first helped to 
create an atmosphere which has encour- 
aged individuals bent on reforms to enter 
the field of public service, and have then 
upheld the hands of those individuals af- 
ter they have achieved official responsi- 
bility. 

Take, for instance, the work of the 
voters' leagues in various cities, notably 
in Chicago and Minneapolis. They have 
accomplished marvels in the short time in 
which they have been in existence by es- 
tablishing a higher standard of official 
performance, and aiding men of the right 
type to live up to that standard after 
they have been elected. They have also 
drawn the attention of an indifferent but 
really vitally interested public to the ad- 
vantages of clean government as well as 
to the menace of administration con- 
trolled by selfish or corrupt influences ; 
and in the field of actual achievement 
have proved an invaluable aid to and a 
growing force for permanent reform. It 
is not always possible for an official serv- 
ing in either an executive or legislative 
capacity in a city government, to seek 
out the hidden motives, the selfish pur- 
poses and the dominating influences be- 
hind certain measures on their face harm- 
less and well intended. Such an official 
is often too close to the scene of action 
to get the right moral perspective, no 
matter how honest his own purposes or 
how high his own ideals ; but with the 
aid of an independent, fearless, non-par- 
tizan organization, standing on the plat- 
form of the best interests of the whole 
community, he is enabled to see the drift 
of things more clearly and to govern his 
acts accordingly. 

Such organizations as tax payers' 
leagues, organized primarily along busi- 
ness and economic lines and making little 
pretense of devotion to abstract ideals in 
city organization, also aid very materi- 
ally in checking the inroads of selfish spe- 
cial interests. Too often the taxpaying 
citizen remains apathetic toward corrup- 
tion in municipal affairs until he has his 
attention called to the fact that his own 
pocketbook is menaced. Then he wakes 
up to protect his own rights purely for 
selfish reasons, and before he realizes it 
he is enlisted for the whole warfare 



against special privilege with all the 
demoralization that the term implies. 

Again, the civic organizations directed 
toward bettering the purely moral condi- 
tions in a great city — home protection 
leagues and the like — are but another 
factor in the fight to restrict special priv- 
ileges. For the traps and pitfalls that 
beset the path of the young in our cities 
are but the outgrowth of the struggle of 
certain interests to gain special privileges 
for themselves outside the law. A recent 
instance in a western city illustrates the 
value of this sort of work. A free and 
easy municipal administration had al- 
lowed conditions to go from bad to worse 
until an organization of this sort came 
into existence and began its work of in- 
vestigation and of protest. Very little 
was actually accomplished during the life 
of the administration in question but a 
certain moral sentiment was created in 
the community which developed until in 
the next election a radical and beneficial 
change of administration was brought 
about. 

After all, these so-called outside organ- 
izations are but the crystallization of pub- 
lic sentiment which can be made effective 
in no other way in many instances. Spas- 
modic attempts at reform too often result 
in reaction, but reform based on intelli- 
gent study of conditions, of cause and 
effect, conducted in an impartial, scien- 
tific and thorough manner, is bound to 
prove lasting and wholly beneficial. 

The voluntary application of civil ser- 
vice reform in a city like Minneapolis, 
affecting only a few departments of ser- 
vice, has already discouraged the prac- 
tice of making political merchandise of 
public place ; and this in itself has had a 
salutary effect in checking the inroads of 
special interests. Given a public service 
based on efficiency and merit and the in- 
centive to cultivate powerful business or 
political influence to retain position weak- 
ens to the point of vanishing. 

The tendency of all these efforts is to 
arouse the people to a sense not only of 
their own responsibility, but to a realiza- 
tion of their rights, and the value of civic 
organizations will be enhanced as the 
public mind becomes more enlightened 
and the public conscience more sensitive. 




Brand Wliitlock 

BacKing Up an Independent Mayor 

Brand WKitlocK 

Mayor of Toledo 

"Can it be that this is the end — that with the stepping out and on of this 
one big=souled man there fades away, like an evanescent dream, the friendship 
of citizens and love of people for each other that he entwined around his own 
warm heart? Can it be that the city he builded up of brothers will dissolve to a 
shell, leaving only walls of brick resounding with the clashing interests of mere 
individual inhabitants?" — Thus it was questioned at Mayor Jones' death. The 
answer came in the campaign which made Brand Whitlock his successor, and in 
the administration of this noveIist=lawyer=humanitarian." 

Toledo's experience in the develop- unique personality — Samuel M. Jones, 

ment of higher civic ideals has been There has been no formal organization 

unique, because for many years the of voters such as other cities have 

dominating influence was that of a known ; there has been no endorsement 

240 



Backing Up an Independent Mayor 



241 



of "good candidates" ; nothing in the 
way of what I may be pardoned for call- 
ing professional reform. Mayor Jones 
lived and worked here ; lived not accord- 
ing to precepts but after an ideal, and 
that ideal was one of conduct. It was 
one which guided him continually in his 
effort to realize the highest type of man- 
hood in himself, one which led him to 
strive always to see that his attitude 
toward everyone was that of a brother; 
always consistently, almost naively, he 
lived this life and by his example he 
taught great lessons. There was never 
anything patronizing in him, never any- 
thing superior, nothing of the doctrin- 
aire or dilettante. He made no appeal 
to the good citizens of the city ; he made 
no appeal to the "better element" ; time 
and time again he said that he did not 
believe there was any better element; to 
him all men were good. His appeal was 
to "all the people." Over and over 
again he said this in his speeches, and 
always he lived it in his life. Those 
who have had the pleasure of hearing 
him speak have heard him say this, and 
may recall the smile that was on his 
lips and the inclusive gesture of his 
arms when, bending forward he would 
say, "I believe in all the people" ; and 
then pointing suddenly to someone in 
the crowd, no matter who it might hap- 
pen to be, he would add, "I believe in 
you!" Consequently, in his great work 
for reform, a work that in the first place 
freed the citizens of Toledo from the 
superstitions of party politics, an organ- 
ization of so-called good men or better 
men going about in a patronizing way 
to teach others how to be good, and to 
tell them how to discharge their duties 
as citizens by voting for this man and 
scratching that man, would have been 
absurd, as in essentials it is absurd any- 
where and eA^erywhere. 

The inde- Hence, so far as I know, 
Movement n o formal voluntary or- 
in Toledo. jp-anization was ever at- 
tempted in this city, and none was 
needed. Four times "all the people," 
or at least most of the people, voted for 
Sam Jones for mayor and elected him 
as against candidates of the old parties. 
In this way a free, American, democratic 



spirit was developed in Toledo, a spirit 
that was so big and so fine that it could 
not dwarf itself sufficiently to go into 
the narrow limits of an "organization." 
The people of Toledo began to see that 
they could realize their own personality, 
and that they could realize the person- 
ality of the city. They began to express 
themselves. The result was that Toledo 
is perhaps more typical of what demo- 
cratic America stands for than any other 
city. 

On two occasions when the council 
was about to pass an ordinance granting 
to a street railway company franchises 
of which the people did not approve, 
they went to the council in a body — that 
is to say, large numbers of earnest, 
sober men went to the council in a body 
and without violence but with quiet de- 
termination prevented the council from 
passing the ordinance they did not want. 
It was a new kind of referendum ; per- 
haps I might say a "preferendum" ; if 
there is not such a word, there ought to 
be to describe such a democratic action 
as this was. 

This fall in Toledo they are trying 
to elect non-partisan judges, and the 
spirit of Jones is still alive. 

This free American spirit, developed 
by Jones, has found expression latterly 
in what is loosely called "the independ- 
ent movement", and this "independent 
movement" might perhaps be called the 
voluntary work of a civic organization, 
if it were not so big. It is not an or- 
ganization in the sense of having a 
president and corresponding and record- 
ing secretaries, treasurer, and all that, 
but it is a spontaneous coherence of men 
who believe that the work of building 
up and improving a modern American 
city can best be done outside of national 
parties. 

women's The women of Toledo, 
'"civic" however, through such or- 
Betterment. ganizations as the Feder- 
ation of Women's Clubs and the Coun- 
cil of Women have done much to lift 
and advance pure civic ideals. The 
women were largely instrumental in 
bringing about the passage of a law 
which gave to Toledo a juvenile court, 
and they have also organized among the 



242 



Charities and The Commons 



school children a Junior Civic League, 
and have done much toward inculcating 
in the minds of the children, at least, 
higher conceptions of what a city should 
be in its material expression. Then 
there is John Gunckel's wonderful 
Newsboys' Association, training the boys 
in self government. These big leagues 
of little folk have been helpful in secur- 
ing cleaner streets and alleys, and gener- 
ally in beautifying the yards about the 
homes of citizens. The women were 
also an important factor in creating a 
sentiment favoring the abolition of the 
smoke nuisance, a reform which the city 
is now trying, already with some suc- 
cess, to work out. These are some of 
the things the women and children have 
done through organization, but of 
course, as I have said, there have been 
no voluntary civic organizations of men ; 
they have voted ; that is all, and that is 
enough. 

The work of all such organizations is 
valuable, even where material results 
seem to be meager. The law is always 
at work and no effort is lost, so that 
even an impulse towards civic better- 



ment bears its fruit. The influence of 
public sentiment in helping an official 
to accomplish good things is incalculable. 
As a matter of fact, no official, however 
good his motive, however strong his 
purpose and personality may be, can ac- 
complish much unless he has back of 
him the support of a big public spirit. 
It is the growth of this public spirit 
that is to solve the problems that are 
perplexing us in our American cities. 
This public spirit is simply another word 
for democracy, and as the cities are the 
hope of democracy, so the problems are 
there to be worked out. 

The people of Toledo have found the 
organization provided by the constitution 
and laws sufficient for them to make a 
great start in the way of upbuilding, and 
where this public democratic spirit is 
alive and abroad — in a word, wherever 
there is a city sense and a yearning for 
the common weal, the organization of 
the cities themselves, amended and per- 
fected in such wise as experience may 
show to be necessary, will bring to pass 
more than we as yet have dreamed of in 
our cities. 



State-Wide Civic Movements 

Delos F. 'Wilcox 
Secretary Detroit Municipal League 



A few years ago when circuit attor- 
ney Joseph W. Folk was prosecuting 
the St. Louis boodlers, he made an im- 
portant discovery. He found that it 
was impossible to search out and pun- 
ish the corruption in a great city with- 
out tracking it to the state capitol. This 
discovery was made known to the peo- 
ple of the United States through Mr. 
Steffens' articles in McClure's. It forms 
the key to the literature of 'The Sys- 
tem." 

Mr. Folk found that to succeed he 
must carry his campaign into the state 
of Missouri and appeal to all of the 
people to rally to the watchword, 
"Graft is Treason." Mr. Folk's dis- 
covery was not strictly new. It re- 
vealed, so to speak, the obverse side of 
the municipal home rule movement 



which has for several decades com- 
manded the attention of many students 
of civic affairs. In New York, half a 
century ago, the better element was 
frequently appealing to the state legis- 
lature for metropolitan bills to save the 
city from the political pirates chosen 
by itself. The minority in the city 
looked to the majority in the state to 
enforce municipal reforms and take 
away the power of local bosses. This 
short-cut method of obtaining munici- 
pal reform proved disastrous in many 
ways. It relieved the people of the zity 
of the responsibility for cleaning up 
their own affairs, engendered a spirit of 
resentment among the citizens of the 
city against the interference of the 
state government in matters which 
they considered purely local and helped 



State-Wide Civic Movements 



243 



to build up a powerful and corrupt po- 
litical organization holding not only the 
city but also the state in its grip. 

Mr. Folk found that through an alli- 
ance of a corrupt local machine with a 
corrupt state machine, the St. Louis 
grafters had become so entrenched that 
they could not be dislodged by a purely 
local revolution. They had come prac- 
tically to own the Supreme Court of 
the state and the various branches of 
the state government. Although Mis- 
souri nominally has a system of mu- 
nicipal home rule by which the great 
cities of the state are enabled to draft 
and adopt their own charters, the fram- 
ers of the state constitution of 1875 
were careful to reserve to the state leg- 
islature sufficient power practically to 
nullify the home rule guarantees. The 
result was that although St. Louis and 
Kansas City adopted home rule char- 
ters many years ago, their affairs have 
been subject to almost absolute con- 
trol by the state legislature through the 
medium of so-called "general" legisla- 
tion. In other words home rule in Mis- 
souri has been a good deal of a farce. 
The grafters had entrenched them- 
selves in control of the government of 
St. Louis not only by carrying local 
elections, but also by the choice of 
state officials and judges representing 
their interests and the passage of laws 
by the legislature binding the city to 
the state. It became necessary for Mr. 
Folk as the leader of the forces of re- 
form to follow the example of the graf- 
ters, and, having carried a local elec- 
tion, reach out to dislodge their power 
in the state. 

Home Rule There haS COme *? . be a 

and Uniform widespread recognition of 

Legislation. ^ ^ ^ & ^ mder 

our present systems of laws and politi- 
cal organization cannot work out its 
own salvation alone. Reforms started 
at home are checked or thwarted either 
by barriers to local freedom, which al- 
ready exist, or by restrictions secured 
through the influence of the interests 
against which the reforms are directed. 
The result has been a state-wide move- 
ment in two directions. On the one 
hand, the cities have found themselves 



forced to co-operate in a movement to 
guarantee municipal home rule or local 
independence of state politics. This 
movement is widespread and strong. 
In California, Oregon, Washington, 
Colorado and to a certain extent in 
Minnesota, genuine guarantees of mu- 
nicipal home rule have been embedded 
in the state constitutions. This move- 
ment received an impetus in Ohio four 
years ago when through a sweeping de- 
cision of the Supreme Court, all of the 
separate charters of Ohio cities were 
wiped off the slate and the leg'slature 
was required to enact a uniform law 
governing all the cities of the state. 
The sort of home rule formerly exist- 
ing by the grace of the general assem- 
bly was taken away. Each individual 
city had been permitted to have 
a charter to suit itself except in cases 
where it seemed to the interest of the 
dominant party in the legislature to 
overrule local preferences. The result 
has been a quickening and strengthen- 
ing of the demand for home rule under 
constitutional guarantees. 

The other direction in which the co- 
operation of municipalities has mani- 
fested itself is in an effort to secure uni- 
form remedial legislation. Specific 
measures of general application, not in- 
consistent with the principles of mu- 
nicipal home rule, are laws for uniform 
municipal accounting, direct nomina- 
tions of candidates, and the non-parti- 
san ballot. While the sentiment for 
home rule is strong, there is a general 
recognition of the legitimate interest 
which the state at large has in the 
government of each locality. It is also 
recognized that from the standpoint of 
legal rights and the comparative study 
of municipal problems, there would be 
a great advantage in uniform city char- 
ters. The exact adjustment of the 
rights of home rule to the necessary 
principles of state control over public 
affairs has not yet been made in any 
American state. Professor Frank J. 
Goodnow, of Columbia University, 
well known for his writings on munici- 
pal law and for his work in connection 
with the National Municipal League 
and National Civic Federation, has 



244 



Charities and The Commons 



done more than any other Ameri- 
can toward the working out of this ad- 
justment in theory. To work this ad- 
justment out in practice is one of the 
chief problems beginning to appeal to 
state-wide civic interest. 

The movements organized to give 
expression to this state-wide interest 
in local problems are of several types. 

The first type to develop 
CMc U pr!de. i n an important way was 

the league of municipali- 
ties, consisting of the city officials of as 
many cities and villages in any partic- 
ular state as could be induced to co- 
operate. Leagues of this kind were 
formed several years ago in quite a 
number of the states, notably in Cali- 
fornia, Wisconsin, Iowa, Michigan and 
Pennsylvania. These leagues, as a rule, 
have an annual convention at which of- 
ficials of the various cities represented 
exchange their experiences in matters 
of practical municipal administration, 
and at which experts of state-wide or 
even national prominence present pa- 
pers and discussions of such problems 
as municipal ownership, uniform ac- 
counting, non-partisan elections, etc. 
These leagues usually have committees 
appointed to watch legislation and to 
further the reforms which the cities 
generally are agreed upon, and to de- 
feat any illegitimate attempts on the 
part of the state legislature to interfere 
with purely local issues in particular 
cities. While these leagues of munici- 
palities are made up of office-holders 
and men who are often actively en- 
gaged in politics, they are a tribute to 
the growing recognition of the fact that 
municipal government is a science by 
itself, and that a municipal office is pri- 
marily an opportunity for performing 
public service rather than a reward for 
political work done or a stepping-stone 
for higher political honors. The 

leagues of municipalities tend every- 
where to give city officials broader and 
more enlightened views of municipal 
problems and especially to arouse in 
them an interest in their work which 
has so often been lacking in municipal 
officials in the United States. Indeed 
it is probable that the most important 



effect produced by these leagues is this 
stimulation of pride in public service 
which is the first condition of improve- 
ment in municipal administration. 

Another type of organization for 
state-wide purposes is the association 
of administrative officials who are en- 
gaged in similar lines of work, as for 
example, health officers, city engineers, 
and mayors. The most conspicuous 
illustration of this particular type of 
organization within state lines is the 
organization of the mayors of Ohio 
cities which was effected less than a 
year ago. In a state like Ohio having 
a considerable number of large cities, 
no one of which dominates over all the 
rest, such an organization is more read- 
ily formed than in other states where 
the political conflict lies between a sin- 
gle great city and the state govern- 
ment. The Ohio organization was 
facilitated by the election of several in- 
dependent and reform mayors and by 
the fact that under the uniform munici- 
pal code of Ohio, all municipal legisla- 
tion is of equal interest to all of the 
cities of the state. The Ohio mayors 
got together primarily for the purpose 
of securing the right of municipal 
home rule and certain modifications of 
the general law governing the organi- 
zation of the city governments. It is 
too early to determine how effective 
this organization of mayors may be- 
come. During the last session of the 
Ohio legislature the conditions were 
unfavorable for success. The illness of 
Governor Pattison and the mixed party 
control of the general assembly pre- 
vented any radical changes in the mu- 
nicipal code. It is easy to see, how- 
ever, that if the mayors of Ohio cities 
can steer clear of politics in their or- 
ganization, they ought in a short time 
to become a powerful force in affect- 
ing municipal legislation for good. 
Fresh from practical experience in the 
administration of city affairs and strict- 
ly representing the people of their own 
different localities they ought to be 
able to impress upon municipal legis- 
lation the two most needed qualities of 
intelligence and responsiveness to the 
people's will. 



State-Wide Civic Movements 



245 



voters A third type of state-wide 
Aga?nJt Ue cor- organizations devoted to 
ruption. civic interests is the vot- 
ers' league. The prevalence of election 
frauds in Colorado in recent years led 
to the organization of a State Voters' 
League last year, with the motto, "A 
square deal for every voter." The first 
president of the league was Ben B. 
Lindsey, the famous juvenile court 
judge of Denver. The objects of the 
league were to secure the election of 
honest and efficient men to public of- 
fice, the passage of an efficient primary 
law, the passage of a law to protect 
bank depositors with adequate and im- 
partial supervision, wise legislation for 
Colorado's welfare through party or- 
ganizations when possible and indepen- 
dent of them when necessary. As the 
first election for members of the 
legislature and state officials since the 
organization of this league will occur 
in November next, it is not yet possible 
to determine how effective the work is 
going it be. The most interesting agita- 
tion in Colorado during the last year 
was with reference to the local situa- 
tion in Denver where important fran- 
chises were submitted to the people on 
behalf of the companies and carried by 
slight majorities on the face of the re- 
turns. It has been shown that fraud 
prevailed at this election and the work 
of the Voters' League and the Honest 
Elections League in attempting to se- 
cure a thorough investigation of these 
frauds has been widely published 
through the country. Denver's prob- 
lem is to overcome, by revolution or 
otherwise, the corruption in elections 
which has long been practiced and 
which is protected by public officials 
and even by the courts of the state. In 
Oregon the state-wide civic interest 
was fostered by the Peoples' Power 
League, working in the interests of 
municipal home rule, direct nomina- 
tions and the initiative and referendum 
in state and local affairs. 

Michigan's } n Michigan an interest- 
Work tor ing state-wide campaign 
is now being carried on. 
There ftas for several years been a 
League of Michigan Municipalities in 



which most of the important cities of 
the state have taken a more or less ac- 
tive interest. At the last annual meet- 
ing of this league held at Grand Rap- 
ids last winter many noteworthy ad- 
dresses were given and the organiza- 
tion went omrecord in favor of 

(1) Home rule, with the right of the peo- 
ple of each city to frame their own charter 
and change it at pleasure, subject only to 
general constitutional provisions limiting 
the amount of municipal debts and abolish- 
ing the right of municipalities to grant fran- 
chises or long-time contracts except on the 
direct vote of the people affected, and to in- 
hibitions against cities setting asid; certain 
general legislation. 

(2) The right of cities to own and operate 
any or all public utilities if the people de- 
sire. 

(3) Non-partisanship in municipal govern- 
ment. 

(4) Uniform municipal accounting sub- 
ject to state supervision. 

Special committees were appointed 
to prepare measures to embody the 
league's ideas on non-partisanship and 
uniform accounting. They will report 
at the next annual convention and 
these measures, if approved by the 
league, will undoubtedly be presented 
to the legislature next winter for enact- 
ment. 

A convention for the revision of the 
constitution of Michigan has been de- 
cided upon. The people voted for it by 
70,000 majority last spring. The next 
legislature, which meets in January, 
1907, will have to determine upon the 
details regarding this convention, in- 
cluding the number of delegates, the 
time and manner of their election and 
the time when the convention shall 
meet. A movement has been started 
to secure a strictly non-partisan meth- 
od of nominating and electing the del- 
egates to this convention, and, having 
secured this advantage, to carry on a 
campaign for the election of broad- 
minded, capable men, not under the in- 
fluence of the railroads or other public 
utility corporations, as delegates. A 
state federation of direct legislation 
forces has been organized, composed 
of the State Grange, the State Associa- 
tion of Farmers' Clubs, the State Fed- 
eration of Labor, the Progressive Vot- 
ers' League of Michigan, the Voters' 



246 



Charities and The Commons 



Initiative, Veto and Recall League and 
the Direct Legislation League. This 
federation has agreed upon two prop- 
ositions, a non-partisan convention and 
direct legislation, including the initia- 
tive, the referendum and the recall. 
The Progressive Voters' League of 
Michigan, with headquarters at De- 
troit, has for its purpose in addition to 
the securing of a non-partisan conven- 
tion and the embodiment of the princi- 
ples of direct legislation in the consti- 
tution, the furtherance of municipal 



home rule and civil service reform by 
constitutional enactment. 

The struggle for United States sen- 
ator is interfering to a very great ex- 
tent in the nomination and election of 
candidates for the legislature, so that 
state issues are being somewhat ob- 
scured. Great encouragement has been 
secured, however, for. the idea of a non- 
partisan convention and the prospects 
of getting home rule and direct legisla- 
tion are better in Michigan than they 
have ever been before. 



Village, Town and City in Civic Co-operation 



Hd-ward T. Hartman 
Secretary Massachusetts Civic League 



Civic improvement has been defined as 
"the introduction into all that we do of 
that small margin of generosity and im- 
aginative treatment which constitutes it 
well done." This is the sole aim of the 
upwards of three hundred purely im- 
provement organizations and a part of 
the purpose of the old home week asso- 
ciations, the women's clubs, the granges 
and other organizations, reaching in all 
to probably a round thousand in the 
state. The spirit of these organizations 
and the function of the league in this 
connection may be discovered by noting 
a few of the calls for assistance received 
by the league. Some representatives of 
organizations come in glowing with en- 
thusiasm ; they have decided to do a 
fine thing for their town but how to do 
it they do not know. Can the league 
not tell them just how? Others are 
equally enthusiastic in their willingness 
to do something, but what? Will not 
the league just tell them what they ought 
to do? 

There are constant calls for lecturers, 
for advice in conferences, for brief 
studies illustrated by stereopticon as a 
means of arousing public interest, for 
literature, for suggestions as to how to 
improve this bit of land or that bit of 
water, the proper style of monument, 
fountain, watering trough, street sign, 
and what not? The range grows pic- 
turesque and even unsuspectingly lu- 
dicrous on its margins. Tales of per- 



plexity, sorrow and disappointment — in- 
volving legal, medical and ethical ques- 
tions are presented. "Whose duty is it 
under a given set of conditions to pay 
the driver of a team carrying children to 
a consolidated school?" "Can a poor 
foreigner be compelled to pay a poll 
tax?" "Here are the detailed symptoms of 
my unhappy town, can you diagnose the 
case and prescribe a remedy?" "I car- 
ry the burden of our association alone, 
should I drop it or do I show progress 
enough to justify me in keeping on?" 
"We want a lecturer for our next meet- 
ing, our people have always been accus- 
tomed to having the best speakers but 
we can pay nothing, can you send us a 
good speaker?" 

The hopeful thing about it all is the 
undoubted evidence of ferment, of ac- 
tivity, of a willingness to try to do some- 
thing to better a condition, to right a 
wrong, to relieve suffering and to make 
cities and towns better places in which 
to live. And in the main the people are 
working together in bodies of sufficient 
size to warrant success. The reports at 
the annual meetings are replete with 
stories of accomplishment. Stories of 
failures are rare and are most generally 
accompanied by new plans which promise 
fair for success. The people are making 
the outward aspect of their towns a 
badge of the public spirit of the commu- 
nity and are endeavoring to express their 
ideals, even their hopes for the future, in 



Village, Town and City in Civic Co-operation 



247 



the things with which they surround 
themselves, 

The league is meeting these conditions 
to the best of its ability. It conducts 
a lecture exchange, and through its 
Town Room and the accumulating ex- 
perience of its workers and lecturers is 
fortifying itself against any reasonable 
range of inquiry or call for help. All 
successful experiments are described and 
as far as possible illustrated in records 
kept in the Town Room. The people of 
all sections are requested to place here 
the stories of their accomplishments for 
the inspiration and information of others 
and any citizen of any state finds in the 
Town Room the best welcome the league 
knows how to give him. The league has 
a certain creed of its own which it fol- 
lows in its efforts to assist local organi- 
zations. It believes in improvement as- 
sociations because organization is neces- 
sary for the effective expression of pub- 
lic opinion and because this particular 
type is the most democratic to be found 
anywhere. Churches too often seem to 
be organized for the purpose of fighting 
each other for the glory of God, and the 
religious life of many of our towns is 
destroyed by the mere number of 
churches trying to exist within their 
boundaries. Political organizations do 
not offer a means for community im- 
provement, mere social organizations are 
too undemocratic and selfish to serve in 
any broad sense and the same may be 
said of practically all other special 
groups. Public opinion is a product of 
democracy. According to the by-laws of 
most of our improvement associations, 
any man or woman may become a mem- 
ber. 

The league encourages the develop- 
ment of social centers, community homes 
as it were; places where the people, all 
the people, may meet for the expression 
and development of their common views. 
Such centers are too few, but there are 
good examples and the spirit which will 
create more is showing itself. 

The public architecture of our cities 
and villages is a matter of great interest 
to the league and all allied organizations. 
Buildings worthy of the purpose for 
which they are intended, and which speak 
that purpose as far as it is architecturally 
possible are desired. Exotics in archi- 



tecture are being discouraged and types 
which are more purely a product of our 
times and our environment are being 
developed. Our architects are becoming 
interested in the setting and the customs 
of our villages and are developing the 
architecture in harmony with these ideas. 
Notwithstanding the example of the Bos- 
ton public garden and others equally as 
bad, there is a growing desire for natural 
effects in all landscape work. Practic- 
ally all that has been said of architecture 
applies here. Exotics here are proper, 
but they have their very restricted places 
and the environment of the ordinary 
home is not among them. The league 
encourages the arts and crafts movement 
by collecting and distributing literature 
and by giving opportunity for an occa- 
sional exhibition. There are greater 
possiblities in this movement, especially 
among the isolated villages and farm 
houses, than seems yet to have been 
generally recognized. The development 
of the factory system and the abandon- 
ment of home industries cannot be recog- 
nized in isolated places without great 
social and economic evils. Only a few 
of the societies seem to see this and to 
meet it by discovering the capabilities of 
these people, giving them work to do and 
helping them market their wares. Be- 
cause of the conditions, all of these things 
are necessary. By their proper use 
many of the people who go to the centers, 
and who constitute at least a part of the 
wrecks of humanity we find along our 
city ways, might be saved. Nuisances 
of all kinds serve as targets for ammuni- 
tion not otherwise absolutely demanded. 
Dirt, dust, high buildings, noises, smoke 
and particularly billboards, come in for 
a share. The league holds that the peo- 
ple have an inalienable right to the land- 
scape, that billboards do not sell goods, 
that they increase their cost to the con- 
sumer and that they are a graft upon the 
consumer through the wiles of the bill 
poster's agents. 

These are in brief the things which 
are binding together the people of our 
various communities for the common wel- 
fare, and these are the methods by which 
the Civic League co-operates in the work. 
It serves in the main as a center for the 
exchange of ideas and methods. 



.A Federation of Roiral Forces 



How the Civic Interests of a Rviral County can be Rallied for a Better 

Community Life 

G. W. Conn 

Superintendent of Schools, McHenry County, Illinois 



The change in the habits and ideals of 
life among the country people has been 
very marked in the past few years. For 
some of these which have not been for the 
better, the public school is partially blam- 
able. It has not supplied stimulus for the 
public school is partially blamable. 
It has not supplied stimulus for the 
growth of those ideals that are so neces- 
sary for the perpetuation of the best 
type of country life. It has held up 
persistently those ideals that endanger 
stability of rural life and tend to deprive 
it of its rightful heritage, the coming 
generations. The home has been as 
wasteful of its opportunities for establish- 
ing proper ideals for most efficient liv- 
ing in the country as the school has been. 
This sin of the home and the school has 
practically ruined the country church. It 
is no exaggeration to state that its wreck- 
age is to be found on hillside and in val- 
ley throughout the country. The desert- 
ed house of worship has caught the eye 
of the frugal farmer and the steady rise 
in price of building material has induced 
him to purchase the building and move it 
on to his farm. The house that was form- 
erly the center for religious expression 
and instruction now becomes the dwell- 
ing of our brother from across the seas 
or, perchance, shelters the cattle of the 
immigrant occupant, or owner, of the 
farm. 

This social phenomenon is more ade- 
quately described by the word change 
than by the more frequently used term — 
depopulation. It is true that the farms 
of many counties in northern Illinois 
have been deserted by their early owners 
but their places have been taken by the 
foreigner. The process has been grad- 
ual, systematic, and effective. The for- 
eigner was first a helper on the farm. 
He often took the place of the boy who 
was away to school. The boy did not 
come back after graduation. The for- 
eigner then became the renter. The 

248 



father died. The next step is logical 
and necessary — the foreigner becomes 
the owner. We must welcome this 
thrifty toiler, but his habits, social cus- 
toms and his attitude toward our insti- 
tutions create a problem or problems for 
us to solve. 

organizing With over fifty-five per 
a Rural cent, of the farms of Mc- 
Henry county occupied by 
tenants, with fifteen hundred less chil- 
dren in the country schools than were en- 
rolled in them twenty years ago, with 
many of the country churches abandoned 
and the remaining ones employing arti- 
ficial methods of respiration, with science 
and reason asserting itself and dominat- 
ing in almost every line of industry ex- 
cept the farmer's, where guess and super- 
stition still most largely prevail, with 
libraries, lecture courses, and Christian 
organizations at the door of the inhabit- 
ants of the towns, and with the country 
community largely barren of any such up- 
lifting influences, it is easy to understand 
why those workers and leaders in or- 
ganizations which have in view the bet- 
terment of community life should look 
for ways and means by which more dis- 
tinct progress could be made. The "get- 
together" method, so successful in 
finance, was adopted, and the result was 
the inception of the McHenry County 
Federation of Rural Forces. 

The first meeting was held at Wood- 
stock, 111., the county seat of Mc- 
Henry county, in January, 1904. 
The organizations represented at that 
meeting were the County Farmers' 
Institute, the Teachers' Association, 
the Women's Domestic Science As- 
sociation, and the Pastors' Associa- 
tion. The initial meeting was successful 
more from the standpoint of spirit than 
attendance. At the close of the two 
days' session a permanent organization 
was formed. The officers consisted 
of a president, vice-presidents, sec- 



A Federation of Rural Forces 



249 



retary, treasurer and an executive com- 
mittee. The vice-presidents consist of 
the presidents of the various organiza- 
tions represented in the federation. The 
executive committee consists of one 
member from each of the component or- 
ganizations. The duties of the of- 
ficers being similar to those in any 
organization. The executive committee 
selects the place of meeting and arranges 
the program. Thus far the place of 
meeting has been the county seat. 

The growth of the federation has 
been consistent and encouraging. At 
the second meeting in 1905, the county 
W. C. T. U. joined their forces with 
those of the federation, and in 1906 it 
was still further augmented by the co- 
operation of the county Y. M. C. A., and 
the boys' clubs. The union of these va- 
rious organizations with the county fed- 
eration does not in any way affect their 
separate work and organization only in 
so far as it strengthens them through co- 
operation in common problems. 

The material for the pro- 
at e Hr.nd. grams has been selected 

entirely because of its 
local importance. The union sessions 
of the first meeting were given over to 
the discussion of the consolidated school. 
The problem of public transportation of 
pupils to and from school was given much 
attention. The reorganization of the 
county fair along educational lines was 
enthusiastically debated and its improved 
moral tone and educational influence is 
greatly indebted to this discussion. The 
campaign for better roads was given con- 
siderable emphasis at the last meeting. 
While most of the speakers were local, 
they were selected because of their fit- 
ness and experience to speak on some 
special phase of the question. The ques- 
tion was considered in six relations, viz: 
Its influence on the social life of the com- 
munity, in its narrow sense, and in its 
economic, intellectual, moral, aesthetic 
and religious bearing on community life. 
The money craze came in for its due 
share of attention. It was treated in its 
local aspect or industrial trend, viz: 
Extreme dairying in McHenry county. 
Those participating in the discussion, 
while they were residents of the county, 



gave to their hearers as well as to each 
other some startling revelations of the 
seriousness of the abuse of an industry 
when considered in all its relations to 
the welfare of the community. These 
few subjects are given here to illustrate 
the trend of thought that the federation 
is inspiring and the direction of organ- 
ized effort that we hope will be the ulti- 
mate outgrowth. 

The movement has been fortunate in 
having the inspiring sympathy and as- 
sistance of men of wide experience and 
training in this line of work. Among 
them Kenyon L. Butterfield, now presi- 
dent of Massachusetts Agricultural Col- 
lege, has been the willing source of many 
helpful suggestions. In fact, he can 
rightfully be called the father of the 
movement as he has previously organized 
two similar meetings, although they were 
on a much larger plan, one in the state 
of Michigan and another in the state of 
Rhode Island. These organizations 
were based on the state as the unit. Prof. 
Keith of Normal and Rev. Nesmith of 
Hebron, 111., have actively identified 
themselves with the work and aims of 
the County Federation from its birth. 
However, it may truthfully be said that 
the work is no longer borne by a few 
people but has been gradually assumed 
by the many who have become' heartily 
converted to the idea and more 
thoroughly imbued with the spirit of 
brotherhood. 

Putting ^he ex i stence °f tne f e d" 
Soul into eration is too brief to 
Sofl * say that it has a his- 

tory. It is still crystallizing. Its merits 
lie more in its promises than in its ful- 
filments, although the writer has rea- 
sons for a firm faith that it will some 
day make good in the matter of promises. 
It cannot be denied that the federation 
has already learned to walk with suffi- 
cient steadiness and vigor to leave faint 
outlines of foot-prints in the way of rural 
progress. There is evidence on every 
hand of a livelier social consciousness 
that is expressing itself for better and 
more effective living. The aesthetic 
sense is being awakened and the country 
homes are being beautified as never be- 
fore. The banner of rational living is 



250 



Chanties and The Commons 



being raised throughout the country and 
the unnecessary drudgery of farm-life is 
being minimized by the introduction of 
system and science into farming. The 
true economic spirit is being inculcated 
and the attempt to make two blades of 
grass grow where only one grew before 
is accompanied with a soul-satisfying 
feeling that the tiller of the soil is work- 
ing with God in conforming to His laws. 
The enlightened home, the public school 
and the agricultural college, are accom- 
plishing much in the way of putting soul 
into soil. The reign of the spirit shall 
some day hold equal reign with the dol- 
lar. Then we shall have taken one step 
in the solution of the vexed problem of 
recalling the boy to the farm. The reg- 
ular increase in the salaries of teachers 
is the result largely of discussion that 
brought the teacher and the patron face 
to face in frank comparison with the lot 
of other wage-earners. A discussion of 
this delicate, though important question, 
that is limited to the rank and file of the 
profession, results in little more than a 
feeling of injustice that rankles for 
months and years in the breast of the 
teacher. 

The greater emphasis placed upon the 
necessity for the pastor of the rural 
church to direct and to a certain extent 
to organize the social activity of the 
young people of his parish, is a hopeful 
sign. It is a fact that the rural school and 
the rural church are equally in need of re- 
organization. Both err in assuming that 
what is good for the man is good for the 
boy. The assumption is fundamentally 
wrong from the pedagogical stand-point 
and from the stand-point of common 
sense. The present country school and 
country church take little account of the 
organized interests of the community. 
The farmer is busy with nature and her 
secrets. The schools are busy with dry 
books and symbols. The method of the 
Sundav-school and of the church is in 



reality non-moral. Without is a commu- 
nity throbbing with life that is moral and 
immoral. These problems of the church 
and school are not only similar, but fun- 
damentally they are nearly identical. 
United action will certainly hasten their 
solution. 

When the Illinois State Farmers' In- 
stitute took up the question of the rural 
school and endorsed the principle of con- 
solidation, it confessed its inability to 
cope single-handed with the farmer boy 
problem. This action was a prediction 
of the federation plan. Making one acre 
produce what two acres formerly pro- 
duced has been the main function of the 
farmers' institute. This is necessary and 
commendable but in itself is not a suffi- 
cient attraction to the boy to keep him 
on the farm. This economic advantage 
is only one of many. The boy craves 
others — the social, intellectual, aesthetic, 
and religious. Therefore the solution of 
the problem demands the co-operation of 
those organizations and institutions that 
nurture all these phases of community 
life. The action of the farmers' insti- 
tute was in accordance with this prin- 
ciple. 

The general confidence in the political 
sanity of the rural population is well 
founded. The farmer by environment 
has become an evolutionist in politics. 
He can be trusted with the privilege of 
suffrage because he seldom misuses it. 
His weakness lies principally in the non- 
use of this sacred privilege. The po- 
litical function of the federation is to lead 
the rural voter to regard this privilege 
with more seriousness and to lead him to 
a sterner realization of the responsibility 
that rests upon him as an individual to 
perpetuate and elevate the state. He is 
not yet out of that dangerous condition 
that looks upon the act of stealing from 
his larger self, the government, as a 
harmless joke. 



the: cartoonist 




AND 




the: citizen 






# 



THE BJUBOAKD MAWS IGtA Of THE CITY BEAUTIFUL 



THE VWOKt INSPECTOR GETS A NEW WEAPON 



" rf SP # B 




Two civic improvement movements as illustrated by cartoonist Wilder of the Chicago Record- 
H eratd. 




M"'l lir% 



Hoe zij dat 




Nieuwe KleecL 



zal krijg-en. 



Oe nieuw* Charier ko.r.missie ver, 



Jak obdrzi 




ty nove sat? 

VYBOR BTE8TSKK RADY 
NA CHARTER. 



II flezzo 




Kuowo Hesfilo 

ComlUto del Oonsl^Ilo Comrade 
per 11 Hdoto SUtuto. 



Kokiw bwdu 



Ji gans 




Sita Na»ja 



Pared^ 

Miasto Rodos liaajo Charterlo Komitetas 



ISN'T IT TIME SHE HAD A NEW DRESS? 




The power of the cartoon as an educator of 
a cosmopolitan electorate is here most effect- 
ively demonstrated. Chicago was desperately 
in need of a new charter. The city was being 
governed under the provisions of a charter 
adopted when it was scarcely more than a 
group of three small towns having a total pop- 
ulation of only a fraction of the present number. 
A bill providing the machinery for framing a 
new charter was passed by the legislature and 
submitted to popular referendum vote for rati- 
fication. Just as various civic organizations 
were starting the campaign for a favorable 
referendum, the above cartoon by Bradley in 
the Chicago Daily News appeared. With in- 
scriptions in the languages here shown, Italian, 
Bohemian, Dutcn, Lithuanian, German, Yid- 
dish and Slavonian, as well as in a dozen 
others, it was distributed broadcast throughout 
the city and state. 



SBie 
bctommi fie 




$ltut glrig 

m Coucll Nit Ctata CwalllK 




.DDjm }T) 



X 



JAM SW0B01 




HOVE IflTY 

Meatski rj-fcor radi cs Charter 



Militant Civic Organizations 



George C. SiKes 



What are known as militant civic or- 
ganizations were, called into being to wage 
battle against the grosser forms of mu- 
nicipal misrule which have disgraced 
American cities. The militant organiza- 
tions are those that take a direct part in 
politics, as distinguished from others that 
aim to promote the public welfare with- 
out going to the extent of favoring or op- 
posing candidates for public office. 

While these bodies have a common 
purpose, their methods and type of or- 
ganization vary widely. The Municipal 
Voters' League of Chicago represents one 
type, that is being extensively imitated. 
This organization came into existence in 
1896. It grew out of a meeting called 
to protest against shameful conditions 
in city government. A self-perpetuating 
executive committee of nine members 
was authorized to take the leadership 
in the move for improvement. This 
body has confined itself to the work of 
helping to secure the election to the city 
council of honest and capable men. The 
league makes no nominations itself. It 
merely investigates and reports to the 
voters upon the character and capacity 
of the various candidates who are 
placed in nomination by the regular 
party organizations, or otherwise. Where 
none of the candidates is fit the league 
oftentimes encourages a group of cit- 
izens in a ward to promote an independ- 
ent candidacy, but the league is never 
the direct nominating agency. As a re- 
sult of these efforts, in co-operation with 
other forces working to the same end, 
great improvement has been wrought in 
these conditions. While the Municipal 
Voters' League has confined its activities 
to the city council, an organization fol- 
lowing similar methods, and in fact 
headed by the first president of the 
Municipal Voters' League, has been 
formed to carry on a like campaign for 
the improvement of Chicago's represen- 
tation in the general assembly of Illinois. 
In the campaign now in progress still 
another committee has undertaken to do 
a like work in connection with the elec- 
tion of judges of the new municipal 

254 



court. Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Pitts- 
burg, Denver, Buffalo, and several other 
cities have organizations working on the 
lines of the Municipal Voters' League. 

The Citizens' Union of New York, 
the City Party of Philadelphia, and the 
Citizens' Municipal Party of Cincinnati 
represent another type of militant civic 
organization. The bodies in the three 
cities named all aspire to be municipal 
parties. They have a large enrolled 
membership and make nominations, 
much after the manner of the establish- 
ed party organizations. The Citizens' 
Union was probably the chief factor in 
making Seth Low mayor of Greater 
New York. The result was achieved, 
however, not by the Citizens' Union act- 
ing alone, but through fusion with the 
Republican Party. The Citizens' Munici- 
pal Party of Cincinnati carried on a 
noble fight by itself without conspicuous 
success until a year ago, when it scored 
a great victory through co-operation 
with the minority party — which hap- 
pened to be democratic — in opposition 
to the Cox machine, which flew the 
republican banner. The City Party 
achieved great victories in Philadelphia 
from the outset of its career, but it, too, 
acted in co-operation with other parties 
and elements in opposition to an en- 
trenched machine wearing the mask of 
the majority party in the city. 

The trouble with independent party 
movements in the past has been that the 
improvement brought about by them has 
been spasmodic in its nature. The Citi- 
zens' Union helped to make Mr. 
Low mayor and thus to introduce for a 
time great improvement in adminis- 
trative methods in New York city. But 
after Low came a return to power of 
Tammany. The victories in Cincinnati 
and Philadelphia are too recent to afford 
as yet a test of their permanency. The 
City Party of Philadelphia is engaged 
this fall in another campaign in which 
it hopes to achieve another victory. But 
it would seem to me that as city parties 
operating by themselves — and effective 
fusion is not always possible — neither 



Platform 
MILITANT CIVIC ORGANIZATIONS 

CHicago, January, 1906 



Whereas, The vast growth of American cities has brought with it a series of prob- 
lems peculiar to congested population, and most of which have no possible connection 
with the general policies of the nation; and 

Whereas, These problems, moral, social and economic, can only be solved by the 
intelligent, unhampered, direct attention of the communities interested; and 

Whereas, Prior to the accomplishment of the great tasks set before the cities +'iere 
is need that all unnecessary obstacles be removed and all steps be taken that may lead 
to simplification of elections; 

Now, therefore, We, the delegates representing militant non-partisan organizations 
working for the improvement of city government in America by practical participation 
in municipal politics, assembled in conference at Chicago, January 11 and 12, 1906, in 
the name of the United Cities of America, declare the following: 

We hold that the lines of cleavage in municipal politics have no relation to the lines 
of cleavage in national politics. 

We hold that the intrusion of national politics in municipal government brings with 
it issues absolutely foreign to the proper functions and reasonable aspirations of the 
national parties, and others which are alien to the interests of the municipalities, 
thereby tending to degrade the national parties and seriously injure city government. 

We further hold that more efficient means should be provided whereby the will of 
the majority of the people deliberately formulated and expressed should control munici- 
pal policies. 

We further hold that there is urgent need of fixing direct responsibility of munici- 
pal officials to the people and of reducing to the lowest practicable number the city 
offices filled by election. 

We further hold that the merit system of appointment has demonstrated, wherever 
honestly applied, that it tends to result in the selection and retention in office of a 
higher grade of men than are obtained by other means; that it opens the public 
service as an honorable career, free from the distractions of politics, and that it tends 
to relieve the citizens from the possibility of tyranny by officeholders. 

Holding the propositions advanced to be self-evident in theory and amply demon- 
strated in practice, we, therefore, now urge in the interest of better municipal con- 
ditions: 

First. — That cities should be granted the largest possible measure of home rule, 
subject only to such general statutory safeguards and restrictions as may be neces- 
sary to protect the general interests of the state as distinguished from the local in- 
terests of the municipality. 

Second. — That the party column on the ballot should be abolished; that the names 
of candidates for a single office should be printed on the ballot under the designation 
of that office, and that it should be made impossible to vote a straight party ticket by 
a single mark or cross. 

Third. — That municipal nominations and elections should be completely separated 
from state and national nominations and elections and should occur at different times, 
and that nominations for all municipal offices be made by petition or by an efficient 
method of direct primaries. 

Fourth. — That the number of elective municipal officers should be reduced as far as 
practicable, always preserving the right to elect members of the municipal legisla- 
tive body or city council. 

Fifth. — That the merit principle should be applied to all departments of city admin- 
istration under practical and efficient civil service laws. 

In conclusion, this conference, realizing the vital importance of the successful solu- 
tion of the municipal problems now confronting us, earnestly hopes that consideration 
and discussion of them may continue, and to that end urges the formation of more 
organizations devoted to local issues which shall co-operate in all practical ways to 
secure the enactment of laws embodying the principles outlined. 

2 55 



2^6 



Charities and The Commons 



the organization in Cincinnati nor that 
in Philadelphia can be permanently suc- 
cessful in the pursuit of its object, 
under present conditions. To my mind 
they represent in their essential features 
and aspirations the ideal toward which 
we should work, but some intermediate 
changes are requisite before permanent 
results can be achieved along those lines. 
The Municipal Voters' League of Chi- 
cago has been in existence nearly twelve 
years. During this period it has been 
increasingly successful year by year. 
It has not, however, scored in any one 
campaign the sensational triumphs of 
the municipal parties of Cincinnati, Phil- 
adelphia, or New York. I am convinced 
that the Municipal Voters' League type 
of organization is not calculated to meet 
the needs of the situation for all time, but 
that it furnishes the method best adapted 
to the securing of results under condi- 
tions now existing. Permanently bene- 
ficial results of a satisfactory nature I 
contend cannot be had under the present 
system of party nominations and the 
domination of city affairs by national 
political parties. So long as we have 
the activity of national party organiza- 
tions in city affairs resort must be had 
to organizations following the methods 
of the Municipal Voters' League, which 
acts on the balance of power theory, as 
opposed to the municipal party theory. 
By leading the independent vote to swing 
to one party nominee or the other, ac- 
cording to the fitness of the candidate, 
the Municipal Voters' League helps to 
secure the best attainable results under 
present conditions. Both those results 
at the best are far from satisfactory. 
Such an organization can be effective in 
keeping conspicuously bad men out of 
office, but as it is not a nominating body 
it does not of itself operate to draw 
into public life the most capable men 
in the community. The tendency of the 
party organizations — whose prime mo- 
tive for participating in city politics is 
not the advancement of municipal wel- 
fare — when they are deterred from nom- 
inating aggressively bad men, is to put 
up in their place candidates whose re- 
spectability cannot be attacked but who 
are weak and pliable. The regular 



party organizations, except in rare 
emergencies, avoid giving nominations 
for city offices to men of independent 
views and great force of character. The 
result is that an organization like the 
Municipal Voters' League is too often 
obliged to make selection between can- 
didates who are respectable enough but 
who lack power, when the prime need 
of the community is for men of con- 
spicuous strength. 

But still, as I have said, the municipal 
party whose object it is to bring out 
as candidates for office men of conspic- 
uous strength is not likely under present 
conditions to be permanently successful. 
The underlying need, therefore, is for a 
change in the election and nominating 
machinery so as to give municipal par- 
ties, or local nominating organizations, 
a better chance for survival. The great- 
est drawback to municipal efficiency is 
the admixture of national party politics 
with city affairs. Yet nearly every- 
where the laws relating to elections and 
nominations tend to promote that in- 
jurious admixture. This is realized by 
the leaders in all the militant civic or- 
ganizations. At a conference held in 
Chicago in January of this year, at 
which were present representatives from 
fifteen cities the resolutions printed on 
an adjoining page were adopted. 

With the elimination of the party 
ticket on the ballot, the abolition of all 
party nominations, and the adoption in- 
stead of a system of nominations by 
petition for all elective municipal 
officers — all names of candidates to go 
on the ballot in alphabetical order with- 
out party designation — conditions would 
be created favorable to the elimination 
of national partisan influences and un- 
der which organizations local in scope 
and purpose would have a better chance 
to thrive. When these changes have 
been wrought — and not before — it would 
seem that there would be less need for 
bodies of the type of the Municipal 
Voters' League. Organizations partak- 
ing of the nature of municipal parties — 
that is, local nominating agencies — 
would then serve the people better, in 
my opinion. They are the ultimate type 
of effective militant civic organization. 



Civic Interest Among the People 



2 57 



The next important step in municipal 
progress is the change of election and 
nomination laws, in accordance with the 
resolutions of the United Cities Con- 
ference, held in Chicago last January, 
so that the field may be prepared for the 
permanent activity and success of or- 
ganizations constructed on the municipal 
party theory. 

The enemies of the city are varied 
and numerous. The more one participates 
actively in city politics the more is he like- 



ly to become convinced that the greatest 
enemy is the profit-seeking franchise- 
holding public utility corporation. Next 
come the contractors and others having 
special interests of greater or less conse- 
quence and the law-breakers, big and 
little; after them the petty spoilsmen 
and job-hunters. In another line, the 
greatest enemy of the city is the elector 
who allows himself to be governed by 
considerations of partisan regularity in 
casting his ballot for municipal officials. 



Civic Interest Among tKe People 

MicKael M. Davis, Jr. 

Secretary of the People's Institute, New Yorh City 






The movements ordinarily called civic, 
including those chiefly treated in this is- 
sue, are the results of the efforts of a se- 
lect and comparatively small group of men 
who desire the betterment of their com- 
munities. Such efforts must in a sense be 
called "class efforts," although their pur- 
pose is broadly social. They are not in- 
consistent with democracy, but the spirit 
of democracy requires that we take also 
another point of view. Civic reform 
must not only mean the working of in- 
stitutional changes, but the development 
among the body of citizens of a power 
of self-government and an intelligent in- 
terest in the common government. 

What moves among the body of the 
people for their own civic betterment? 
What is the people's attitude towards 
government, and what openings exist for 
education and for practical civic work 
among the masses of the people ? 

The young working man in our 
large cities is far from being without 
a definite civic interest. He takes 
from the public school, which we may as- 
sume he leaves at thirteen or fourteen, a 
strong sense of patriotic Americanism. 
This however is a sentiment for the na- 
tion. Of sentiment for the city as a 
civic unit he has essentially none. Of 
knowledge of the organization of our 
government, the hasty and superficial 
teaching of civics in school has given him 
practically nothing. His civic education 
begins on the street, chiefly through con- 



tact with policemen, and develops into 
definite shape, as he grows to be a young 
man, mainly through the influence of local 
clubs. Through membership in these 
organizations he learns the ways of local 
politics by the time he is old enough to 
vote. Government to him is an organi- 
zation — by name, a party. So far as 
the district is concerned, this government 
includes a small group of men united by 
the bond of office-holding or by relations 
to office holders. Around this organiza- 
tion, by name a party, are grouped 'a large 
number of men who vote for the party 
without being active workers in it. Their 
adhesion is due to : 

1. — Family or neighborhood tradition. 

2. — A quasi rational identification of the 
party with certain principles of government. 

3. — Cordial personal relations, often in- 
volving economic advantages. 

The government which this typical 
workingman comes to know is thus a 
feudal government; a carefully arranged 
system of personal relationships leading 
down from boss to election-district-work- 
er. In this system the watch-word is 
loyalty to the organization. 

Party When there comes into the 
PoII Civic and Hfe of the workingman 
interest. some ev jj which he desires 
to have remedied and which he cannot 
remedy for himself, his orobable recourse 
is to the district leader of his organization. 
He goes to this leader in much the same 



*5§ 



Charities and The Commons 



way as a merchant visits his lawyer, or 
a large manufacturer visits Congress to 
further a possible protective duty upon 
his products. The man's civic interest 
then is a personal interest. The only way 
he knows how to get what he wants is 
by appealing to a particular individual. 
He does not conceive that the machinerv 
of government is supposed to be organ- 
ized for his individual benefit and is not 
necessarily reached through a mediator. 
His purely personal point of view pre- 
vents him from realizing that a great 
number of evils in his life and his en- 
vironment ought to be remedied by what 
we would call "social action." 

Given a body of people whose point 
of view towards government is personal 
instead of social, what will be their spon- 
taneous civic activities? How can these 
be directed? In a sense the party or- 
ganizations are highlv popular and demo- 
cratic institutions, They are products of 
social evolution corresponding closely to 
the tests and standards of the people, 
but to describe the activities of parties 
as the outcome of the people's civic in- 
terest, would be to use the word "civic" 
in a false sense. The party is too 
much the organization and too little the 
body of citizens to justify such a state- 
ment. 

The labor unions, a spontaneous popu- 
lar development, have not failed to in- 
terest themselves in civic matters. They 
have, for example, assisted tenement- 
house, child-labor, and factory legisla- 
tion ; they are taking part in the fight 
against tuberculosis, and their sanction or 
co-operation is given, from time to time, 
to many desirable measures of progress, 
Yet on the whole, the emphasis of 
their work has necessarily been laid 
upon legislation or administration which 
directly concerns the interest of or- 
ganized labor. 

Settlements Th< r re is ° ne U PP er claSS 

and Practical social movement, the social 
settlement, which has held 
the ideal of working with the people rath- 
er than working for them; but the set- 
tlements, nevertheless, have neglected the 



civic interest very much as they have 
the industrial. Civic improvement has in- 
deed been stimulated by them in several 
ways. Popular legislation has been as- 
sisted by the knowledge gained through 
residence among the people. The body 
of disinterested social workers which the 
settlements have brought together, have 
given great assistance in many desirable 
reforms. Through them, educational and 
recreative opportunities have been pro- 
vided, and local administration improved 
in ways that cannot but result indirectly 
in improving the civic life of the district. 
Yet directly, through appeals to the civic 
spirit or through endeavors to face local 
problems squarely and to take up direct 
practical and educational civic work, most 
settlements have accomplished almost 
nothing. The notable exceptions to this 
rule serve rather to emphasize than to 
disprove it. Again, of attempts to foster 
an intelligent civic education among the 
people through classes and extension 
work, there is not much to report. The in- 
vestigation of the teaching of civics made 
a year ago by a Boston organization and 
some studies begun by the writer in New 
York, show that in both cities, although 
the settlements and kindred institutions 
have frequently organized classes in civics 
for boys and young men, results have as 
a rule been discouraging. 

Systems of lectures and classes on gov- 
ernment and social questions with prac- 
tical work have been successfully carried 
on for a number of years by The People's 
Institute in New York, but an account of 
this work does not come within the scope 
of this article. The classes in civics and 
politics frequently organized by the 
Y. M. C. A. do not ordinarily reach work- 
ingmen, but rather young men of the 
clerical and mercantile classes. Volun- 
tary civic clubs composed of workingmen 
have not been entirely lacking. The 
tenement house law in New York was 
assisted in its passage by the energetic 
work of the East Side Civic Club, which 
circulated petitions and secured thousands 
of signatures. In campaigns where 
social or moral issues have been promi- 
nent, such as the New York city cam- 
paign of 1901, workers with the people 
have been stimulated to yeoman activity 



Civic Interest Among the People 



259 



in their several districts, and it can be 
fairly assumed that the campaign meant 
directly and indirectly, a gain in the 
civic education of the people. 

T1 . M . This account of movements 

The Needs . . 

of the for civic betterment among 

Situation. working people is thus 

mainly negative. It suggests, however, 
the needs of the situation and how the 
problem of popular civic education should 
be worked out. Experience shows that 
the facilities of settlements, or even of 
schools, are inadequate to compete with 
the attractions of the saloon or social 
club where a large number of men, young 
and old, congregate and receive their 
practical civic education. It is found 
again and again that in the organization 
of civic clubs a selection must be made of 
the exceptional men from among a large 
group. If the exceptional men can be 
effectively reached, the basis for a civic 
improvement springing up from the peo- 
ple is laid. Organizers of civic courses 
and civic clubs must watch and guide this 
selection. 

1. Civic Teaching. The ineffectiveness of 
the teaching of civics in the settlements and 
similar classes has been due to two causes. 
There is great difficulty in securing good 
teachers, and, second, the subject-matter and 
method of instruction have not been adapted 
to working-class needs. The organizers of 
such courses have usually failed to realize 
that the young men in attendance were ab- 
sorbing from their environment an educa- 
tion in civic practice which makes it impos- 
sible for them to regard a course following 
traditional lines with an interest that is 
vital. In the schools these difficulties have 
been increased by the small allotment of 
time given to civics. Even an effective 
teacher must thus be made ineffective. 

What is needed is to meet the civic inter- 
est of the young man on its own ground, to 
organize courses which treat of the subject- 
matter from the standpoint of the practical 
questions of politics and administration in 
which he already feels an interest. For chil- 
dren, this means a judicious use of city his- 
tory and of interesting descriptions of typi- 
cal city departments, reinforced by suitable 
practical work. One aim of the voluntary 
classes in private institutions should be to 
develop methods which will later be taken 
up by elementary and secondary public 
schools, — although the pressing problem of 
the civic education of the majority of young 
men who do not attend high school must for 
a long time oe handled by private institu- 
tions. 



2. Courses and single lectures upon ques- 
tions of the day and also historical and com- 
parative studies should not only be increased 
out be managed with a thorough recognition 
that the civic interest of the people is prac- 
tical and not academic. This demands that 
the issues raised in discussions, even if they 
involve disputed quistions, should be square- 
ly faced and that practical conclusions must 
not be shirked. In other words, whether be- 
fore large gatherings or small, a really ef- 
fective course of public lectures upon civic 
or social questions will and should lead into 

3. Practical civic or forum work. Inform- 
ation will be desired upon pending questions 
of legislation or administration and the sen- 
timent of the people, after being informed by 
experts, will manifest itself in meetings and 
will be influential directly or indirectly upon 
public opinion. Local or general meetings 
of the nature of mass meetings to further or 
oppose pending measures will be the natural 
outcome if the civic interest is really and 
intelligently aroused. 

4. The most clear and lasting evidence of 
the success of attempts to direct and inform 
the people's civic interest will be their will- 
ingness to ally themselves for special pur- 
poses of civic improvement with civic organi- 
zations, or to form local groups. The extent 
to which private civic organizations have be- 
come the typical means of accomplishing 
civic improvements is borne out by the ac- 
counts in this issue. In such a large city as 
New York the people generally know little or 
nothing of the upper-class organizations and 
the methods employed by them are not gen- 
erally understood. To make them under- 
stood, is to provide an outlet for the civic 
interest of countless young men, now debat- 
ing the question whether to join one or the 
other of the great parties, or to remain inde- 
pendent, and thus seemingly ineffective from 
the civic standpoint. 



The Test of a To suggest any such pro- 
Civic gram raises two questions : 
Is it worth while? Is it 



Program, 



practicable ? 

It is surely worth while. No perman- 
ently successful attack can be made upon 
the intrenched system of party govern- 
ment until we replace, in the minds of the 
people, the traditional issues of party 
politics by an intelligent comprehension of 
the living issues of present-day democ- 
racy. It is practicable, if rightly carried 
out. Results will appear. No one can wit- 
ness a great gathering of workingmen, 
such as assembles week after week at the 
Cooper Union, without realizing that the 
civic interest of the people is living, 
though often latent. To workingmen 



260 



Charities and The Commons 



civic problems are at bottom, vital prob- 
lems of personal life, but the issues need 
to be cleared of traditional attachments, 
and the energies that are freed, as this 
civic interest clarifies, need to be directed. 
The New York subway now belongs to the 
city chiefly because of a great mass meet- 
ing, held at Cooper Union in 1899. The 
meeting not only accomplished its pur- 
pose, but demonstrated that systematic 
work for civic education will bear prac- 
tical fruit. Two years ago, a body of 
"grab bills," already slated for passage 
in the New York legislature, was with- 
drawn within twenty-four hours after 
public opinion and the press, had been 
roused through a similar mass meeting. 
These are two illustrations. No one can 
witness a young men's club laboring for 
cleaner streets, or discussing how a neg- 
lected park shall be placed in order for 
the people's use, without feeling how 



very real to working people these civic 
questions can be made, or rather how real 
they make themselves, once they are 
shown clearly. 

The fundamental condition of success, 
in making any program practicable, is 
an understanding of the people's attitude. 
If organizers of such work infuse into 
it the right spirit, they will find that the 
procedure from lectures and classes to 
practical work and definite organization, 
will largely take care of itself, because 
the people will meet them halfway. This 
necessary spirit is simply that of sincerity, 
frankness and fair play. All sides of 
controverted questions must be presented, 
in order that decision be intelligent, and 
when the decision comes, it must not be 
evaded. We must create democracy by 
recognizing it. No civic work can be 
more vital nor more needed, in commu- 
nities large or small. 



TKe Industrial Viewpoint 

CONDUCTED BY GRAHAM TAYLOR 



state New significance and in- 
Federations fluence are being assumed 

of Labor. by gtate federations Q f la _ 

bor. It is due to the awakening of the 
American Federation of Labor to the 
legislative possibilities of these state 
bodies. The development of these pos- 
sibilities and the exertion of this in- 
fluence over legislation at state capitals 
is also promoted and accelerated by the 
new political activity of labor forces to 
eleci those favorable to their legislative 
policies and defeat those who oppose 
or do not serve them. Although the 
state federations actually federate far 
fewer voters than many of the central 
unions in the cities, and although by no 
means all the local unions are affiliated 
with the state bodies, yet they have really 
more potent influence on the law makers 
than these larger local bodies. Just 
because the latter concentrate their 
strength in one locality, they have less 



influence with legislatures and congress 
than the smaller, but more widely scat- 
tered and representative membership of 
the state federations. When these, how- 
ever, assume to speak for organized labor 
with legislators or at public hearings, 
the local unions not affiliated with them 
do not demur, but tacitly accept their 
spokesmanship. So the state federations 
of labor have come to be recognized as 
the authoritative representatives not only 
of organized labor but of its numerous 
unorganized adherents besides. It is this 
fact that gives promise of their larger 
potency in shaping our state and na- 
tional laws, and in making or unmaking 
our law makers. 

of Woman's The *«■*«* re ? chi ?£ a< ?" 

ciubs and tion taken by the Illinois 

Fed L?bin °' State Federation of Labor 

at their recent annual meeting was not 

only suggested, but actually put through 



The Industrial Viewpoint 



261 



by representatives of the State Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs. The latter had 
just closed their convention, which com- 
mitted the 20,000 members of allied 
women's clubs in the state to a straight- 
out trade union policy, on the following 
five points: 

To have the United States government un- 
dertake a comprehensive investigation into 
the working conditions of giris, women, and 
children. 

To have the Illinois state legislature pass 
laws requiring factories to install protection 
from dangerous machinery. 

To promote a "trade school" movement for 
girls, similar to the one in Massachusetts. 

To help the girls and women to organize 
into unions. 

To further such far-seeing legislation as 
will "make the trade bear the burden of its 
own accidents" as is done in Germany- 
through "compulsory insurance" laws. 

To this advance position, they were 
brilliantly led by Miss Breckenridge, one 
of the ablest women instructors in 
economics at the University of Chi- 
cago, whose way had been effectively 
prepared by the investigations and 
agitation of a capable group of set- 
tlement women. These carried the policy 
of their convention into the State 
Federation of Labor. One of them, 
Mary E. McDowell, who was a delegate 
to the Federation, was called to the chair 
in the absence of the president. The 
following resolutions were unanimously 
adopted : 

Whereas, A bill authorizing the secretary 
of commerce and labor to investigate and re- 
port on the industrial, social, moral, educa- 
tional and physical condition of woman and 
child workers in the United States is now a 
privileged question in the House and ready 
to be called up in the Senate; and 

Whereas, It is a fact that over three mil- 
lion women, at an average age of eighteen 
years — unorganized and without the power 
to legislate for themselves — have come into 
the industrial field, many of them working 
under conditions that will unfit them for the 
duties of home and motherhood; and 

Whereas, organized labor has always stood 
for equal justice and equal pay for equal 
work, we, the delegates to the Illinois State 
Federation, in convention assembled, in the 
interest of the future of the workers, do 
most earnesly urge upon Congress the neces- 
sity of passing this bill. 



For Legislation The basis for the legislative 

Against attack of organized labor 

Injunction against the abuse of what 

their highest representative body has 



termed "the beneficent writ of injunct- 
ion" is fairly stated in the following 
preambles to a resolution demanding 
from the next legislature of the state 
of Illinois a law "absolutely prohibiting 
the issue of such writs of injunction in 
all cases of contests between working- 
men or groups of workingmen and their 
employers" : 

Whereas, This constitutionally sanctioned 
right of workingmen, as part of the com- 
munity, to act lawfully, namely, to act so as 
not to violate the provisions of the criminal 
law of the state of Illinois, either singly or 
in combination with each other in protect- 
ing their own interests, is a 'sacred, -noral, 
social and legal duty, enjoined upon us by 
the law of our being and expected of us un- 
der the prevailing theory of our political 
structure; and, 

Whereas, This constitutionally sanctioned 
right to freedom of action, so far as work- 
ingmen are affected under the present con- 
ditions of industry in the ordinary issues 
arising between employers and employes is 
constantly invaded by certain judges, who 
falsely pretend to administer equity or law in 
accordance with good conscience by means 
of injunctions to the irreparable injury of 
great masses of the working people, to the 
unlawful enthrallment of the citizen and to 
the scandalously unequal and oppressive ad- 
ministration of the law. 

To Reduce * n t ^ ie ^ r determined effort 
competition of to refute, or entirely elim- 

Prison Labor. • . r ,■* a**.* 

mate further competition 
of convict-made goods with free labor 
products, Illinois working people de- 
mand that not more than five per cent, 
of prison labor should be employed in 
any one industry. They also protest 
against the introduction of improved 
machinery into the prison shops for the 
purpose of increasing the quantity of 
the products to be placed on the open 
market. This they regard as a direct 
violation of the existing law. An en- 
couraging breadth of view is indicated 
in their passage of the following minute: 
We wish to express our appreciation of 
the humanitarian work accomplished by the 
wardens and the superintendents of the 
various institutions. We believe that our 
efforts should be directed to a thorough and 
complete enforcement of the law and a bet- 
ter understanding of conditions and the 
various emergencies that undeniably exist. 

The Labor Jt WaS feared h Y the 

issue in mi- conservative trade-unionist 

nois Politics. that the fight on Speaker 

Cannon carried into Illinois by the Amer- 



262 



Charities and The Commons 



ican Federation of Labor would rend 
the state federation with dissension and 
personal jealousies. Its president there- 
fore advocated in advance individual ac- 
tivity instead of the organized move- 
ment urged by Mr. Gompers. The sit- 
uation was further complicated by the 
fact that the United Mine Workers had 
already endorsed one of their own mem- 
bers who was nominated by the socialists 
as the labor candidate to oppose Speaker 
Cannon. This Scotchman, John H. 
Walker, has long been an interesting fig- 
ure in the coal fields of that district, 
where he has worked in the mines since 
he was nine years of age. So strict has 
been his sense of justice that operators 
and miners have trusted him to settle 
grievances between them. He is re- 
ported to have often "braved the wrath 
of his constituents, sometimes at the risk 
of physical violence and told them if they 
did not return to work he would insist 
that their charter be revoked." While he 
may not suit Mr. Gompers who objects 
to endorsing any socialist, and will not 
wholly please the socialists themselves 
because he flatly declares "he has no 
party collar around his neck and will 
never wear one," he is said to be making 
a strong canvass and to be sure of re- 
ducing Speaker Cannon's majority even 
in his own home district. 

That his endorsement by the federa- 
tion in nowise disrupted is evident 
by the fact that its selection of officers 
was the most harmonious one held in the 
past ten years and resulted in completely 
eliminating the corrupt and violent ele- 
ment which was overthrown last year. 
The enthusiasm over this achievement 
reached its climax when the adjourn- 
ment was attended by the delegates 
singing "My country 'tis of thee," ral- 
lied and led by the stirring notes of a 
cornet played by a member of the 
musicians' union. 

Legal Pro- The Supreme Court of 
Jurisdiction" 5 !* Massachusetts has ren- 
warfare. dered a valuable and sig- 
nificant decision on an appeal from an 
injunction obtained, in a jurisdictional 
strife, by the stone pointers against the 



stone cutters. While the court conceded 
the right of one union to combine against 
another even to the extent of destroying 
it, the decision declares illegal any effort 
to involve an innocent third party in the 
dispute. It says: 

In our opinion organized labor's right of 
coercion and compulsion is limited to 
strikes on persons with whom the organi- 
zation has a trade dispute, or to put it an- 
other way, we are of the opinion that a 
strike on A, with whom the striker has no 
trade dispute, to compel A to force B to 
yield to the strikers' demands, is an unjust- 
ifiable interference with the rights of A to 
pursue his calling as he thinks best. 



Progress The annual meeting of 
° Trade* the British Trade-Union 
Unionism. Congress at Liverpool 
registered the high water mark in the 
thirty-nine years' history of its exist- 
ence. William E. Curtis, the widely 
known special correspondent of the Chi- 
cago Record-Herald seems to have been 
equally impressed with the president 
and the proceedings. The boiler-maker, 
Cummings, "presided with great dignity 
and spoke with eloquence," in declaring 
that the advent of labor unions into the 
political life of the nation meant a per- 
manent participation in the law-making 
functions of the government. 

The fact that thirty members of Par- 
liament and one member of the Cabinet 
and Privy Council of the Empire were 
enrolled as delegates, laid especial em- 
phasis upon the report of the "labor 
representation," or Parliamentary com- 
mittee. It contains two striking asser- 
tions. One, justifying the entrance of la- 
bor to politics, ran as follows: 

"If ever a movement was justified on its 
merits the labor movement of the House of 
Commons can claim to have established 
every evidence that these representative 
working men possess the courage, the abil- 
ity and the assiduity to legislate for the re- 
quirements of a great empire. Statesmen 
become famous who have a noble purpose to 
achieve, not for themselves but for their 
countrymen. Sent to parliament to direct- 
ly represent the industrial classes, with a 
fixed purpose, over fifty members are deter- 
mined, by fighting class prejudice and vest- 
ed interests, to amend bad laws and bring in 
good ones." 

Another paragraph of the report de- 
fends the ideals of union labor and the 



The Industrial Viewpoint 



263 



struggle for them in these stirring 
terms : 

"We must no longer be content to fight for 
a living wage which is measured by the iron- 
bound law of supply and demand. We want 
something beyond that. Our demand should 
be for a higher standard of living, something 
that will enable us to educate our families, 
to participate in art, literature, music, and 
have the good things that help to make life 
bright, happy and comfortable. The essen- 
tial, the noble essential, of trades unionism 
is to unite men and women to resist injus- 
tice. The highest aim of this congress is to 
bring the various brotherhoods together so 
that collective forces may concentrate or- 
ganization and effort in support of political 
and economic principles whenever found to 
be in common agreement." 

The instructions issued by the con- 
gress to the parliamentary committee 
and to the labor representative in the 
House of Commons seem to the Amer- 
ican reporter more radical in their de- 
mands than deliberate or practical in 
their suggestion of the ways and means 
of meeting them. Among them were 
the government ownership of public util- 
ities, an old age pension of five shillings 
a week for every man and woman who 
attains the age of sixty years, the pro- 
hibition of Sunday labor in all mills and 
factories, compulsory secondary and 
technical education up to the age of six- 
teen years, scientific physical culture 
with regular medical inspection for all 
children, government maintenance for 
all pupils fourteen years and under whose 
parents do not enjoy a certain income, 
the establishment of municipal mortgage 
banks to loan money at low rates on 
chattel mortgages to the poor, the legal 
requirement of mills and factories to 
furnish facilities and fuel for cooking 
and heating food at noonday, and the es- 
tablishment of a "moral minimum" wage 
of twenty-four shillings a week for 
forty-eight hours work. 

The growth of British trade unionism 
in the past thirty-eight years as regis- 
tered by the constituency of the Congress 
was reported to be as follows : 

Number of Societies Membership 

delegates, represented, represented. 

1868 34 ... 118,307 

1873 132 140 730,074 

1877 141 112 691,089 

1882 153 126 509,307 



1887... 


...156 


131 


674,034 


1892... 


...495 


418 


1,219,934 


1897... 


...381 


180 


1,093,191 


1902... 


...485 


198 


1,512,000 


1905... 


...458 


218 


1,510,000 



John Burns 

En w!th ed However the extent of the 
$1,000,000 to above demands may shake 
Unemployed, the confidence of the Brit- 
ish public in the judgment of the trade 
union congress, Parliament and public 
opinion have never given the labor 
movement or any of its leaders such a 
vote of confidence as when the House 
of Commons voted to entrust John 
Burns with $1,000,000 to use as he 
pleases in helping the unemployed of 
London. Not only the British empire 
but the people in every civilized land 
will await with interest the report of 
what Mr. Burns does with this money, 
and of the results of his expenditure. He 
is reported to have declared that the 
money is to be spent in wages for actual 
work done. He thinks there is plenty 
of work to be done, such as the reclama- 
tion of waste lands, the repair of the 
inroad of the sea upon the coast, planting 
of forests, and the building of public 
works. Any work, however hard, or 
even death from hardships, are consid- 
ered by him better than for a , man to 
wear himself out looking for work, or 
to lose independence and manhood by 
being supported in the workhouse by 
the poor rates. He claims to have re- 
duced the number of able-bodied men 
kept at public expense greatly, in one 
district cutting down the number by 
4,000 and in another by 10,000. And 
yet he claims that in London there are 
124,000 paupers and vagrants, 30,000 
casual poor in lodging houses, 20,000 
pauper lunatics, 6,000 imbeciles, and 
50,000 criminals. But for drink and 
gambling and their consequent evils, he 
thinks, the problems would be smaller 
and the remedies more effective. For 
the able bodied man who will not work 
he has no sympathy and would show no 
mercy. He thinks they should not live in 
comfort at the expense of the community. 
But he promises to do his best for the 
men genuinely unemployed, who seek 
real work and are not afraid of it. 



264 



Chanties and The Commons 



Trade Union The rapidly growing m- 

Co-operatlon . r ^ j • 1 j 

in industrial terest of trade union lead- 
Exhibits. ers - m t ^ e swea t shop and 

industrial exhibitions planned in the va- 
rious cities and at the Jamestown Expo- 
sition bids fair to result in the most ef- 
fective kind of co-operation. This inter- 
est has manifested itself in a progressive 
way. A member of the garment trades 
who is serving on the Chicago com- 
mittee brought up in his local union the 
matter of an exhibit by organized labor 
at the Jamestown Exposition, to the 
proposal of which his attention had been 
called in these columns. The local union 
adopted resolutions recommending favor- 
able action by the Chicago district coun- 
cil of the United Garment Workers of 
America. The delegate from this dis- 
trict council, having in turn been instruct- 
ed to urge the matter at the convention 
of the Illinois State Federation of Labor, 
introduced a resolution in that body. 
They called attention to national well- 
being or decadence as indicated by the 
condition of the working classes, and the 
fact that the aims and objects of trade 
unions to better these conditions are 
greatly misunderstood not only among 
employers but by many of the working 
people themselves, and instructed the 
Illinois delegates to the American Fede- 
ration of Labor convention to be held in 
Minneapolis in November to urge that 

immediate steps be taken to the end that an 
appropriate exhibit of organized labor may 
be installed by the American Federation of 
Labor in the forthcoming Exposition at 
Jamestown exemplifying our aims and ob- 
jects and the means employed to further our 
ends. 

The resolution was unanimously car- 
ried, thus assuring the consideration of 
the project by the greatest body of or- 
ganized labor in the country. By no 
means the most inconsiderable value of 
the movement is the successive considera- 
tion by one organization after another, 
from the relatively unimportant single 
union to the powerful national federa- 
tion, of the idea of exhibitions as a 
means of educational oropaganda. Far 
transcending in significance the actual 
proposal of an exhibit at the Jamestown 
Exposition is the introduction of organ- 



ized labor to this most effective way of 
setting forth its real aims and methods. 
Exhibitions made under its own direct 
auspices, while doubtless of value to knit 
together more firmly workers already in- 
terested in organized labor, would scarce- 
ly be heeded by the indifferent public and 
certainly not by those who are hostile. 

. The Reports of progress of the 

and Chicago Philadelphia Exhibition in- 
Exhibits. dicate that the trade unions 
are to co-operate effectively in supplying 
workers for booths representing sweat- 
shops of various kinds. They are also 
making a collection of union label ar- 
ticles to offset a collection of sweat-shop 
made articles which is being picked up 
in Philadelphia tenements. An artist is 
already at work getting up painted booths 
representing child labor conditions in 
coal mines, glass factories, and other in- 
dustrial establishments. Bryn Mawr 
college, through its classes in sociology 
is getting together charts and maps. And 
interesting exhibits are to be secured 
from the Visiting Nurse Society and the 
City Parks Association. 

In Chicago the plans for the exhibi- 
tion are still hanging on the clear defini- 
tion of scope. The "Women in In- 
dustry" exhibition looms up as so large 
an undertaking that it will doutless be 
postponed until next year at least, the 
same committee having in charge also 
the "sweating" exhibition which is plan- 
ned for next February. It is likely that 
the latter will be confined to showing the 
process of manufacture of some sixteen 
articles, mainly garments, which it is 
found are manufactured in whole or in 
part in the home. The exhibition, how- 
ever, will contrast home conditions with 
bad shop conditions and these with good 
shop conditions. Promise of co-opera- 
tion from manufacturers in showing the 
latter has already been secured. 

The Consumers' League and Union 
Label League will show a collection of 
label articles, and numerous other fea- 
tures will be biograph and stereopticon 
pictures, statistical charts, and other 
means of conveying graphically some 
conception of the extent and viciousness 
of the sweating evil. 



CHARITIES 

AND The Commons 



EDWARD T- DCVINC, EDITOR 

Graham Taylor. Associate 
Lee k. Frankel. Associate roi 
Jewish Charity 



TKe Common Welfare 

Paragraphs in PHilantHropy and Social Advance 



Clean milk for New York 

Clean Milk for • , ,« u • , r 

New York, city was the subject of a 
conference on November 
20, at the Academy of Medicine, called 
by the Association for Improving the 
Condition of the Poor. Some of the es- 
sential facts show the magnitude of the 
situation in New York. During the 
summer months from June to Septem- 
ber Manhattan's infant mortality de- 
creased from 4,687 in 1905 to 4,428 in 
1906, the same figure as in 1904. Every 
day the city consumes 1,600,000 quarts 
of milk of which only 10,000 are "cer- 
tified" and 3,000 "inspected." From 30,- 
000 dairies forty to four hundred miles 
away, comes the milk which New York 
buys in 12,000 places. To cover this 
field the Department of Health has only 
fourteen inspectors in the country, who 
can make the rounds of all the dairies 
and creameries not oftener than once a 
year. In the city there are sixteen who 
can make the rounds in from thirty to 
forty days. Last year saw 39,618 quarts 
destroyed and 806 arrests with fines 
amounting to $16,435. 

At the conclusion of a paper by Dr. 
Ernst J. Lederle a resolution of recom- 
mendation was adopted "that the sale 
of skim milk should be permitted but 
not for consumption by infants and not 
in retail stores where whole milk is 
sold." Pasteurization brought forth 
considerable discussion following a paper 
from Nathan Straus on Pure Food 
or Poison? After a discussion of the 
merits of pasteurization, both true and 
commercial, a resolution was adopted 
"that Pasteurization should not be made 
compulsory ; that commercial Pasteuriza- 
tion has some value but not the same as 

3 2 7 



true Pasteurization." "Pasteurize the 
cow" was the concise opinion of an in- 
spector of twenty-two years' experience. 
Other resolutions adopted were that 
infants' milk depots should use bottle 
raw milk and Pasteurized milk. The 
desirability of municipal depots was dis- 
cussed. Nothing should be sold in con- 
nection with milk except other dairy 
products and sealed package goods. In 
grocery stores separate booths for milk 
should be required. It was voted a com- 
mittee be appointed to co-operate with 
the County Medical Society and the 
Health Department to secure a better 
milk supply. 

The New "But, they spoke so f rank- 
le w °York e ty !" Was a remark Over- 
Conference, heard after each session of 
the New York State Conference of 
Charities and Correction, as one group 
and another passed from the auditorium 
to the hall where the conference exhibi- 
tion was held last week in Rochester. 
They did indeed speak frankly — even 
boldly, what had been turning in their 
minds during the past year and more. 
The demand for a new standard of 
living, education and public care for de- 
pendents, was echoed throughout all the 
meetings as fundamental. The debates 
throughout the sessions on illness, de- 
fectiveness, crime, and institutional 
shortcomings renewed over and over 
this opening theme, set forth at length 
in last week's issue of Charities and 
The Commons. 

In the discussion, Frank Tucker called 
for the establishment of social courts to 
which questions of industrial justice, 
price, rent and family standards and 



28 



Charities and The Commons 



practices affecting either society, or 
its members could be referred. 

The conference adopted the following 
significant resolution: 

Resolved, That the president of this con- 
ference be authorized to appoint a special 
committee of not less than eight nor more 
than sixteen, to report to this conference 
what constitute the essentials of a normal 
standard of living and the cost of such a 
standard of living for a definite social unit 
at this time in the principal cities and towns 
of this state; and further 

Resolved, That the raising of special funds 
to defray the expenses of this committee, be 
referred to the executive committee with 
power. 

Subsequently, President Murphy an- 
nounced the appointment of the follow- 
ing: 

Lee K. Frankel, New York, chairman; 
William H. Allen, New York; Edward T. 
Devine, New York; John J. Fitzgerald, New 
York; Homer Folks, New York; Rt. Rev. 
David H. Greer, New York; Cyrus L. Sulz- 
berger, New York; Seth Low, New York; 
Frank Tucker, New York; Rev. Adolph 
Guttman, Syracuse; Frederick Orr Hazard, 
Syracuse; Rt. Rev. Thos. F. Hickey, Ro- 
chester; Abram J. Katz, Rochester; Oliver 
P. Letchworth, Buffalo. 

The conference met under the presi- 
dency of Dr. William Mabon. An ex- 
hibition of the work of societies and in- 
stitutions was a telling feature of the 
meeting. 

The hospitality of the people of 
Rochester found repeated expression and 
the arrangements for the convenience 
of the delegates were excellent. 

The conference elected the following 
officers : 

President, Daniel B. Murphy of Rochester; 
vice-presidents, William Gary Sanger, Syra- 
cuse, Paul M. Warburg, New York, Charles 
W. Pilgrim, Syracuse; secretary, Walter E. 
Kruesi; treasurer, Francis H. McLean. 

industrial A mass meeting which 
Education packed the old low-ceiling- 

Movement. ed ^ Qf C()0per Union ^ 

the evening and an organization meeting 
in the afternoon which brought over two 
hundred delegates together in New York 
from all parts of the country, marked 
the crystalization last week of the move- 
ment for industrial education. The 



National Society for the Promotion of 
Industrial Education was the result. 
Henry S. Pritchett of Boston, was elect- 
ed president. N. W. Alexander of Lynn, 
Mass., vice-president and V. Everit Macy 
of New York, treasurer. A more ex- 
tended account of the proceedings will 
be published later. 

Kentucky state Four attendants at the 
and^Partfian Eastern Kentucky Asylum 
Pontics. f or ^g i nsane were indict- 
ed by the grand jury for the murder of 
a patient on June 22 ; one has been con- 
victed of manslaughter and one of as- 
sault and battery. The indictments 
against the other two have been 
dismissed for lack of sufficient evi- 
dence. The patient who was killed 
was a man particularly deserving 
of sympathy — a young working man 
with a wife and two children. 
His wife became ill with typhoid 
fever and after his long day's work at 
the mill he spent his nights caring for 
her. On the day she died he became 
suddenly and violently insane. From 
what is said of his case it appeared to be 
a hopeful one and probably would have 
responded to scientific treatment. The 
treatment he received was revolting bru- 
tality. He was kept strapped to his 
chair or bed two-thirds of the time, put 
in the "dark room," brutally beaten, not 
only when troublesome but apparently 
when strapped and helpless and actually 
done to death by those who were em- 
ployed to care for him. Three weeks 
after he left home — a powerful young 
man in good physical health — his dis- 
figured corpse was returned to his fam- 
ily. 

That such a thing could have 
happened in this country in this 
century is sufficiently astounding, but 
an even more appalling fact which 
becomes apparent from the reading of 
the newspaper accounts of the testimony 
in this case, is that it is not an isolated 
and exceptional instance of abuse, but 
that such things have been happening and 
are likely to continue to happen under 
the conditions which prevail in the asy- 
lums of Kentucky — conditions which 
prevail also in a number of other states. 



Southern Kindergarten and Settlement 



3 2 9 



"These conditions," according to an edi- 
torial article in the Lexington Herald of 
September 29, 

are the creation of an archaic and disgrace- 
ful system which has survived in Kentucky- 
longer than in other states, under which the 
patronage of the state institutions is counted 
a political asset of the party in control of 
the state government. * * * Under the sys- 
tem in Kentucky the attendants at every asy- 
lum are appointed for reasons other than 
their qualifications for the position. Their 
wages are tolled for the benefit of a factional 
or party organization. Those who sell provi- 
sions, or clothing, or supplies of any kind 
to the public institutions, support the domi- 
nant organization and contribute to the cam- 
paign fund. We do not know exactly by 
what system this is done or the particular 
method in use now, but in one way or an- 
other the whole patronage of the institutions 
has for years been used to build up the 
party machine and will continue to be used 
for that purpose until there is an awakening 
of the public conscience in Kentucky. 

The officers and employes appointed 
under this system, in their testimony at 
the trials, combine unconsciously to paint 
a picture of their institution which 
strongly impresses itself upon the mind 
of the reader. An ex-superintendent 
says: "The doctors can not give their 
personal time and attention to all the 
patients — it is physically impossible." 
"Visitors to the asylum," says one famil- 
iar with conditions, "have tried in vain 
to see a physician and have been told 
that they were all away. * * * ■ In 
one Kentucky asylum, with an all too 
suggestive similarity to the habit of con- 
victs in jail, the attendants had a system 
of taps on the water pipes whereby the 
exact location of any particular officer 
could be known." A supervisor ac- 
knowledges that he saw bruises on a pa- 
tient's body, heard him complain of mal- 
treatment, saw him strapped to the fur- 
niture, but made no examination of the 
case himself and never called it to the 
attention of a physician. An attendant 
says: "The only instructions I had at 
the asylum were to do as the older attend- 
ants told me." The night watchman 
mentions that he gave patients hypoder- 
mics and in his judgment, "had general 
authority to do this." In one Kentucky 
asylum a visitor coming in the late winter 
asked why the patients all looked so pale 
and was told that they had not been out 



of doors all winter because of insufficient 
clothing. From such neglect and indif- 
ference to cruelty, murder is not so long 
a step as it might appear and there are 
probably states no. yet disgraced by a 
public scandal where conditions are as 
bad as we know them to be in Kentucky. 

Of course the remedy is easy to pre- 
scribe — the complete disassociation of the 
state institutions from the influence of 
partisan politics, with the introduction 
of the merit system in the appointment 
of all officers and employes, and sufficient 
appropriations for the humane and sci- 
entific treatment of the patients. In 
states like New York and Massachu- 
setts, skilled physicians, trained nurses, 
attractive surroundings, good food and 
clothing, freedom from restraint, and 
such remedial treatment as is furnished 
by all the appliances known to modern 
science have become matters of course, 
and it is difficult to believe and realize 
that in other parts of this country the 
methods of half a century ago still pre- 
vail. 

Fortunately there are many people in 
Kentucky who are alive to the need of 
reform. One of the newspapers, the 
Lexington Herald, in addition to com- 
plete reports of the trials and intelligent 
and progressive editorials, has published 
a series of contributed articles by a read- 
er evidently thoroughly familiar with 
modern methods, comparing the Ken- 
tucky system of conducting state insti- 
tutions with that of Massachusetts. It 
is to be hoped that the movement for re- 
form in Kentucky will gather such force 
as to carry the state into the ranks of 
those foremost in this country in the hu- 
mane and remedial care and treatment 
of the insane. 



Southern 



From Atlanta, Georgia, 

Kindergarten CQmes the re p 0rt Q f the 

Settlement. fi r st combination of free 
kindergarten and settlement to be estab- 
lished in the far South. It is under the 
joint direction of the Free Kindergarten 
Association and the Federated Jewish 
Charities. V. H. Kriegshaber is presi- 
dent and Dr. B. Wildauer secretary and 
treasurer. The funds for the building 
which is immediately to be erected were 



33° 



Charities and The Commons 



given by Mrs. Maurice Hirsch as a me- 
morial to her husband. The remainder 
of the money for the purchase of prop- 
erty was secured by popular subscription. 
The work done will include classes in 
English and citizenship for the foreign 
population of Russians, Swedes and Ger- 
mans residing in the neighborhood where 
the new settlement house is to be built. 

The campaign The national capital has 
Renewed in swung into line again for 
Washington. a v ig 0rous cam paign in 

favor of the compulsory registration of 
all consumptives and the free examina- 
tion by the Health Department of all 
samples of sputum. Last spring the 
local committee on the prevention of con- 
sumption decided to give up or post- 
pone for a time its advocacy of this 
measure because a great deal of violent 
opposition and some unnecessary mis- 
understandings had been engendered 
among members of the medical societies. 
It was thought that delay might lead to 
subsequent harmony. There was some 
earnest opposition to taking up of the 
cause again this fall but the matter was 
discussed at two meetings of the com- 
mittee and it was finally decided that the 
committee should again take up the ear- 
nest advocacy of the bill it prepared and 
introduced last year. William H. 
Baldwin reviewed the efforts which the 
Washington committee have made for 
the last three years to promote such legis- 
lation and summarized reports which he 
had secured from fifty-three other large 
cities of this country, where similar laws 
are enforced. He also read letters from 
eighteen physicians of national reputa- 
tion representing ten of the largest cities. 
The report was so convincing that the 
committee voted for its adoption after it 
had been supported by earnest argu- 
ments from Gen. George M. Sternberg, 
E. H. Hunter, a negro who was a mem- 
ber of the first committee of three which 
gave origin to the movement in Wash- 
ington, Charles F. Weller, general sec- 
retary of the Associated Charities, and 
others. 

The Jewish Year Book just 
Year J Bo'ok i ! issued for the year 1906- 
1907 by the Jewish Publi- 
cation Society of America, contains much 



special information of interest to those 
who are collecting Jewish Americana, 
if that word is permissible. Beside some 
calendars of religious significance, it is 
a record of happenings in the national, 
state and municipal affairs affecting the 
Jews and is a bibliography of current 
literature in magazine or more permanent 
form pertaining to Jewish life and history. 
Of real value for reference is the tabula- 
tion of national Jewish organizations and 
of gifts and bequests to every kind of 
philanthropic work. The account of the 
year's happenings to Jews all over the 
world and the summary of events in Rus- 
sia furnish material not collated else- 
where with such accuracy. The Year 
Book might easily become a standard au- 
thority on national Jewish matters of the 
same relative usefulness as the Charities 
Directory is locally, with a yearly revision 
and complete tabulation of all Jewish 
charitable and philanthropic agencies in 
the United States. 



School 

Nurses in 

Philadelphia. 



Dr. Coplin of the Health 
Bureau of Philadelphia is 
asking councils for an ap- 
propriation to furnish eight school 
nurses for the public schools. The 
Press editorially supports the request as 
follows : 

The investigation made by the medical 
inspectors of the Health Bureau in the 
schools needs to be supplemented by the in- 
telligent care of the nurse at the school and 
by her visit at the home. 

Half the time what the doctor advises or 
directs with reference to the child is neg- 
lected by the family. In many cases of in- 
fectious disease the work of the nurse may 
make the difference between contagion or 
escape by children. In all, the daily visit 
of the nurse to the school makes the doctor's 
visit effective and saves teachers from try- 
ing to do work for which they are not train- 
ed. 

These school nurses, it was proposed last 
spring, should be paid by the Board of Edu- 
cation out of the sum set apart for schools. 
This would be a mistake. The school ap- 
propriation is none too big for its own needs. 

This particular work belongs to the De- 
partment of Health and Charities. It should 
be under the control of the Health Bureau. 

The health of our school children is part 
of the hygiene of the city, and on the whole 
the most important part. The city Health 
Bureau should watch over it and this cannot 
be adequately done without the eight school 
nurses for whom Dr. Coplin asks. 



The American Humane Association 



331 



Th . Amortnan The American Humane 

The American . 1 • 1 1 

Humane Association, which has 

Association. ^.^ yearg of philan . 

thropic effort to its credit, held its annual 
session in Chicago on November 14 and 
15. The delegates were welcomed to the 
city by Mayor Dunne and John L. 
Shorthall, president of the Illinois Hu- 
mane Society. The opening address was 
read by President W. O. Stillman of 
Albany who emphasized the usefulness 
of the work in which the society was 
engaged, aiming as it does at heart- 
culture and character-building. He 
predicted that in the future it would be 
the heart and not the brain that would 
create the largest and most enduring 
monuments. Referring to modern de- 
velopments in child-saving he urged in- 
creased attention to probation work in 
view of the fact that he thought ninety- 
five per cent of the young people dealt 
with in this way could be saved to good 
citizenship. 

J. J. Kelso of Toronto, Canada, fol- 
lowed with a paper on the practicability 
of curfew laws. While admitting all the 
evils that result from children being al- 
lowed to roam the streets, he found by 
actual experience the curfew law enact- 
ment was not a success. It has not been 
properly enforced in any place in which 
it was adopted, it has in fact been treated 
with indifference and in this way was 
apt to foster in the youthful mind a 
disregard for all law. He advocated 
dealing with the worst cases of street- 
wandering under the ordinary procedure 
of the Children's Aid Society, suppres- 
sion of indecent theatrical posters, pro- 
hibition of boys under sixteen from at- 
tending theatres without their parents, 
and the instruction of all young people 
in physiological law. 

Judge Wilkins of Brooklyn read a 
paper for J. D. Lindsay of New York 
dealing with the importance of having 
paid officers in societies for the preven- 
tion of cruelty to children. This was 
followed by a paper from Benjamin C. 
Marsh, secretary of the Pennsylvania So- 
ciety to Protect Children from Cruelty, 
in which he strongly urged that instead 
of merely prosecuting for cruelty and 



rescuing the child, the society should at- 
tack the social conditions that led to the 
ill treatment or neglect. He claimed that 
much of the work of these societies 
should be undertaken by the district at- 
torney and that it was the millionaires 
who owned the tenements and brothels 
who should be prosecuted. He further 
advocated that no school teacher should 
be asked to teach more than thirty chil- 
dren so that she could become acquainted 
with the home life and help by he*- in- 
fluence to prevent the children from be- 
ing neglected. The society should also 
have a department of publicity and edu- 
cation and a thorough system of medical 
inspection of all children. These views 
while indorsed in the main were regard- 
ed as outside the distinctive work of the 

S. P. c. c. 

Mrs. Mary F. Lovell, secretary of the 
society, at the afternoon meeting read a 
paper on the great need that existed for 
missionary work in organizing and keep- 
ing alive the humane movement through- 
out the continent. She contended that 
many societies are started in an earnest 
and enthusiastic way but they soon be- 
come discouraged and give up because of 
lack of encouragement from a , central 
bureau. An excellent paper on the work 
of the probation officer was read by N. J. 
Walker, secretary of the Mohawk and 
Hudson River Society. Jane Addams 
gave an interesting talk on child labor. 
E. Fellows Jenkins, superintendent of the 
New York S. P. C. C, gave an account 
of the work carried on by sister societies 
abroad. E. W. Newhall, president of the 
California S. P. C. C, presented a paper 
on the prevention of cruelty in San Fran- 
cisco after the earthquake. 

At the evening meeting in the Art In- 
stitute on Michigan Avenue, the prin- 
cipal speakers were: Judge Thomas 
Murphy of Buffalo, Judge Robert J. Wil- 
kin of Brooklyn, James M. Brown of 
Toledo and E. Fellows Jenkins of New 
York. 

The second day of the conference was 
devoted to the consideration of matters 
affecting cruelty to animals and the in- 
culcation of kindness by educational 
means. 



33 2 



Charities and The Commons 



New York At a meeting of the Hos- 
City Hospital pital Conference of New 

Conference. y^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

Academy of Medicine on October 30, 
a resolution was adopted providing for 
the appointment of a committee of in- 
vestigation to consist of ten members. 
This committee will be subdivided into 
committees of one, to each of which will 
be assigned one or more of the follow- 
ing subjects for investigation and re- 
port: 

Hospital expenditure, 

Uniform accounting, 

State inspection and municipal aid, 

The distribution and classification of hos- 
pitals and hospital beds in relation to the 
needs of the community, 

Ambulance service, 

Dispensaries, 

Medical organization and medical educa- 
tion, 

Paying patients, 

Co-operation of hospitals with each other 
and with other relief agencies, 

The treatment of patients in their own 
homes. 

It is provided that the committee of 
investigation shall have the right to of- 
fer reports and to make recommenda- 
tions to the conference as a body; but 
each member of the committee shall also 
have the right to present to the confer- 
ence at any regular meeting, a report 
on the subject especially assigned to 
him. The substance of any report made 
to the conference by an individual mem- 
ber of the committee of investigation, 
may be published by him unofficially as a 
personal document; but no report shall 
be published as an official document of 
the conference unless it shall have been 
adopted by vote and unless, following its 
adoption, its publication is ordered on 
the recommendation of the executive 
committee. 



trained workers in charity of the me- 
diaeval period of development, were 
heard to remark that "the thing was 
surely absurd, almost laughable in the 
nature of its proportions." New words 
for defining it would be acceptable were 
they obtainable, but for the present the 
president of the conference has fixed up- 
on its characteristics a title of his own in- 
vention — ' 'constructive and preventive." 
Joseph Lee, the president, has added a 
distinct contribution to the literature of 
charity in his paper on Charity and De- 
mocracy, which will be published in a 
later issue of Charities and The Com- 
mons. 

On the opening evening a paper was 
read by Dr. Richard C. Cabot on The 
Campaign Against Disease. Dr. Cabot 
followed the characteristic treatment of 
preventive medicine which marks him 
as a constructive sociologist, psycholo- 
gist and physician. The main lines of 
attack as outlined by him included a bet- 
ter development of home and hospital 
treatment for tuberculosis and proper 
occupation for patients ; public education 
as to the serious results of venereal dis- 
eases, diphtheria and other contagious 
maladies, and their relation to tubercu- 
losis ; school inspection in all its phases ; 
school hygiene ; public instruction in pre- 
venting and curing diseases, through 
schools, in the newspapers, — by philan- 
thropic advertising and by exhibits ; the 
suppression of evil advertisements, se- 
cret remedies, quacks and frauds ; pro- 
tection against dangerous trades and 
child labor; the work of a proposed 
national department of health, state 
boards of health; municipal health reg- 
ulations, district and school nursing ; and, 
finally, a campaign for mental health, 
and its relation to social work. 



The Massa- The fourth session of the 
c Stote s Massachusetts State Con- 

Conference. ference of Charities was 
significant probably more because of the 
nature of its program than because of 
any particular part of the program. The 
constructive side of charity, heretofore 
relegated to a distinctly secondary po- 
sition in these conferences, came to the 
front in a way so pronounced that many 



The Boy ^ profitable discussion cen- 

Probiem in tered around a paper on 

the country. Thg Country Boy, by 

(jreorge E. Johnson, superintendent of 
schools in Hyde Park, Massachusetts. 
Mr. Johnson said that, 

successful manhood must be preceded by 
successful boyhood. While truly successful 
manhood depends upon character, successful 
boyhood depends largely upon opportunity. 



The Boy Problem in the Country 



333 



The lack of opportunity of many city chil- 
dren for successful childhood has been wide- 
ly recognized; but country children, it has 
generally been supposed, have all the oppor- 
tunity needed. This is a mistake. There 
are needs of country children, which if they 
are not so dire as those of many city chil- 
dren, are very great. A lack of the right 
kind of play life, of intelligent contact with 
nature and of well-directed energy, are no- 
ticeable in the case of a great class of boys 
and girls of our country towns and villages. 

To meet the need of the boys of a certain 
country town, a vacation school was recent- 
ly opened for six weeks in July and August. 
The public school plant was used. The 
playground afforded opportunity for free 
play and for directed plays and games. The 
interest in nature, which undirected often 
leads to wanton cruelty and misappropria- 
tion, was directed into legitimate and profit- 
able channels. The wood-work room sup- 
plied opportunity for the construction of 
toys and much apparatus used in the school. 
Gardening was followed under the charge 
of a professional gardener. 

A printing press supplied continued occu- 
pation for would-be printers and journal- 
ists, the musicians formed an orchestra 
which delighted the performers if not those 
who listened, and the ponds and streams 
of the town furnished swimming pools, 
where nearly every boy learned to swim in 
a safe and proper manner. 

There were no unusual conditions to favor 
the success of such a school in the town 
where it was held. As successful and econ- 
omical a school might be conducted in any 
country town or village almost in the coun- 
try. 

The discussion which followed gave 
hardly as satisfactory a clue to the range 
of opinion on the matter as is obtainable 
from recent correspondence on the same 
subject. One writer, pessimistic to the 
extreme, said of his village that two or 
three degenerates, genuine Lombroso 
types, afflicted the place, disturbances, 
vandalism, vulgarity and stealing being 
their particular delight. The only po- 
liceman was characterized as a compound 
of dementia and paralysis, for whom the 
boys had no respect and whom they 
would on occasion rob of his hat and 
billy, terrorize the citizens, and go un- 
molested. In another place the respon- 
sibility was shouldered by the citizens, 
one of whom said: 



The boy problem is first of all the man 
problem. "The boy is father to the man," is 
quoted too frequently in disregard of the 
much more important and vital truth that 
the man is father of the boy. All men are 
fathers to all boys. Some boy is imitating 
each man and some men are being imitated 
by many boys. We had to get at the men 
and the women; to smooth out and so far 
as possible obliterate the foolish differences 
of race, creed and social condition that 
create "uptown" and "downtown," keep 
adults from knowing each other's hearts 
and lead the youngsters to make faces in 
school and revile each other on the street. 
So a body of men who knew and trusted each 
other thoroughly, including a wise and 
broad-minded Catholic priest, a Congrega- 
tional minister, a local editor, several mill 
men, some of the operatives, Catholic and 
Protestant alike, took this problem in hand 
and by all means at command blended the 
people that make the town. 

This shows a community at work, a 
community as one; and the boy problem 
disappears. 

These two points of view show the 
range of the subject of boys in the coun- 
try towns and the range of methods of 
solution. Seldom, however, do com- 
munities assume the responsibility, as in 
the second instance mentioned, the usual 
custom being to try to throw it entirely 
upon the boys or upon the least com- 
petent portion of the parents of the com- 
munity. 

The last session of the conference was 
devoted to The Liquor Law and its Ad- 
ministration in Suburban Cities. The 
leading paper, by Hon. Arthur Lyman, 
will be covered elsewhere. The chair- 
man of the section, Rev. T. F. Wright, 
of Cambridge, said that the cause of 
the home, the school, the church and the 
philanthropic institutions demands no 
license vigorously voted and then rigor- 
ously enforced. 

The conference elected the following 
officers: Hon. Charles A. De Courcey, 
juclge of the superior court at Lawrence, 
president; Abraham C. Ratshesky, Bos- 
ton, and Dr. J. T. Adams, Pittsfield, 
vice-presidents; Seymour H. Stout, Bos- 
ton, secretary. 



334 



Charities and The Commons 



Notes 

Council of Jewish Women. — $3,145 col- 
lected for relief in San Francisco is the re- 
port from the Council of Jewish Women. 
The national executive of the council met in 
New York city on November 12, and further 
reported that the new committee on immi- 
great aid has undertaken an investigation 
of the living and industrial condition of 
2,000 Jewish immigrant girls between the 
ages of eleven and thirty years with a view 
to bettering their condition. The New York 
section contributed $200 for the work of the 
national committee; a Russian society in 
Pittsburg contributed $50 and $1,000 was 
appropriated from the national treasury for 
the work of this committee. The next exec- 
utive meeting will be held at the Jamestown 
Exposition. 

Jewish Settlement "Work, in Baltimore. — 
Maccabean House in Baltimore, a settlement 
whose work is entirely among boys, has 
elected Miss Minnie D. Hanaw, a student in the 
1906 summer session of the New York School 
of Philanthropy, head-resident. The Daught- 
ers in Israel in that city, who have an es- 
tablished home for working girls and also 
do general settlement work for girls and 
women, have selected Miss Annette Mann, 
also a summer school student, as superin- 
tendent and head-worker. In addition to 
their work at the School of Philanthropy 
both workers have had experience in other 
cities in settlement work. Miss Hanaw 
spent five years at Neighborhood House in 
Louisville, Ky., and Miss Mann has worked 
in Cincinnati. Miss Hanaw is assisted by 
Mr. F. W. Pinner of Montgomery, Ala. 

Harlem Federation for Jewish Communal. 
— Some two years ago a movement was 
started on the upper East Side of New York 
city in the interest of the Jewish youth of 
the neighborhood. Three small flats were 
rented, a head worker put in charge and 
clubs and classes organized under the lead- 
ership of volunteer workers. As the inter- 
est in the organization grew the old quarters 
became crowded, and recently sufficient 
funds were collected to purchase a small 
house at 240 E. 105th street. This building 
will be officially opened on the first Sunday 
in December. The organization also main- 
tains an evening branch at Temple Israel 
Sisterhood, 311 E. 116th street. 

The association was originally termed the 
Harlem Federation for Jewish Communal 
as it was planned to include only represent- 
atives of existing societies. The idea was im- 
practicable, however, and although still a 
federation in name, the association is a sep- 
arate organization. 

The officers are: Dr. Maurice Harris, 
president; Daniel P. Hays, treasurer; E. A. 
Cohen and B. Corn, secretaries. 

Lectures on Municipal Government. — Un- 
der the auspices of the University Settle- 



ment Association of Cincinnati, a compre- 
hensive lecture course on municipal govern- 
ment is being conducted in Pythian Armory 
hall in that city. Among the topics and 
speakers are: History of Cincinnati, Charles 
T. Greve; Duties and Difficulties of the 
Mayor, Edward Dempsey; The Citizen and 
His City, Elliot H. Pendleton; Municipal 
Housecleaning, Harry R. Probasco; Munici- 
pal Franchises, Frederick Howe; Public 
School Education for Public Service, Dr. J. 
M. Withrow; The Function of Political Par- 
ties, H. L. Gordon; Primary Law Reform, 
A. J. Freiberg; Neighborhood Recreation 
Parks, Max Senior. 

Public School Boys 7 Club. — Another pub- 
lic school house has been put to use for 
boys' club purposes in Syracuse. Through 
the enterprise of the Solway Guild the base- 
ment of Porter School in the west end of 
Syracuse has been fitted into a game room 
and a basket ball arena. The club was 
opened in October, and the local board of 
education is favorable to the extension of 
the work in other schools. 

The Vanguard. — Volume I and number I 
of The Vanguard, a monthly bulletin issued 
by the Kentucky Anti-Tuberculosis Associa- 
tion, has just appeared. The officers of the 
association follow: 

W. C, Nones, president; Rev. W. H. Ram- 
say, 1st vice-president; Dr. J. A. Flexner, 
2nd vice-president; Theodore Harris, treas- 
urer; Thomas D. Osborne, secretary. Exec- 
utive committee, Mrs. John Little, C. L. 
Adler, Marshall Bullitt, A. T. Macdonald, 
Dr. S. A. Hartwell, Dr. Dunning S. Wilson, 
R. W. Bingham, Bernard Flexner, George L. 
Sehon. 

A Canadian Institutional Appointment. — 
Dr. C. B. Coughlin of Peterboro, Ontario, 
has been appointed superintendent of the 
Institute for the Deaf and Dumb at Belle- 
ville, succeeding R. Mathison, who was su- 
perintendent for over twenty years. Dr. 
Coughlin has been active in the political 
life of the province. He is a member of 
the Provincial Board of Health. 

New York State Sanitary Officers' Confer- 
ence. — The sixth annual conference of the 
health boards and health officers of New 
York state, which has hitherto held all of 
its meetings in Albany, met in Syracuse last 
month with an attendance of about 400 
delegates. 

Half of the time was devoted to a dis- 
cussion of tuberculosis; the Boston exhibit 
was on hand to make the problem and its 
treatment stand out concretely. Among the 
speakers were: Dr. Lawrason Brown of the 
Adirondack cottage, Dr. Herbert M. King of 
the Loomis Sanitorium, Dr. M. P. Ravenal, 
Dr. Billings, Dr. J. L. Heffron and Dr. S. A. 
Knopf. Other subjects discussed were meat 
inspection, pure foods, water supplies, sew- 
.age, medical inspection in the schools, and 
fumigation. 



Parents' Associations and tKe Public ScKools 



Fannie Fern Andrews, Boston 



The formation of parents' associations 
connected with the schools is a part of 
the wider movement for the social utiliza- 
tion of the school plant. Within recent 
years it has come to the minds of many 
that the public school, with its expensive 
equipment should be used for the public 
benefit more than five hours a day, five 
days in the week, and forty weeks in 
the year. Evening schools, playgrounds, 
vacation schools, school gardens, evening 
lectures, educational centers, mothers' 
clubs, and parents' associations, are ex- 
pressions of the conviction that the school 
should be the common educational and 
social center of the neighborhood; that 
its functions are no longer confined to 
the narrow boundaries of a school for 
children. These various forms of educa- 
tional extension have proved that the 
school is capable of becoming a stimulus 
to the higher intellectual and social life 
of the people. The movement has gone 
on almost of itself, in many parts of the 
country, which indicates a common de- 
sire among the people to make the school 
serve all members of the community. 

The first step in the extension of the 
use of school buildings beyond the tra- 
ditional five-hour limit, was the evening 
school, the purpose of which was to offer 
evening academic instruction to those en- 
gaged in work during the daytime. Be- 
gun many years ago, the haphazard 
course of study is developing into a 
graded and progressive course of in- 
struction ranging from primary through 
high school work. This development is 
keeping a fair pace with the new sub- 
jects introduced into the day school and 
is adapting itself more and more to the 
particular needs of the pupils. With 
this progress in the character and ar- 
rangement of the subject matter, more- 
over, has come a corresponding improve- 
ment in the quality of the teaching; and 
the two have combined to increase 
the attendance and establish the evening 
school as an integral part of the public 
school system. 

335 



The evening school, therefore, is an ex- 
tension of the function of the public day 
school along similar lines and for a similar 
purpose, namely, — the acquirement of an 
academic education. Gradually there 
grew into shape the idea that the school 
should minister to other needs of the 
community besides the purely educational. 
The playground and vacation school 
movement sought to open school yards 
where children could enjoy various 
amusements in safety, and to utilize the 
school houses for recreation, study and 
instruction. This special educational 
service is unquestionably of great bene- 
fit, especially to the poorer children of 
the crowded districts whose only play- 
ground is the street. In affording a 
means of healthful amusement, in keep- 
ing the children from the pernicious in- 
fluence of the streets, and in cultivating 
the habit of useful occupation, the va- 
cation school has justified its right to be 
placed upon as permanent a basis as the 
regular day schools. In fact, vacation 
schools have been adopted as part of 
the public school system in nearly all the 
large cities of the country, and in many 
rural towns. 

The school garden is another evidence 
of the idea that the school should extend 
its functions. Beginning first as an ad- 
junct to nature study work, developing 
into the vegetable garden with individual 
plots, it has, along with other school 
activities, extended its influence to the 
home. Thus we have the home garden. 
Both the school garden and the home 
garden have demonstrated their worth 
as permanent factors in the education of 
the child. They are found in cities, and 
in rural districts. 

More than fifteen years ago a few 
discerning people thought out a further 
plan for extending education to the adult 
population — courses of free evening 
lectures. The interest on the part of the 
people and the systematic arrangement of 
the lectures, endeavoring to meet all 
tastes and capacities, lead one to believe 



33& 



Charities and The Commons 



that these courses might easily develop 
into a people's university affording an 
opportunity for all people to acquire 
through the lecture system the elements 
of a broad, general education from the 
best teachers. "No power," quotes Dr. 
Henry M. Leipziger, supervisor of lec- 
tures in New York city, "in human ex- 
perience has wrought such mighty influ- 
ence as the spoken word." New York, un- 
doubtedly, gives us the best example of 
this extension of the school system. 

The next notable development in the 
school extension movement is the edu- 
cational center. This idea has probably 
been worked out more fully in Boston 
than in any other place. The motive 
here has been to offer any kind of educa- 
tional opportunity that would appeal to 
the inclinations of the people of a given 
neighborhood. The educational center 
also provides opportunities for the chil- 
dren of school age to come to the school 
rooms in the evening for study and rec- 
reation and aims to gather boys from the 
street and organize them in clubs. Ex- 
perience has shown that a schedule large- 
ly confined to industrial lines attracts the 
greatest number of people. Instruction 
in domestic science, dressmaking, millin- 
ery, civil service, steam engineering, elec- 
tricity, mechanical drawing, physical 
training, with the addition of music, pop- 
ular lectures and entertainments, have 
proved eminently adapted to the needs 
of a particular neighborhood. The 
whole aim has seemed to be to make the 
schoolhouse a social focus from which 
will emanate influences that will refine 
and elevate the social status of a neigh- 
borhood. The financial question has 
checked the growth of the educational 
center in Boston which began in April, 
1902, although the importance of con- 
tinuing and developing this idea has be- 
come fully recognized. 

Mothers' clubs and parents' associa- 
tions represent another step in the social 
utilization of the schools. This move- 
ment began with the kindergarten which 
established the custom of holding 
mothers' meetings. In these meetings, 
the mothers and kindergartner talk over 
the children and discuss the functions 
of the home as related to those of the 
school. In many places, this mutual co- 



operation between kindergartner and 
mother, has grown until regularly or- 
ganized mothers' clubs have been formed. 
These have much advantage over the 
mothers' meetings; for permanent or- 
ganization brings with it permanent in- 
terest. Mothers' meetings and mothers' 
clubs, however, have not been limited to 
the kindergarten; they are also found in 
connection with the higher grades of the 
school. Moreover, the idea has grown 
until the mothers' clubs have developed 
into parents' meetings and parents' clubs 
or parents' associations, as they are 
called. Fathers, as well as mothers, have 
become interested in the work. These as- 
sociations are not compulsory but have 
generally been formed at the pleasure of 
the school principal, either by his own 
personal efforts or at the suggestion of 
parents or citizens. 

Several women's organizations have 
become interested in this movement, and 
have been of material assistance to teach- 
ers and parents in getting them together. 
Probably the body which has accomplish- 
ed the most in this direction is the Na- 
tional Congress of Mothers, which has 
for one of its chief aims the formation 
of mothers' clubs and parent-teacher as- 
sociations. It has a state organizer in 
nearly every state in the Union, and 
many hundreds of clubs formed under its 
direction are doing most commendable 
work. Their object is, according to 
x^rticle II of the constitution: "To bring 
into closer relation the home and the 
school; that parents and teachers may 
intelligently co-operate in the education 
of the child." Each association joins the 
National Congress of Mothers which pro- 
vides helpful literature on subjects of 
interest to parents and teachers, and also 
offers suggestive programs and speakers. 

All these methods for the social utili- 
zation of the schools are reinforced by a 
public opinion which is constantly look- 
ing to the school to minister more and 
more to the needs of the community. 
This idea is embodied in the annual report 
of the Boston School Board for 1902, as 
expressed in the following passage: 

This development of the uses to which 
the school plant may be devoted has taken 
place within a very short time, and has by 
no means reached its limit. Several build- 



Parents' Associations and the Public Schools 



337 



ings contain convenient and well equipped 
bathing facilities. The new high school 
houses have suitable gymnasia adapted for 
classes in physical training, which will soon 
undoubtedly be used for such purposes for 
the benefit of those living in their respective 
neighborhoods. There are many other uses 
to which the school plant may be put for the 
public good. Such structures as our newer 
buildings are examples of may be availed 
of during the hours when the pupils are not 
in attendance, for social gatherings, and for 
meetings of local societies; in brief, the 
school house should be used by the people 
for such purposes as the people themselves 
may deem for their own benefit, and from it 
should radiate an atmosphere of mutual 
sympathy and helpfulness. 

A careful study of the factors in this 
general movement will show that with 
the exception of mothers' clubs and par- 
ents' associations, all have been recog- 
nized to a greater or less extent, as activi- 
ties that should properly come under the 
direct control of school officials. Moth- 
ers' clubs and parents' associations on the 
other hand are forces embodying the co- 
operation of school officials and parents. 

increasing the A community should be 
Day school's concerned with two great 
c ency * sociological problems — the 
education and development of the child 
to his greatest efficiency and the elevation 
of the intellectual and social life of adults. 
The two institutions which have a com- 
mon interest in solving these problems 
are the school and the home — the teacher 
and the parent, the citizen in general. It 
is obvious that the co-operative method 
is necessary for the best solution of the 
problems. Through co-operation, the 
teacher is able to understand the view- 
point of the parent, who in turn will 
learn to appreciate the motive of the 
teacher in performing his functions in 
the educational system. 

Of all the ways for utilizing the school 
plant, the greatest importance must be at- 
tached to the co-operative force, which 
has fittingly been termed by the National 
Congress of Mothers, "parent-teacher 
association." This can be made the one 
unifying force in solving the sociological 
problems of every community. Not only 
does it represent one means for the social 
utilization of the schools, but a body 
whose functions include and compre- 
hend all the others. By the nature of its 



organization, it must act as the corre- 
lating medium of all these efforts. In 
other words, it must take an attitude on 
all forms of educational endeavor, and 
help each to fulfill its functions. It there- 
fore is concerned not only with educa- 
tional extension work, but also with the 
problems of the day school as well. This 
latter function, however, is usually con- 
sidered the main if not the whole concern 
of a parent-teacher association. This is, 
however, much narrower than its real 
scope; although if its work were limited 
to an active interest in the day school, it 
would go a long way toward solving the 
sociological problems of the community; 
for undoubtedly the day school is the 
greatest factor in educating and develop- 
ing the child to his greatest efficiency, 
which is, after all, the foundation for the 
elevation of the intellectual and social 
life of adults. But still the parent-teach- 
er association, as the other forms of 
social educational endeavor, must act as 
the opportunist, and seize every means 
which will immediately benefit the com- 
munity. 

How can such an association increase 
the efficiency of the day school ? First, it 
can establish a co-operative spirit be- 
tween teacher and parent and thus help 
immeasurably to make this part of the 
educational system answer the fullest 
needs of the children. Both the parent 
and the teacher have distinct functions 
to perform ; yet these overlap in a large 
measure. The teacher is charged with 
the intellectual, physical and moral wel- 
fare of the child five or six hours a day 
for forty weeks in the year. During the 
remainder of the time the responsibility 
rests with the parent. 

Each has a difficult task to perform. 
Sometimes the parent fancies that the 
teacher could exert a greater influence 
for the child's welfare; and oftentimes 
the teacher attributes unsatisfactory re- 
sults to the failure of the parent in per- 
forming his part of the work. The real 
trouble is not with the parent, the teacher, 
or the child, but with the way in which 
responsibility is divided. The remedy is 
co-operation of the parent and teacher. 

At the present time the parent seldom 
comes to the school. His visits are 



33% 



Charities and The Commons 



chiefly confined to exhibition and gradua- 
tion days, or to such times when a diffi- 
culty arises between the child and the 
teacher. This custom has brought about 
a lack of that co-operation necessary for 
the best welfare of the child ; and has re- 
sulted sometimes in developing a hostile 
feeling between the parent and the teach- 
er, under which circumstances neither 
can perform his functions to the best 
advantage. 

The attitude of the great majority of 
parents is one of indifference to the 
school and its problems ; this comes from 
a lack of knowledge. From the same 
source, springs the attitude of those 
parents having no particular fault to find, 
yet somehow think that the school is not 
just what it should be; and more sig- 
nificantly still does this lack of knowledge 
tend to create the body of aggrieved 
parents who believe that something is 
radically wrong. An acquaintance with 
the problems of the teacher would turn 
indifference into interest and undoubtedly 
change the attitude of passive and active 
hostility into one of sympathy with the 
teacher and his work. Knowledge of 
each other's problems is the essential 
means of creating a co-operative spirit 
between teacher and parent. 

The parent-teacher association affords 
the greatest opportunity for imparting 
this knowledge to the parent and to the 
teacher. In fact, to study the problems 
of home and school is the first duty of 
such an association. The teacher's prob- 
lems are great in number and little under- 
stood by the parent; and equally great 
and unappreciated is the parent's share of 
the work. 

One of the essential quali- 

H c£n P He?p t5 fi cat i° ns of 2L good School is 

regular and prompt attend- 
ance. It is clear that the parent has much 
to do in securing this. When he is made 
to realize that regular attendance is 
necessary for the child if he is to pro- 
gress regularly, and further when he is 
made to appreciate how irregularity on 
the part of any member of the school 
causes delay and loss to the class as a 
whole, he is willing many times to waive 
his personal reasons for keeping the child 
from school. 



Home work under the guidance of the 
teacher can be made one of the most far 
reaching influences of the school if the 
parent is in sympathy with it. The 
teacher, however, must be the controlling 
factor, and nowhere does he find a great- 
er opportunity to display his skill. Home 
work means something broader than the 
study of home lessons. It means rather 
the direction of the child's activities in 
general by the teacher outside of school. 
He can, for example, with the aid of 
the parent direct the child's reading. To 
stimulate the child to make gardens is 
one of the greatest opportunities of the 
teacher. 

The child can also continue his man- 
ual training in the home. He can make 
things to bring to school for the general 
good. The parent can make effective 
the sewing and cooking instruction given 
in school by encouraging the girls to 
cook for the home and to make useful 
articles, either for the family or for their 
own personal wear. The home might 
be the practical workshop for the cook- 
ing and sewing teacher; and the ordi- 
nary parent would be quite willing to 
help to make it so. 

It almost wholly rests with the parent 
to send the child to school clean. The 
teacher feels keenly the detrimental ef- 
fect of soiled and torn clothing and an 
unkempt body; and for the good of the 
child and for the common good of the 
school, he teaches, more or less tactfully, 
the virtue of being clean. Actual wash- 
ing is sometimes necessary and the 
scnool bath comes into good use. If 
the parent could be made to see, and ex- 
perience has proved that he can, the 
physical dangers of being unclean, the 
school bath would be much less neces- 
sary for actual cleaning, although it 
would always be a healthful adjunct to 
the school plant for those children who 
have no adequate facilities for thorough 
bathing at home. 

Almost innumerable are the ways in 
whicn the parent can co-operate with the 
teacher in the moral development of the 
child. Street company, promiscuous 
theatre-going, an unhealthy home atmos- 
phere, factors that are almost under the 
entire control of the parent, many times 



Parents' Associations and the Public Schools 



339 



completely offset the teacher's efforts in 
moral training. The teacher can never 
hope to obliterate the evil results attend- 
ing these conditions without the help of 
the parent, who must undoubtedly take 
the initiative. 

The question of truancy is a matter 
that concerns equally the parent and 
teacher. Each must study the child. 
It is surprising how quickly a trouble- 
some affair will sometimes be cleared 
up after a conference with the parent, 
'me special classes for unruly pupils, 
which are beginning to be started, can 
only attain the best results when the par- 
ent is in sympathy with their aims. 

Probably none of the problems of the 
teacher appeal more naturally and direct- 
ly to the parent than those which come 
under moral training. Every parent, 
even though he is not good himself, 
wants his child to be good ; but he is 
usually unable to analyze the influences 
that keep the child from being good. 
1 hese have to be pointed out to him, and 
in no other case will the teacher find 
such a responsive chord. 

Contrasted with the moral training of 
the child whose meaning the parent can 
understand by instinct, is the physical 
development which is based on scientific 
principles, which are rarely understood 
by the parent. A strong body nur- 
tured in a moral atmosphere is impera- 
tive if the child is to receive the greatest 
benefit from the school ; and no one is 
more responsible for the physical con- 
dition of the child than the parent. The 
teacher's work in this direction, depends, 
in a large measure, upon the efficiency 
of the parent in performing his func- 
tions. It is almost useless to present 
arithmetic, geography, or history to a 
tired or hungry child; to one whose 
senses are dulled by cigarette smoking; 
to one who sees or hears indistinctly ; 
or to a child who is actually sick. Many 
parents do not realize the value of a 
fresh, clear mind in the school-room, 
which is dependent upon proper sleep 
and proper and sufficient food. Many 
are not waked up to the baneful results 
of the nicotine habit, or to the necessity 
of caring for children's ailments. Few 
parents, however, fail to respond when 



the teacher explains how these factors 
affect the child's school work. The par- 
ents need only to understand; it is rare 
that we find one who does not want his 
child to get along. He wants the best 
results but does not know how to secure 
them. He needs information. 

The failure of parents to 

inspection and detect and care for the ail- 

^biigattonf' ments of their children has 

brought about the move- 
ment for medical inspection in the 
schools. It originated in an effort to 
protect the public from the spread of 
contagious diseases, although it is now 
beginning to look at the matter from the 
standpoint of the child's welfare. Where 
medical inspection has been introduced, 
the teacher must be alert in selecting 
those children whom he thinks are 
sources of danger in spreading disease 
and also in detecting physical ailments 
which render the child unable to make 
full use of his school opportunities. The 
teacher has thus been obliged to assume 
responsibilities heretofore left to the par- 
ent. This does not, however, relieve the 
parent from all responsibility. If any- 
thing it increases his obligations. , In the 
past he sent the child to school irre- 
sponsibly, ignorantly taking chances of 
his coming down with some disease, or 
of going through school with physical 
infirmities which obstructed his develop- 
ment. With medical inspection, where 
the parent knows that his child will be 
submitted to physical examination, he 
feels under obligation to scrutinize him 
before going to school, for he is obliged 
to receive the child back again if he is 
pronounced physically unsound. Where 
before he was under the state's control 
only in infectious and contagious dis- 
eases, he is now responsible for other 
ailments. Medical inspection, therefore, 
cannot become really efficient without 
the parent's co-operation. He must be 
made to understand the meaning of these 
ailments ; and in proportion as he under- 
stands them, he will conform to instruc- 
tions. The campaign for medical inspec- 
tion, then, must include a campaign for 
the instruction of parents. 

The Massachusetts Civic League, 
in its agitation for medical inspec- 



340 



Charities and The Commons 



tion, has seen its bill introduced into 
the last legislature, become a law. Em- 
phasizing the importance of making the 
measure effective, the league urges the 
citizens to interest their local school com- 
mittee so "that it may not only cause 
the required inspection of sight and hear- 
ing to be made, but may have it made as 
carefully and effectively as possible." 
Further it points out that 

work will have to be done to secure the ap- 
propriation for carrying out that part of 
the bill which requires a doctor's visit to 
each child who seems in ill health. 

It is expressly stated in the bill that 
the appropriation must precede any ex- 
penditure. Trie league states that citi- 
zens should be interested not only to 
carry through the appropriation, but 

in order that parents may appreciate the 
importance of acting upon the notices in re- 
gard to their children's health which they 
will receive as a result of the inspection pro- 
vided for in the bill. 

Obviously the parent is the greatest 
factor in bringing about these conditions 
and he therefore needs information on 
the subject. If he realizes, as the mak- 
ers of this bill realize, the value to him- 
self and to the community of develop- 
ing physically sound children, he will 
become the stoutest advocate of medical 
inspection in the schools ; and will not 
only demand thorough inspection by the 
teachers and school physicians, but wi-.l 
work vigorously for a sufficient appro- 
priation to start and carry on the work. 

It is true that in some instances where 
this system is used, the parents have ig- 
nored the notices which the children have 
brought home. They have done this, 
not because they have not wanted their 
children to be in good health, but be- 
cause they have not had sufficient faith 
in the opinion of the school physician to 
heed his instructions. Many times the 
excuse is made that the parent cannot af- 
ford to seek medical advice and often 
this is the case. However if the parent 
really believes, as the physician does, 
that the child's symptoms are serious, he 
would find a way to minister to the 
child's need as he would in the case of 
a contagious disease which the state com- 



pels him to care for. Knowledge, then, 
on the part of the parent, is the under- 
lying principle governing successful med- 
ical inspection. 

The school nurse is a potent means 
of giving the parent medical instruction. 
An illustration of the willingness on the 
part of the parent to co-operate when he 
understands the meaning of things, is 
the way in which the nurse is invariably 
received in the home. Her methods are 
simple and easily understood and this 
is the secret of the gratifying response 
from the parent. 

Besides the physical defects which the 
school physician refers to the parent, 
medical inspection will discover mental 
weaknesses, sufficiently marked to call 
for special consideration. In these cases 
the parent can materially aid the school 
physician and the teacher in deciding on 
the best method to be adopted for the 
child. 

Besides all these problems in which the 
parent can co-operate with the teacher, 
there are others concerning the course 
of study. As is the case with the other 
problems, knowledge is the remedy. 
Every parent should understand the 
aims of each study and its relation to the 
general scheme; and this knowledge can 
be given so that every parent can under- 
stand. Parents are always interested in 
the study of the education which their 
children are receiving, and when they 
understand it, invariably become loyal 
supporters of the teacher and the school. 

These, then, are some of the problems 
which the parent must become acquaint- 
ed with in order to work in a co-oper- 
ative spirit with the teacher, who on the 
other hand must know the conditions 
under which the parent works. 

The parent-teacher association, com- 
posed jointly of parents and teachers, 
united for the avowed object of study- 
ing each other's problems, with a view 
to using this knowledge for the best in- 
terests of the child, is certainly the most 
effective means of bringing about all this 
co-operation. It is therefore, eminently 
adapted to help the day school to fulfill 
all its functions, and consequently, to 
aid in the solution of the first great so- 
ciological problem in every community, 



Parents' Associations and the Public Schools 



34i 



namely, — the education and develop- 
ment of the child to his greatest effi- 
ciency. 

It can equally aid in the solution of the 
second problem, namely, — the elevation 
of the intellectual and social life of 
adults. Consistent with this aim, it must 
take an attitude toward the evening 
school. The school committee can offer 
this educational opportunity, but it can- 
not make it effective, unless the people 
partake of it. The greatest service here 
which the parent-teacher association can 
give, is to point out the value of this 
opportunity; show the people their 
needs; and create in them a desire for 
an education. This opportunity for sys- 
tematic evening instruction is becoming 
more and more general throughout the 
country ; and will be offered to a greater 
extent as the people desire it. The par- 
ent-teacher association can show the peo- 
ple why they should desire it. 

Such an organization can be the main 
prop of the playground, vacation-school, 
and school garden. Being a co-operative 
force of parent and teacher it can, more 
than anything else, point out the excep- 
tional benefits of these rare educational 
opportunities. 

The evening lecture system and the 
educational center with its great possibil- 
ities, will extend as the people feel the 
need of such instruction. 

work of ^ e parent-teacher asso- 
the Boston ciations, which perhaps 

Associations. ,« 

come nearer than any 
others to the general idea of bringing 
school and community together, are those 
in Boston, which were established by 
the conference committee on moral edu- 
cation. The first was organized in May, 
1905, the second last November, and the 
other two later in the year. The pioneer, 
the Sherwin-Hyde Parents' Association, 
has just issued its annual report, giving 
an account of its activities during the 
year, which coincide to a great extent 
with the real aims of a parent-teacher 
association. 

"Its aims," says the annual report, "are 
three-fold; to bring the home and the school 
together; to instruct the parents concern- 
ing the care of their children; and to pro- 
mote the social interests of the neighbor- 
hood. To accomplish the first object, efforts 
have been made to acquaint the parent with 



the teacher's work in developing the child 
intellectually, physically, and morally; and 
on the other hand, to explain to the teacher 
the problems wi*h which the parent has to 
deal. This has been brought about through 
talks, given by teachers and parents at the 
monthly meetings of the association, and 
by means of teas, held after every meeting 
where parents and teachers come together 
in a social way for interchange of thoughts. 

These talks, which the report goes on 
to describe, seem remarkably comprehen- 
sive and pointed. Among those given 
by the teachers were brief explanation 
of the course of study and the aims of 
the teacher in physical and moral train- 
ing, with particular emphasis on the ne- 
cessity of co-operation between teachers 
and parents. Other topics were: Spe- 
cific Instances in Which the Parent Can 
Co-operate with the Teacher; Cleanliness 
in the School Room; How Children 
Spend Their Evenings, and Cigarette 
Smoking Among School Children. 

Among the subjects presented by the 
parents, were: Fighting among boys, 
gambling, cigarette smoking, novel read- 
ing, theatre-going, spending pennies for 
cheap candy, playing in the street, etc. 
In consequence of some of these talks, a 
committee was appointed to „find out 
what evening opportunities in the neigh- 
borhood for amusement or education 
were open to boys and girls. At a 
subsequent meeting this committee re- 
ported and recommended that the teach- 
ers inform their pupils of the places 
where they might go for healthful amuse- 
ment and instruction. 

At another meeting, one of the mothers 
spoke of the filthy condition of some of 
the streets, yards, and vacant lots in the 
neighborhood, declaring "that dirt and 
disorder lower the morals of the chil- 
dren ;" and a committee was subsequent- 
ly appointed to make an investigation, 
and to recommend improvements. 
"Through these talks," the report says, 
" the parents have become more familiar 
with the teacher's problems, and the 
teacher has learned to interpret the 
child from the parent's point of view." 

tin ^ ot on ty> however, have 
the Fathers these meetings brought the 

and Mothers. home ^ sch(X)1 ^ happy 

co-operation, but they have also fulfilled 
the second object of this association, 



342 



Charities and The Commons 



namely, — "to instruct the parents con- 
cerning the care of their children." The 
main address at each meeting was de- 
voted to such instruction. During the 
year, there were five lectures on the 
physical development of the child and 
two on the moral welfare. Three of 
these on the physical development, were 
given by the medical inspector of the 
district, Dr. Arthur W. Fairbanks. These 
lectures have proved an efficient agency 
for giving medical instruction to the 
parents. That they have helped the 
medical inspector in the performance of 
his duties, thereby making inspection a 
live issue in this community, is proved by 
the personal testimony of Dr. Fair- 
banks who says that parents' associa- 
tions have been of material assistance to 
medical inspection in the schools. 

The Sherwin-Hlyde Association has 
proved not only an adequate means of 
bringing the home and the school together 
and instructing the parents, but it has 
also fulfilled its third object, namely, — 
"to promote the social interests of the 
neighborhood." There is an active cig- 
arette committee, with a member from 
each section of the district, "who," says 
the report, "feels responsible for her sec- 
tion, watches the boys who smoke, and 
finds out if possible where they obtain 
the cigarettes." The committee on yards 
and vacant lots, similar to the cigarette 
committee, has a member from each 
section of the district. 

A very interesting evening meeting 
was arranged by the Bowditch Associa- 
tion last March, at which time an ad- 
dress was given by a public man of the 
neighborhood, who spoke suggestively 
and inspiringly on The Responsibility of 
Fathers. Every seat in the hall was 
taken, and it was estimated that half of 
the audience was men. 

One of the most practical lectures 
which has been given so far in these 
associations is the demonstration talk by 
Mrs. Florence Bliss, of Worcester, 
Mass., on, How to Take Care of a Child 
Sick With the Measles. Mrs. Bliss 
nursed her patient, whom she had 
brought with her, through an assumed 
case of the measles. She treated the 
eyes and ears, made a flax-seed poultice, 



wrung out hot applications, and put on 
a pneumonia jacket. Before putting her 
little patient to bed, she showed the au- 
dience how to make a bed, and called 
attention to the kind of cooking and 
nursing utensils which should be used 
in the home, illustrating her talk with 
the articles before her. Incidentally she 
gave many practical suggestions about 
neatness in the home and the care of 
children in other cases than the measles* 
A similar lecture was given in the West 
End Association by the school nurse o£ 
the district who brought to the school 
two of her children in the neighborhood 
whom she was treating. She doctored 
one for measles and treated the other 
for a genuine eye and ear trouble. 

The enthusiasm in all these associa- 
tions is gratifying. "Why haven't we 
had them before?" is constantly being 
asked. The mothers are glad to assume 
much of the responsibility in carrying 
on the work, and take a great deal of 
pride in making the teas pretty and at- 
tractive. Too much cannot be said of 
the value of the teas. Here, everybody 
is expected to speak to everybody else, 
and over a cup of tea, which seems to 
have a magic charm for producing cor- 
diality and geniality, the teachers and 
parents mingle; grievances vanish, and 
many a hard boy or girl has been con- 
verted into a helpful, conscientious pu- 
pil as a result of a friendly chat at one 
of these teas. 

"I didn't know that teachers could 
talk and laugh like other people," said 
a mother one afternoon. During the tea, 
one is constantly hearing, "How is Mary 
getting along?" "How is Johnny get- 
ting along?" Or, "I want to tell you 
about my boy ; he is very nervous." Very 
often the teacher has to tell the mother 
that Mary or Johnny is not getting on 
at all well. But does the mother get 
provoked? No. For a moment, she 
straightens up, looks sober, but sur- 
rounded by all this geniality, her face 
gradually relaxes, as the teacher, also 
under the same influence, tells about the 
child, winding up with, "There is no 
reason why Johnny can't be my best 
boy," to which the mother responds with 
a bright smile, "I'll see that he is your 



Parents' Associations and the Public Schools 



343 



best boy." And the best of it all is 
Johnny does make marked improvement. 
One mother said to a teacher one after- 
noon, "I don't blame you for sending 
Annie home. She must trouble you 
awfully, but you know she is dreadfully 
nervous, and the doctor has told me to 
keep her out of school." The teacher 
acknowledged afterwards that she had 
always thought the child was vicious. 

The tea, however, is not the only at- 
traction; and this is plainly proved by 
the earnest, interested faces of the 
mothers who come month after month 
to listen to the words of advice and 
warning and encouragement ; and by the 
timid eagerness with which they question 
the speaker on some subject which they 
are anxious to have explained further. 
On the days when the medical inspector 
gave his talks at the Sherwin-Hyde As- 
sociation, it was almost pathetic to see 
the mothers who had brought their chil- 
dren with them for the doctor to ex- 
amine, crowd round him during the tea, 
and ask him what they should do for 
this or that trouble. 

The whole result of this work in Bos- 
ton seems to demonstrate conclusively 
that these organizations supply a real 
need in the educational system. 1 What 
these associations have done in their own 
localities, indicates what similar organ- 
izations may do for the other school dis- 
tricts. Being a part of the general move- 
ment for the social utilization of the 
schools, and having a definite, distinct 
function to perform in this movement, 
they should not spring up by chance; 
nor should their activities be left to the 
accidental enthusiasm of a teacher or 
parent. The underlying principles of 
every parent-teacher association should 
be alike; they should aim to elevate the 
intellectual and social life of the com- 
munity, it is evident, of course, that the 

1 A master of one of the schools, where an association 
has been formed, makes the following statement : 
" During my thirty -five years' teaching in this locali/y, 
no movement has been made that has done so much and 
that gives promise in the future for the improvement of 
our schools and for the homes from which our children 
come, as this association." 



specific problems of each association will 
be peculiar to the district in which it 
has been formed. What would elevate 
one neighborhood might have no appli- 
cation whatever to another. It suggests 
itself, therefore, that there should be 
some recognized authority in every city 
to organize and guide parent-teacher as- 
sociations. Logically every school dis- 
trict of the city should be represented in 
such an organization, which shall deal 
with the intellectual and social problems 
peculiar to the district. 

Since these associations are so inti- 
mately connected with the school system, 
they would most naturally come under 
the direction of the school committee, 
which is the guiding force in all the 
other forms of educational endeavor. 
The school committee should use its 
good offices to create among the parents 
and teachers of a school district a senti- 
ment in favor of establishing a forum 
for the exchange of ideas on the intel- 
lectual and social development of the 
district. And further they should pro- 
vide the facilities for the consummation 
of the plan. School-houses should be 
placed at the disposal of parent-teacher 
associations ; lecture service should be 
provided out of the school funds and 
such printed matter as constitution and 
by-laws, invitations to meetings, and an- 
nual reports, should be issued by the 
school committee at the request of the 
association. There are many other ways 
in which a school committee can further 
such organizations — by furnishing the 
facilities for the tea, or the parapher/- 
nalia for an entertainment — without as- 
suming a controlling attitude. The 
parent-teacher association would become 
a pre-eminently democratic institution — 
an organizer of enlightened public opin- 
ion on all educational matters. The 
combined force of all these associations 
in a city would constitute an educational 
support, invaluable to a body chosen by 
the people to watch over and direct their 
educational interests. 



THe International Tuberculosis Conference 

at THe Hague 



Dr. Alfred Meyer 



Before giving an account of the Inter- 
national Tuberculosis Conference at The 
Hague it may be proper to say some- 
thing of the plan and scope of the In- 
ternational Anti-Tuberculosis Associa- 
tion under whose auspices it was held. 
This association aims to obtain all those 
benefits that accrue to mankind from co- 
operation between various nations, as 
against individual effort, through affilia- 
tion with the various national associa- 
tions. Further, it aims to encourage a 
study of comparative legislation in mat- 
ters pertaining to tuberculosis and social 
hygiene, and of international statistics as 
to prevalence and propagation of tuber- 
culosis among different races. It has 
established an international journal of 
tuberculosis printed in English, French 
and German. The first annual confer- 
ence (which should not be confused with 
the Triennial International Congress of 
Tuberculosis) was held at Berlin in 
1902 ; others have convened at Paris and 
Copenhagen. 

The Hague Conference, the fifth in 
the series, was attended by about 125 
active members from sixteen different 
countries. In point of numbers, Ger- 
many headed the list with twenty-eight 
members, France came second with fif- 
teen, Belgium third with fourteen, and 
so on down the list to Roumania with 
one. England was represented by 
eight names and the United States by 
four. Naturally the largest number of 
those present were physicians, and yet 
there was a number of others who were 
interested in the sociological, municipal 
or purely philanthropic aspects of the 
anti-tuberculosis campaign. Thus there 
were Ernst von Glasenapp, police presi- 
dent of the city of Berlin, a most genial 
personality ; Richard Freund, a doctor 
of laws, who is at the head of the 
Landesversicherungs Anstalt, Berlin ; 
Privy Counsellor Putter, superintend- 
ent of the Great Royal Charite Hospi- 
tal in Berlin; Edouard Fuster one of the 

344 



editors of Figaro, who performed the 
function of official interpreter to the con- 
ference and Otto von Printzkold, 
hofmarschall of his majesty the king of 
Sweden. There was of course a large 
number of professors of medicine from 
foreign universities — , Frankel of Ber- 
lin; Fliigge of Breslau, who introduced 
the theory of droplet infection; Klebs; 
Schroetter of Vienna, founder of the Al- 
land Sanatorium ; Spronck of Utrecht ; 
Calmette, Pasteur's celebrated pupil 
from Lille and Maragliano of serum 
fame from Genoa. From London there 
was C. Theodore Williams, a man who 
has perhaps been connected with the 
construction of more sanatoria for 
consumptives than any one else in the 
world. From Edinburg Dr. R. W ; . Phil- 
ip, the leader in anti-tuberculosis work 
in his home city; from Liverpool Dr. 
Nathan Raw, one of the co-editors of 
the ^monthly Tuberculosis. 

It was my good fortune to be 
one of the four men who came 
from the United States, and I say 
good fortune advisedly, because though 
there was nothing strikingly new of- 
fered to the scientific and philan- 
thropic world, the papers were stimu- 
lating and it was a great pleasure and 
benefit to meet face to face the men of 
various nationalities who had been lead- 
ers in the anti-tuberculosis work of their 
respective countries — men whose names 
were household words in the profession. 
This conference, therefore, has not ex- 
cited attention as did the Tuberculosis 
Congress in London four years ago, 
when Koch proclaimed the essential dif- 
ference of human and bovine tubercu- 
losis, or as did the Paris Congress of 
last year, at which Behring promised a 
cure for the disease. In fact, neither of 
these great men was even present, Koch 
being: away in Africa and Behring, I am 
reliably informed, being disinclined to at- 
tend such meetings unless he has some- 
thing new to say. 



The International Tuberculosis Conference at the Hague 345 



The meetings of the conference were 
held in the parliament building, a simple 
but dignified structure fronting on a 
public square, the rear picturesquely 
bordered by the Vyver pond. The open- 
ing session was graced by the presence 
of his royal highness Prince Henry of 
Holland, consort of Queen Wilhelmina. 
Very touching reference was made by 
the presiding omcer to the death of 
Professor Dr. Brouardel of Paris, presi- 
dent of the International Anti-Tubercu- 
losis . ^sociation and a memorial address 
by Professor Landouzy was read by Dr. 
Calmette. 

The association elected Leon Bour- 
geois, then minister of foreign affairs, 
in the French Cabinet, to fill the vacancy 
in the presidency. It is a pathetic fact 
that Bourgeois' interest in the cause 
dates from the loss of a little daughter 
from tuberculosis. 

The following subjects were consider- 
ed at the scientific meetings: 

Routes of Infection. Specific Treatment. 
Obligatory Notification. Tuberculosis in the 
A my. The Social Evil. Tuberculosis in Pris- 
ons. Cost of Sanatoria. Tuberculosis Dispen- 
saries. Infantile Tuberculosis Education. 

These subjects consumed two days. 
Ine morning of the third day was taken 
up with reports from various countries 
of their respective anti-tuberculosis 
campaigns, executive business and a 
continuation of the discussion on routes 
of infection. No subject during the en- 
tire meeting took up so much time as 
this. And naturally so, not only on ac- 
count of its intrinsic importance, but be- 
cause at the very first session, Calmette 
announced that experimental research 
recently carried on, led to the conclusion 
that nearly all types of tuberculosis, in- 
cluding the pulmonary form of consump- 
tion, were of intestinal origin, and that 
dry or moist dust containing tubercle 
bacilli is as a rule incapable of causing 
a direct infection of the lungs; in other 
words, that infection of the lung takes 
place, not by inhaling tubercle bacilli as 
is commonly supposed, but by swallow- 
ing them. In the discussion that fol- 
lowed, it was plain that there was no 
unanimity upon this point, a number of 



clinicians and investigators, notably 
Fltigge and Spronck laying more stress 
upon the respiratory origin of the dis- 
ease. Dr. Flick of Philadelphia, al- 
though not present at the conference, 
sent a written contribution on the sub- 
ject. Fortunately for charity workers, 
there was agreement that no change 
need be made in the preventive measures 
now everywhere employed in the dispo- 
sition of the sputum of infected indivi- 
duals. 

I might mention some other questions 
of special interest to charity workers. 
Both Dr. Philip of Edinburg and Dr. 
Kayserling of Berlin laid great stress 
upon the need of systematic examination 
of the entire family where there is a 
single proven case of tuberculosis, on 
the chance of other possible cases of 
tuberculosis or bacilli bearers being dis- 
covered. From a study of 7,500 family 
examinations made in Berlin during 
eighteen months by the tubercu- 
losis dispensaries Dr. Kayserling con- 
cluded that "almost without excep- 
tion, children who live in a single room 
with parents suffering from open tuber- 
culosis admit into their systems the 
promoters of the disease. Not only 
tuberculosis of the bronchial glands, but 
also incipient tuberculosis of the lrngs 
is found with striking frequency to be 
present in these children." 

In a private conversation Dr. Kay- 
serling told me that of 9,000 positive 
cases seen during the last eighteen 
months, about one-half were discovered 
by the compulsory family examination 
method. This attempt to deal with pul- 
monary tuberculosis as other epidemics 
are dealt with, by ferreting out new foci 
of disease in previously unsuspected in- 
dividuals, seems rational and worthy of 
imitation. It will put much extra bur- 
den upon our tuberculosis dispensaries 
and sanatoria, but if the system were gen- 
erally introduced it ought to prove a 
very important factor in diminishing 
the foci of infection and the spread of 
the disease. 

Perhaps of equal interest to charity 
workers is the question of the cost of 
sanatoria. The general sentiment ap- 
peared to be that all sanatoria should be 



34 6 



Charities and The Commons 



located in bright and attractive sur- 
roundings and that an element of good 
cheer should be introduced both in con- 
struction and administration so as to 
make these places attractive to the in- 
cipient case and all this irrespective of 
the cost; but that the expense per bed 
must in the very nature of things vary 
largely in different countries according 
to local conditions — value of the land, 
transportation charges, wages of labor 
and building material, water supply and 
drainage. I subscribe absolutely to these 
sentiments — but if I may be allowed a 
criticism of The Hague conference, I 
should say that it missed a good oppor- 
tunity to protest against the extrava- 
gance shown in the construction of two 
of the newest sanatoria, the King Ed- 
ward VII at Midhurst, England, and 
the Beelitz Sanatorium, outside of Ber- 
lin. The cost of the first mentioned was 
$1,050,000 and it has only one hundred 
beds to show for this very large out- 
lay. The other institution, besides other 
extravagances of construction, paid one 
hundred thousand marks ($25,000) for 
an iron fence enclosing the grounds! 
Nor is it a reasonable reply to say that 
the cost of the King's sanatorium does 
not concern the public, because it is a 
matter between two gentlemen, the king 
of England the recipient, and Sir Ernest 
Cassel, the donor of the money. For 
not only does this example of extrava- 
gance shown by so prominent an insti- 
tution set up entirely false standards, 
but it necessarily limits the number of 
beds available for consumptives at a 
time when there is always and every- 
where a cry for more of them. At Bee- 
litz, where I interviewed ten women in 
one of the Liegehallen, the majority had 
waited from seven to ten and a half 
months for admission. "You can die 
before getting in here," said one of them 
to me, and while tacitly agreeing with 
her, I wondered how many extra beds 
the $25,000 fence might have furnished. 
It was refreshing to hear Dr. Klebs re- 
port from the United States the frequent 
use of such economical means as altered 
barns, floored tents, sleeping shacks and 
old cars. 



No decision was reached at this con- 
ference on the question of compulsory 
notification, the committee to which 
the matter was referred having failed 
to agree on the report. Dr. Hanssen re- 
ported from Norway that compulsory 
notification had been in existence there 
for some years ; that nothing definite was 
yet to be said about the light it threw 
upon morbidity and mortality, but that 
there had been no practical difficulties in 
the way of its enforcement. 

Von Glasenapp advocated a limited com- 
pulsory notification on change of resi- 
dence and when the dwelling conditions 
make the patient a source of danger to 
a high degree. Dr. Raw reported that 
Sheffield was the only municipality in 
England to which permission was given 
to make an experiment along this line 
for a period of seven years. 

It was a pleasure to hear Pannwitz 
report that Germany now had 121 sana- 
toria with 9,000 beds, besides a large 
number of institutions for tuberculous 
children. 

At the last meeting I had an oppor- 
tunity of addressing the conference on 
the subject of the International Tubercu- 
losis Congress to be held at Washing- 
ton in 1908. I reported on the plan pro- 
posed by Dr. Flick of raising $100,000 
for the expenses of the congress, the 
interest to be devoted to a series of 
twelve prizes on all aspects of the tuber- 
culosis problem and open to competition 
of the world. Details of this plan have 
already been published in Charities 
and The Commons, and therefore I 
need not go into them here. Much in- 
terest was manifested in the plan, and 
from private conversation with many 
members after the meeting, I learned 
that there was general agreement of its 
stimulating effect on work and investi- 
gation. 

The social aspect of the conference 
was not neglected by the hospitable 
Dutch colleagues who had charge of the 
arrangements. On the first night, there 
was a concert at Scheveningen, on the 
second afternoon a reception by the 
queen mother at the palace at Baarn, a 
special train having been provided for 
members of the conference. In the even- 



Communications 



347 



ing a dinner at Bad Hotel Baarn. On 
the last afternoon, a special train to 
Rotterdam and inspection of the harbor 
on one of the municipal boats, and final- 
ly the customary concluding- banquet at 
the Kurhaus at Scheveningen. 

An amusing incident occurred in con- 
nection with the reception by the queen 
mother. The notices read Toilette de 
Ville. But the full import of this tit'c 
did not dawn upon many members of 
the conference until an hour or two be- 
fore the departure of the special train, 
when the rumor spread that no one 
would be permitted to enter the pre- 
cincts of the palace without a high silk 
hat. In consequence, there was an im- 
mediate and general scurrying to the 



stores and a threatened corner in silk 
hats at The Hague. Fortunately only 
one or two members missed the train 
on account of this episode. 

I ought not conclude without a refer- 
ence to the special personal interest of 
the royal family of The Netherlands in 
anti-tuberculosis work. In 1898 on the 
occasion of the crowning of her daugh- 
ter, Wilhelmina, the queen mother 
ceded her country palace and its sur- 
rounding park for the establishment of 
a popular sanatorium, and in October, 
1 90 1, it was opened for its noble work 
by her majesty Queen Wilhelmina. On 
this date a national fund was subscribed 
whose income partially defrays the ex- 
penses of fifty patients in the sanatorium 
thus established. 



Communications 



A. Cure for Speculative Building 

To the Editor : 

In your October number, William C. Haz- 
lett sums up his article on the speculative 
builder, by saying, "There is probably no 
direct cure — no specific — for these causes." 

From my experience as an architect and 
a considerable designer of tenements, I be- 
lieve there is a cure. The excise law is not 
enforced because we indict the bar-keeper 
and not the party really responsible. Mr. 
Hazlett's indictment of the speculative 
builder is on a par with the action of the 
police in excise cases. His exposition of the 
system is complete with the exception that 
he lays the blame entirely upon one of the 
tools of the system and not upon its head. 
Even with all the nefarious methods of the 
tool he frequently loses. The principal 
never loses. He keeps himself in the back- 
ground as much as possible and until the 
passage of the act a few years ago compel- 
ling the publication of building loan con- 
tracts, was frequently impossible to locate. 
The system is organized for his protection. 
Here it is: 

The loan man owns a lot worth $20,000. 
The speculator has $2,000 cash and pro- 
poses to erect a house costing $25,000. Be- 
cause the speculator wants a loan and has 
so little cash, he pays $3,000 for his lot; 
and the loan man takes a purchase money 
mortgage for $28,000— $8,000 more than the 
lot's real value. 

If the operation is successful and a quick 
sale is made, the loan man gets all his legit- 
imate interest and an additional interest on 
the inflated value. If the speculator fails 
in any of his engagements, the property is 
foreclosed, the loan man's mortgage taking 
precedence over all other claims and liens 
and to the extent of its inflation it wipes 



them out; and the loan man exchanges 
$8,000 of inflated value for $8,000 of real 
value. The loan man then completes the 
house and begins his operations with $8,000 
on the right side of the ledger. 

Mr. Hazlett states that "the right that a 
man has to put such material — not wholly 
structural — into his house as he may see fit, 
cannot be altogether abridged." This right 
is abridged almost every day; the average 
building loan contract carefully specifies the 
finish of the house; frequently going so far 
as to mention specific wall paper and shades; 
and a few of the operators insist on select- 
ing the architect. 

These operators and the institutions which 
make the permanent loans could cure these 
evils promptly if they so desired. Let them 
refuse to make loans on a few poorly con- 
structed houses or even let them give a 
larger loan to the honest speculator who 
attempts to build a good house and all would 
follow suit. 

The amount of permanent loan obtained 
is the main factor in the final selling price 
to the investor. If a good house would se- 
cure a good loan they would all be good. 
At present the good house gets no more than 
the poor one. Building a good house does 
not pay under the system. 

Finally, many of the men who control the 
loan market are intensely interested in phi- 
lanthropy outside of their business. Their 
names can frequently be found on the direc- 
torates of charitable and philanthropic in- 
stitutions. They even read Charities axd 
thi* Commons; and if they will change their 
methods the "jerry builder" will go with the 
change. Yours truly, 

Charles H. Israels. 
Israels and Harder, Architects, 
31 West 31st Street, New York. 



348 



Chanties and The Commons 



"No Randall's Island Relief in SigHt" 

To the Editor: 

My particular purpose in sending you this 
communication under the heading I have 
chosen is not to call attention so much, as 
you have so well done, to the failure of the 
committee appointed to find a suitable site 
to which the Randall's Island institution 
may be removed, but to comment in a gen- 
eral way on an important point touched up- 
on in your communication. 

After speaking of the apparent lack of 
effort to find the new site, you say: "The 
fact that it is the business of nobody in par- 
ticular to address himself to the task serious- 
ly and continuously is probably the root of 
the difficulty." I agree with your view in 
this respect fully. 

Your remarks appeal to me quite forcibly 
just now for the reason that at a recent ses- 
sion of the National Association for the 
Study of Epilepsy in New Haven, Conn., it 
was proposed by a member to create "a 
central supervisory body" whose duty it 
would be "to organize, suggest and direct all 
scientific work" in institutions for epileptics 
in this country. I am happy to say that not 
a person attending the meeting agreed with 



this speaker's very radical views. I do not 
believe in doing scientific or even semi-scien- 
tific work in this way. Really scientific 
work lies with the individual and semi-scien- 
tific work must lie, and can better lie, with 
a smaller number of individuals than with 
a large body — say with two or three men. 

The one great difficulty with commissions 
named to select sites for new institutions is 
that they are not hedged about by sufficient 
restrictions in certain respects. They should 
be limited as to the price they may pay, and 
particularly should they be limited as to 
time in which they are to make their report 
to the governor or to the legislature. Sure- 
ly, to select a site for a new institution is 
not a very onerous matter when it is taken 
up energetically, systematically, without per- 
sonal bias, with the right spirit and without 
influences that tend to obstruct or interfere 
with the sole purpose in view. And I do 
not now see why such a site could not under 
reasonable circumstances be selected in 
three to six months, for surely the state has 
had an abundance of experience in that di- 
rection. 

William P. Spratling, M. D. 

Sonyea, N. Y. 



The Treatment of Children 



A General There will be held in Frank- 
Training fort-on-Main a training school 
School. f or those caring for children. 
It will convene on April 23, and close May 
5, 1907. The following subjects will be 
studied: the care of infants; care and guard- 
ianship of illegitimate children; and meth- 
ods of dealing with weak-minded children. 
A tuition of ten marks will be charged for 
the course and it is hoped that this depart- 
ure may prove helpful to many who are in- 
terested in the problem of how best to care 
for children as seen from the various view- 
points. 

Many gratifying evidences 

Chiid?en 2 in appear in our correspondence 
Families. with child-caring agencies of 
a steady improvement in the standards of 
work of societies engaged in placing children 
in families. From one city comes inquiries 
as to the standards that should be required 
in such work on the part of agencies which 
appeal to the public for funds. From an- 
other society, one of the largest and most 
important, whose work is done on the dis- 
trict plan, comes the word that applications 
for children are not to be passed upon finally 
by the local superintendents, but pass 
through the home office, with the applica- 
tion papers and a report of a personal visit 
by the agent. Until the approval of the 
central office is given, no child can be placed 
in any home. If careful standards can be 
enforced in the investigation of homes for 
children, and in the subsequent oversight 
of children placed in these homes, the ex- 
tension of the placing-out system may be con- 
fidently expected. 



Wilkes=Barre's Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, 
Child Sav= has taken an important step 

ing Society. i n mo dern methods of child 
caring. The Society for the care of Or- 
phans and Homeless Jewish Children of 
Luzerne county has just been formed. The 
society does not contemplate building an in- 
stitution and will avoid as far as possible 
anything more than temporary housing. 
Homes in families are to be found and the 
work of securing these as well as their in- 
spection is to be under the direction of the 
board of lady managers. A small house is 
to be rented in the suburbs for the reception 
of children and an endeavor made to study 
and follow the most recent results in the 
line of placing and caring for dependent 
children. The officers, directors and board 
of lady managers follow: 

President, Seligman J. Strauss; vice- 
president, Joseph D. Coons; secretary, 
David Rosenthal; treasurer, Louis Cas- 
par. Directors: Jacob Bergsman, Solomon 
Hirsh, Charles Blumenthal, Abraham Marks, 
Bernard Long, Millard F. Long, I. Uran, 
Jacob Cohen, Samuel Constine, Solomon 
Hiller, Philip Klein. 

Board of lady managers: Chairman, Mrs. 
George Galland; secretary, Miss Tillie Rosen- 
thal; members, Mrs. Bernard Long, Mrs. 
Max Galland, Mrs. Joseph Tischler, Mrs. 
Dora Rubinsky, Miss Rae Rosenheim, Mrs. 
Jerome Meyers, Mrs. Marcus Salzman, Mrs. 
Jonas Long, Mrs. Samuel Oppenheim, Mrs. 
Dora Long, Mrs. Eva Levy, Miss Pamelia 
Constine, Mrs. Charles Long. 



CHARITIES 



AND The Commons 



The Common Welfare 



Paragraphs in PHilantHropy and Social Advance 



The jose= The Josephine Shaw Low- 
ph £?wrfi BW ell Memorial Committee 
Memorial. have adopted a design for 
the gateway to be erected in memory of 
Mrs. Lowell at one of the footpath en- 
trances into Central Park from Fifth ave- 
nue. Now it only remains to secure the 
necessary money for constructing the 
gateway and the consent of the Depart- 
ment of Parks for its erection. The com- 
mittee are asking for $25,000 with the 
understanding that any surplus will be 
devoted to some educational purpose in 
the name of Mrs. Lowell. In a letter "to 
the friends of Josephine Shaw Lowell," 
Seth Low, chairman of the Memorial 
Committee, writes : 

The committee, in determining upon this 
memorial, have borne in mind that Mrs. 
Lowell devoted her life to the services of the 
whole community, and that any appropriate 
memorial of her must be one in which the 
community as a whole will have a part. It 
is believed that a gateway at one of the 
footpath entrances into Central Park meets 
this requirement as well as possible. The 
park is used by all, and there is perhaps no 
other place in the city at which a memorial 
would come under the observation of so 
large a body of the people. It is a pleasant 
thought, also, that the memorial to Mrs. 
Lowell's brother, Colonel Shaw, is on the 
edge of Boston Common, as it is proposed 
to place Mrs. Lowell's memorial on the edge 
of Central Park. Thus sister and brother 
alike, one in one city and the other in an- 
other, will constantly remind those who pass 
to and fro that the life of service is the 
life of highest honor. 

Checks for the memorial fund should 
be sent to George Foster Peabody, treas- 
urer of the committee, 54 William street, 
New York city. 

433 



Canadian ln . Canada all laws dealing 

Legislation with crime are enacted by 

for Children. the Dominion par ii a ment 

and are therefore uniform throughout 
the country. The provinces, while 
given a large measure of self-govern- 
ment, cannot legislate on such matters 
as divorce, assault, theft, etc., nor can 
the pardoning power be exercised by 
anyone but the minister of justice and 
the governor general of Canada. For- 
tunately among the prerogatives of the 
provinces is the power to deal with neg- 
lected and dependent children, and in 
1892 an Ontario act was drawn up and 
in the following year was adopted by the 
legislature providing for children's 
courts, the state guardianship of neglect- 
ed children, the placing of dependent 
children in foster homes and the separa- 
tion of children from hardened criminals. 
This law was hailed as a radical advance 
and was extensively copied by other 
countries. But heretofore the province 
could not legislate for children accused 
of crime, and so the merest children con- 
tinued to be sent to jail for trivial acts 
of larceny and were practically beyond 
the help of the local authorities. All this 
is now to be changed. 

There was introduced in the Senate of 
Canada last week by the secretary of 
state "an act respecting juvenile delin- 
quents" which if made law will com- 
pletely revolutionize the method of deal- 
ing with young people accused of crim- 
inal offences and bring Canada into the 
front rank of those countries that are 
seeking to save children from criminal 



434 



Charities and The Commons 



and mis-spent careers. Instead of deal- 
ing with offenders as criminals, this new- 
legislation refers to the offences of chil- 
dren under sixteen as "delinquencies," 
and absolutely prohibits them being dealt 
with through the ordinary police court 
and jail. Provision is made for one or 
more juvenile courts in each county, for 
detention homes or shelters, and for pro- 
bation officers who shall seek to reform 
children in their own homes by secur- 
ing the co-operation of parents, philan- 
thropic agents, etc., by securing employ- 
ment and by various other means pre- 
venting the child from relapsing into fur- 
ther wrong-doing. An important pro- 
vision is that all persons who aid, abet 
or in any way encourage children to do 
wrong are liable to arrest and prosecu- 
tion, and it is believed that through this 
provision alone an immense amount of 
good work will be accomplished. The 
failure of a parent or guardian to prop- 
erly maintain and support his family is 
made an indictable offence and unless 
fathers go to work and support their chil- 
dren they will be brought before the ju- 
venile court and committed to the peni- 
tentiary. As an additional provision for 
the protection of young people it is set 
forth that each province will be expected 
to pass a law providing for juvenile court 
judges, children's shelters and probation 
officers, the details of the system being 
practically in the hands of the provincial 
governments. 

This bill is drafted on the best legisla- 
tion of Colorado, Illinois, Philadelphia, 
etc., and has been drafted by W. L. Scott, 
president of the Children's Aid Society, 
of Ottawa, who has devoted a good deal 
of attention to the subject. The bill in 
its various stages of preparation was sub- 
mitted to J. J. Kelso, superintendent of 
Neglected and Dependent Children of 
Ontario, who has for many years been 
advocating the proposed changes. 



The PIay= 

grounds As= 

sociation 



Playground enthusiasm in 
Chicago has shown itself in 
of Chicago. a new organization known 
as the Playgrounds Association of Chi- 
cago. Possessed of the finest playground 
system in the world — that developed by 



the South Park commissioners with 
their neighborhood recreation centers 
in small parks, priding herself in the ex- 
tensive system of small playgrounds es- 
tablished by the Special Park Commis- 
sion from its scanty resources, and look- 
ing forward with eagerness to the time 
when the west and north sides secure the 
funds to follow the magnificent example 
of the south side, the city has reason to 
congratulate herself on her recognized 
leadership in the playground movement. 
To back up the park commissions on the 
west and north sides of Chicago in their 
efforts to extend the neighborhood recre- 
ation centers to those needy parts of the 
city, and to devote its energies meanwhile 
in putting to service every available piece 
of vacant land in the congested areas, 
the Playgrounds Association of Chicago 
has been organized. It is evident that 
the new organization will do a work long 
felt to be urgent by many members of 
the Special Park Commission and other 
park boards. In fact, their appreciation 
of this is indicated by the enthusiastic 
way in which several of them are inter- 
esting themselves in the Playgrounds As- 
sociation. 

In addition to securing vacant spaces 
in which apparatus may be temporarily 
used, and the working up of neighbor- 
hood spirit by local committees of the 
association, there is much in the way of 
valuable investigation that a volunteer 
body can undertake. Accurate data on 
the sphere of playground influence, the 
area from which a playground draws its 
children, the effect on juvenile delin- 
quency and possible cooperation with the 
juvenile court — these and many other 
lines along which definite information 
is greatly needed to aid in playground 
propaganda, may come within its scope 
of inquiry. 

Consolidation of the three park boards 
on the north, south and west sides of the 
city, and the Special Park Commission, 
each of which is at present absolutely sep- 
arate and independent, is a probable out- 
come of work npw being done by the 
convention which is framing a new char- 
ter for the city of Chicago. The Play- 
grounds Association will give its atten- 
tion to the playground needs as they pre- 



The Common Welfare 



435 



sent themselves in any of the develop- 
ments which may arise. 

Officers of the Playgrounds Associa- 
tion of Chicago follow: 

Frederick Greeley, president; Charles L. 
Hutchinson, south side vice-president; Mrs. 
Joseph T. Bowen, north side vice-president; 
Graham Taylor, west side vice-president; 
Graham Romeyn Taylor, secretary; Clarence 
Buckingham, treasurer. 

The executive committee, the officers 
and the following: 

L. L. Fargo, George E. Adams, Mary E. 
McDowell, Jane Addams, Mrs. Emmons 
Blaine, Mrs. E. B. De Groot, Amalie 
Hofer, J. F. Foster, Dwight H. Perkins, Ju- 
lian W. Mack, B. A. Eckhart, E. G. Cooley, 
H. W. Thurston, Sherman C, Kingsley, E. P. 
Bicknell, Mrs. Emma Henderson, Alderman 
Beilfuss, R. H. Warder, Jens Jensen. 

T cisfo n ReHei" ^he charges of wholesale 
Fund and graft centering around 

th of G h ran. es Mayor Schmitz and the 
San Francisco municipal administration 
have stirred up no end of bitter criticism 
the country over. F. W. Dohrmann, 
chairman of the Relief and Rehabilita- 
tion Committee, was in New York last 
week en route to Germany, where a com- 
mittee of San Franciscans is to see what 
can be done with the German insurance 
companies which have repudiated their 
losses. Mr. Dohrmann declared that 
he believed the charges in so far as they 
related to relief funds were wholly false. 

'There could not have been any con- 
siderable graft by the city administra- 
tion," he said, "as it was only for a short 
time that any funds passed through the 
mayor's office. After the work became 
organized all of the relief money went 
through the regularly constituted chan- 
nels and the subscriptions paid in as 
well as the amounts outstanding were 
published. The entire sum that passed 
through the mayor's office was relatively 
insignificant and I venture to predict 
that not only would it have been impos- 
sible to divert any considerable amount 
but that it will be found that no consider- 
able amount has been diverted." 

At the meeting of the New York 
branch of the American National Red 
Cross, on November 20, Dr. Devine, re- 
ferring to an editorial utterance of The 
Times to the effect that while "one must 
not prejudge," still "there are men and 



mayors against whom such charges are 
not brought ano] of whom they would be 
incredible," said, "I wish to say that 
there is one man who does not believe 
that the mayor of San Francisco has 
even stolen one penny of the relief 
fund." 

The relief problems that have arisen at 
San Francisco were further discussed at 
the last session of the American Academy 
of Political and Social Science held in 
Philadelphia, November 24. 

The guests of the evening were the 
officers of the American National Red 
Cross and of the Pennsylvania state 
branch. Judge Advocate General of the 
Army, George B. Davis, presided and 
represented Secretary of War Taft, pres- 
ident of American National Red Cross; 
Talcott Williams, president of the Penn- 
sylvania state branch, told of Methods of 
State Organisation. 

Dr. Devine spoke on Relief and Re- 
habilitation of San Francisco. 

working Wfhen the governor and 
for Reform lieutenant governor of a 

in Omaha. ^^ ^ mayQr of a city> 

members of a state legislature, guberna- 
torial candidates and county commission- 
ers get together it usually looks as if 
something was going to happen in the 
political field. But out in Omaha a few 
weeks ago the Social Service Club met 
for a noonday luncheon. One hundred 
plates were laid, and the wide interest 
that Omaha takes in social reform was 
shown by the fact that Governor Hickey, 
Lieutenant Governor McGilton, the may- 
or and a long list of other state and mu- 
nicipal officials were present. Mrs. Flor- 
ence Kelley, secretary of the National 
Consumers' League, was the guest of 
honor and complimented Nebraska on 
being alert to prevent the troubles from 
which other sister states extricated them- 
selves with so much difficulty. She 
pointed out the faults in the laws for the 
protection of child workers, saying they 
gave aid and support to states which re- 
ally abused their children, and suggested 
that children under sixteen not at work 
should be in school the full year rather 
than twenty weeks, as our law now 
stands. 

A pertinent caution was urged in ref- 



436 



Charities and The Commons 



erence to the operation of' the juvenile 
court of which Nebraska is justly proud; 
that it become not a mere feeder of insti- 
tutions. "Let every effort," Mrs. Kelley 
urged, "be utilized to fasten to the fa- 
ther's back the responsibility which is his. 
Then brace him to be able to stand it. 
To reclaim homes is much better than to 
fill institutions." 

To take advantage of the public senti- 
ment created by Mrs. Kelley's visit the 
club has appointed a legislative commit- 
tee consisting of Judge Howard Ken- 
nedy of the circuit court, H. W. Pen- 
nock, the leading advocate of the Ne- 
braska juvenile court law, and Superin- 
tendent W. M. Davidson of the city 
schools. This committee is to assist in 
promoting a more stringent compulsory 
education and child labor law, enlisting 
the endorsement and cooperation of the 
state bar association, the local bar asso- 
ciation, the state teachers' association, the 
state medical associations, and the W. C. 
T. U. The state federation of women's 
clubs pledged its support at the time of 
Mrs. Kelley's visit. It is also expected 
that the National Child Labor Committee 
will appoint a state committee to co- 
operate in the work. 

On November 15 Owen Love joy, pres- 
ident of the National Child Labor Com- 
mittee, was tendered a luncheon at the 
Commercial Club. General Greeley of 
the United States Army was passing 
through the city and was present at the 
luncheon. In the evening Mr. Love joy 
gave an address on the needs of child la- 
bor legislation. 

A committee of the club has been ap- 
pointed to enlist a number of people who 
will act as voluntary probation officers of 
the juvenile court. An enthusiastic ad- 
dress was recently given by Judge A. L. 
Sutton of the juvenile court on the need 
of voluntary help, and about twenty-five 
have already offered their services. A 
committee has also been appointed to 
visit and report on the public and char- 
itable institutions of the city and county. 

The Fed- The Federated B °y S ' Clubs, 

erated Boys' the organization formed in 

c,ubs - Boston last spring to do for 

street boys' clubs what the International 

Committee does for the Y. M. C. A., has 



just published five small pamphlets of 
great use to those interested in such 
work. One tells the benefits of such 
clubs to mill towns, another directs how 
to start such organizations, a third gives 
the qualifications demanded of a salaried 
director and a fourth tells how the Fed- 
erated Boys' Clubs can help. This or- 
ganization already directly represents 
over fifty clubs and is doing a practical 
work in giving this information. It has 
set to work to rescue two important but 
tottering enterprises by stirring up local 
support, and is proving a useful link be- 
ween clubs and directors. There is a 
crying need for more trained men as sal- 
aried workers in these "mass" clubs. 

Philadelphia T} 1 ? , Industrial Exhibit 
industrial which opens in Philadelphia 

Exhibition. Qn December 8> and will 

last until December 15, will be shown 
in Harrisburg in the latter part of De- 
cember, in New York city the latter part 
of January and in Chicago, Erie and 
Boston in March and April. The idea 
of "living pictures" of industrial life 
seems to have taken hold very well. 
Child labor will be shown by groups of 
life-sized figures. Home industries, such 
as winding rags, pasting paper boxes, 
finishing trousers, etc., will be actually 
reproduced by workers, themselves from 
the tenements. 

Particular interest is expected to be 
given to the exhibit of living workers, 
since the trade unions have undertaken 
to furnish a characteristic sweat-shop, 
showing the unsanitary conditions, ma- 
chines in use, etc. Several hundred 
yards of cloth have been procured which 
will be made into suits during the exhi- 
bition. A tenement custom tailor shop 
will also be reproduced. 

In preparing life-size models of child 
labor conditions the facts used in all 
cases have been taken from photographs 
and on each booth will be displayed the 
photograph from which the exhibit was 
prepared. Among the things represent- 
ed it is planned to have a hard coal 
breaker, a glass house, tobacco work in 
a Pittsburg cellar and the interior of a 
soft coal mine. 

Thirty-five different classes of articles 
made and finished in the homes in Phila- 



The Common Welfare 



437 



delphia will be exhibited by the Con- 
sumers' League. The collection con- 
sists largely of articles of clothing, paper 
goods, etc. A series of charts by the 
Bryn Mawr branch of the Consumers' 
League will represent in a graphic man- 
ner various groups of child labor statis- 
tics. A map of the United States has 
been prepared showing the number of 
child workers in various states. 

In addition to the sweat-shop, home 
industry and child labor questions, many 
other industrial problems will be shown. 
The American Institute for Social Serv- 
ice has sent an exhibit of safety appli- 
ances for machinery. The Public Edu- 
cation Association of Philadelphia has 
furnished a large exhibit of model school 
conditions. The City Parks Association 
and Vacant Lots Association of Phila- 
delphia will also have exhibits. Various 
phases of work in congested sections of 
the city will be shown by the Octavia Hill 
Association, the Visiting Nurses Associa- 
tion, the Research and Protective Asso- 
ciation. 

Lectures will be given three times a 
day on each day except Sunday, at n 
A. M., 3 P. M. and 8 P. M. 

The city of Berlin has re- 
Hospkiis. cently very much enlarged 

its hospital facilities. The 
beginning of October saw the opening 
of the Virchow Hospital, which has a 
capacity of 2,000 patients and is named 
after the famous pathologist. There is 
also a new hospital put up at a cost of 
six million marks in the suburb of 
Schoneberg. 

Several features in the progress of 
hospital service are common to these 
institutions. They are located in open 
spaces where the external conditions are 
most favorable. They are built to give 
the greatest amount of light and air to 
the patients and the whole structure 
looks to the most sanitary condition pos- 
sible. 
1+ u 1 „ New Yorkers who are in- 

Italian Lace . . 

Workers in terested in the movement 

New York. -^ reviye the crafts ag a 

means of livelihood, will have an op- 
portunity to judge of the progress made 
by the Handicraft School of Greenwich 
House, in an exhibition to be held at 



the rooms of Miss Carroll, 18 West 
Thirty-third sheet, New York, on De- 
cember 10th, nth and 12th. 

The school was opened in June, 1905, 
and numbers between forty and fifty pu- 
pils. Several of these are now earn- 
ing their living by the exercise of the 
crafts in which they have been trained, 
while others supplement small or un- 
certain incomes by occasional work. 

Lacemaking was chosen as the first 
and chief industry of the school and 
weaving has been recently added. The 
workers make, mend and alter all the 
principal kinds of lace, and weave rag 
rugs and coarse linen stuffs for use in 
household decoration. There will be 
pieces of Irish Crochet, Limerick and 
Carricknacross lace, Italian pillow lace, 
Filet, Venetian Point, Italian and Dan- 
ish Cut work. 

Announcement is made of 
Appointment^ the appointment as director 
of the New York School of 
Philanthropy from March I, 1907, of 
Professor Samuel McCune Lindsay, now 
professor of sociology in the University 
of Pennsylvania and secretary of the Na- 
tional Child Labor Committee. Profes- 
sor Lindsay takes the place of Edward T. 
Devine, the increased pressure of whose 
work in the New York Charity Organiza- 
tion Society and at Columbia University 
makes it necessary that he should be re- 
lieved of his administrative duties in the 
School of Philanthropy. 

The trustees of Columbia University 
have also announced the appointment of 
Professor Lindsay to a new chair on 
social legislation in the faculty of political 
science, Columbia University, for an ex- 
perimental period of three years. By this 
arrangement, the affiliation between the 
School of Philanthropy and the Univer- 
sity is strengthened and the Department 
of Social Economy further developed in 
the direction indicated by Mr. Devine in 
his inaugural lecture last year as Schiff 
Professor of Social Economy. 

a Clearing The movement to more 

for H Jewish fully correlate Hebrew phil- 

Charity. anthropy in New York city 

was advanced at a meeting Tuesday 

evening at the United Hebrew Charities 

building. Officers and a board of di- 



438 



Charities and The Commons 



rectors were elected and $108,000 was 
subscribed to launch the "Federation of 
Contributors to the Jewish Communal In- 
stitutions in the City of New York." 

The idea of forming such a federation 
originated with Professor Morris Loeb 
and various informal conferences have 
been held during the year to discuss the 
project. The meeting on December 4 
Drought forth the first tangible plan and 
general lines of the work were laid down. 
Other meetings will be held soon and the 
details of the permanent organization will 
be worked out. 

Contributions, it was announced at the 
meeting, will be gladly received by the 
new federation and administered in ac- 
cordance with the wishes of the giver. 
The disposition of the entire amount may 
be left to the discretion of the directors 
of the federation, or specific amounts 
may be paid by them to specified insti- 
tutions and any balance put into a general 
fund. This general fund will be dis- 
tributed among the various societies. 

The advantage of such a "clearing- 
house for Jewish charity," it was pointed 
out, will be convenience in administration, 
which should not interfere with the pres- 
ent administration of the charities. 

The supposition on which the pro- 
jectors of this federaion are working is 
that contributors to charity will continue 
to give as much to the federation as they 
have given collectively to their favorite 
charities in the past, and, in addition to 
that, the amount they have spent for 
tickets to balls given by societies, charity 
fairs and other money seeking arrange- 
ments. It is from such amounts and 
from contributions without specified allot- 
ments that the federation expects to de- 
rive its general fund. 

The officers elected were: Adolph 
Lewisohn, president; Dr. Julius Gold- 
man, vice-president; Jacob H. Sdhiff, 
Isidor Straus and Daniel Guggenheim, 
honorary vice-presidents, and Louis A. 
Heinsheimer, treasurer. Five directors 
were named, but all have not yet con- 
sented to serve. 



Among those who joined the "clearing- 
house" were : 

Jacob H. Schiff, Isidor Straus, Isaac Sel- 
igman, Adolph Lewisohn, Cyrus L. Sulz- 
berger, Prof. Morris Loeb, Dr. Julius Kohl- 
man, Daniel Guggenheim, Louis A. Heins- 
heimer, Dr. Lee K. Prankel, Nathan Bijur, 
Solomon Sulzberger, Felix M. Warburg, Sig- 
mund Rosenwald, and V. Sydney Rothschild. 



Not 



es 



Valentine Hauy not Blind. — In the article 
on the friends of the blind, published in De- 
cember 1 issue of Charities and The Com- 
mons, reference was made to Valentine Hauy 
as blind. According to a French biography, 
this is a mistake. His sight was, to be sure, 
feeble in later years. The error, based on 
statements of several educators of the blind, 
was corrected by the author too late for the 
printer. 

Emanuel Sisterhood, New York. — The an- 
nual meeting of the Emanuel Sisterhood of 
New York city was held on November 22. 
Among the speakers were the president, Mrs. 
William Einstein, Mrs. J. G. Phelps Stokes, 
John Spargo and Dr. Henry M. Leipziger. 
The dominant notes of the meeting were 
sounded in discussions of the necessity for 
personal service and the variance between 
the standard of living and the prevailing 
rate of wages. The sisterhood is experiment- 
ing with the plan of serving hot noon-day 
meals to school children. 

"Tenement Conditions in Chicago" Avail- 
able. — Committees and individuals interest- 
ed in housing conditions in congested city 
areas, who have found it difficult to obtain 
copies of Tenement Conditions in Chicago, 
will be glad to learn that the book is again 
available. This report, published by the 
City Homes Association of Chicago and writ- 
ten by Robert Hunter to embody the results 
of an investigation under the direction of 
professor Frank A. Fetter of Cornell Uni- 
versity, appeared in 1901. It is the most 
comprehensive and scientific study of such 
conditions that has been made in any city 
outside of New York. The recent investiga- 
tion made by Mrs. Harry Hart and published 
in Charities and The Commons for January 
6, 1906, demonstrates that the life in these 
tenement districts is unchanged except for 
increasing congestion. The book, therefore, 
in its descriptions and tabulations has a 
present day value to every student of the 
subject. Copies may be obtained for sixty 
cents including postage by addressing 
Charles B. Ball, secretary of the City Homes 
Association, 1001 Monadnock Block, Chi- 
cago. 



XKe Congress on Social Education 



Otis H. Moore 



A significant gathering was the Con- 
gress on Social Education held in Boston 
the latter part of last week. This con- 
gress was brought about through the in- 
itiative of the Social Education Club of 
Boston, but its scope was national and 
brought together distinguished leaders in 
educational thought from all over the 
United States. 

The purpose of the conference was to 
draw wider attention to the necessity for 
important re-adjustments and extensions 
of our educational methods ; that the 
youth of the land must receive more sys- 
tematic training for their duties in the 
civic, economic and social groups in 
which their lives are to be spent; that 
the chasm must be bridged between 
school life and the subsequent life of so- 
cial service; that the child must be fitted 
not for examinations but for life. In 
such a conference industrial education 
was of course a most pertinent sub- 
ject for discussion. New light was 
thrown on the varied aspects of this 
question. 

But the conference gave a general 
summary of the whole range of problems 
looked at in their many phases and from 
many angles. Over sixty speakers, 
leaders in their particular fields brought 
their knowledge to bear on common is- 
sues. They analyzed the situation in de- 
tail bringing out clearly difficulties to be 
grappled with, encouragements to be 
found, weighed carefully the forces al- 
ready at work and gathered inspiration 
from each other's words. That the in- 
terest in the convention was by no means 
confined to teachers was shown not alone 
by the fact that other professions were 
given large representation on the pro- 
gram but also by the character of the 
audience. Nearly three thousand were 
present at some of the mass meetings; 
of these a thousand manifested special 
interest by signing registration cards. 
The enthusiasm of the audience was a 
characteristic feature of the congress. 
President James P. Monroe of the Bos- 
ton Social Education Club, who presided 

439 



at the sessions, accounted for this gen- 
eral interest when he said: 

These pressing, these insistent, these life- 
and-death problems of making every boy and 
girl — physically, mentally, industrially, so- 
cially and morally — into the best man and 
woman possible are not academic questions 
to be discussed in doctor's theses. They are 
your business and mine, to be seriously un- 
dertaken here and now. 

It is the hope of the promoters of 
the congress that the movement launched 
will permeate public opinion, enlist the 
support of good citizenship throughout 
the nation and be crystallized into edu- 
cational laws and institutions better 
adapted to the increasingly complex 
needs of modern life than those we now 
have. The congress opened Friday 
morning with four section meetings. 
Superintendent M. G. Brumbaugh of the 
Philadelphia schools, speaking at the ses- 
sion held in conjunction with the Mas- 
sachusetts State Teachers' Association, 
called attention to educational aspects of 
immigration. He suggested the estab- 
lishment of special schools for the Amer- 
icanizing of immigrant children ' and of 
high schools of textile art for young 
women. Dr. James P. Haney, director 
of art and manual training in New York, 
said that the clerical ideal in education 
was giving way to the social ideal. He 
prophesied that in the school of the fu- 
ture manual training would be the basis 
through which in the lower grades the 
child would be led out in all other direc- 
tions. This he declared to be the natural 
method. Mangus W. Alexander of the 
General Electric Company gave as a 
practical suggestion an explanation of 
the apprenticeship system in use by his 
company, a rare co-ordination of educa- 
tional and industrial development. 

The German continuation school came 
in for praise at the hands of the speak- 
ers in the commercial education section. 
Dr. William P. Wilson of the Philadel- 
phia Commercial Museum said: 

Not only is America able but she will be 
compelled to secure a larger hold on foreign 
trade. We have thus far been able to dis- 
pose of our surplus products but will soon 



440 



Charities and The Commons 



be under absolute necessity to seek a larger 
foreign field. Otherwise there will be over- 
production at home, factories will be closed 
and there will be stagnation in trade. The 
American has yet to learn that in foreign 
trade permanent success can come only as 
the result of a knowledge and training he 
has thus far had no opportunity to secure. 

Edward A. Filene of Boston, speaking 
as a business man, told of the failure of 
the American school to adequately pre- 
pare the boy for a business career. 

That health education is the social 
right of all was the keynote of the ad- 
dresses in the health education section. 
Prudishness should not be permitted to 
prevent children from being intelligently 
informed as to their bodies. A fourth 
sectional conference was devoted to so- 
cial training in infancy and early child- 
hood. The kindergarten was held up 
as the best possible place for social train- 
ing, by Miiss Hortense M. Orcutt of New 
York. Mrs. Frederick Schoff of Phila- 
delphia, president of the National Con- 
gress of Mothers, proposed the establish- 
ment by the national government of a 
department of home and childhood to deal 
with the increasingly perplexing ques- 
tions affecting the welfare of the children 
in our large cities. 

The first mass meeting held Friday 
Education for Citizenship. Governor 
afternoon was devoted to the topic, 
Guild of Massachusetts said: 

This year Massachusetts has squarely en- 
tered on the path of industrial education, 
so splendidly successful in Germany, that 
the industrial supremacy of the common- 
wealth and country may not merely be main- 
tained but advanced. Boston is splendidly 
supplementing this work by inaugurating in 
her public schools new courses in commer- 
cial education. The juvenile court is an- 
other step in education for citizenship. 

On the same point Mayor Fitzgerald 
said: 

For good citizenship we need a good 
bread-winning equipment. I believe our 
general course of studies must be extended 
so as to make it fit practical conditions 
more squarely. The school must dovetail 
better into the working life. 

President Eliot of Harvard in his 
comment on the objects of the congress 
said: 

The highest morality — that of honesty, 
purity and loyalty — can never be taught di- 



rectly. The spoken precept is of little value 
in education. It is by the force of personal- 
ity that we bring our precepts into the 
moral fibre of the child. Social education to 
be effective must have the powerful motive 
power of love. 

Give the boy a chance, was the plea 
made by George H. Martin of the Mas- 
sachusetts State Board of Education in 
his address on What a City Ozves to its 
Boys. 

What, then, does a city owe its boys? 
First, land for cultivation where they may 
learn by experience some of the initial pro- 
cesses of the production of food. Second, 
workshops where they may learn by experi- 
ence those mechanical processes that under- 
lie all constructive industry. 

The boys are entitled to be taught by the 
firm hand of the courts, a healthy respect 
for law, a regard for the rights of persons 
and property, the distinction between mine 
and thine. And they have a right in prepa- 
ration for active citizenship to the example 
of a city administration that is clean, hon- 
est, business-like, public-spirited, broad- 
minded and progressive. 

The Young Man of the Twentieth 
Century was the theme of an address 
by President David Starr Jordan of Le- 
land Stanford University. His defini- 
tion was : 

He must be a trained young man. Re- 
gardless of other considerations, the man 
is wanted now for the job who can do it 
best. The newer education will make pos- 
sible a truer democracy by insuring to each 
boy not alone the chance for a fair competi- 
tion after he has learned the essentials of 
his trade but an equal chance with others 
to learn the trade. 

The address of Walter M. Wood, 
manager of the institutional work of the 
Y. M. C. A., Chicago, was full of help- 
ful suggestions drawn from the experi- 
ence of the Y. M. C. A. in supple- 
mental education. He said in part: 

The School as Supplemental work is not a 
a Social diluted form of professional 
Organism. training nor a substitute for 
more fundamental education. It simply 
means a chance for the non-school popula- 
tion. Methods of supplemental education 
include the reading room, the museum, 
courses of reading, educational lectures, cor- 
respondence and night schools. Funda- 
mental education must be very adaptable to 
the individual case in hand. It must be lo- 
cated in the natural assemblying places of 
the people it is to help. There are three 



The Congress on Social Education 



441 



things which the supplemental education 
of the Y. M. C. A. attempts to do: to aid 
those who have no basis of vocational train- 
ing in securing something of that training; 
to aid those who are the slaves of misfit oc- 
cupations to get out of them into vocations 
more suited to them; to aid those already 
in vocations suitable to them to grow in 
those vocations. It is very fruitful and 
gratifying work for the teacher for almost 
without exception his pupils are intensely 
in earnest. They come for help and use it 
when they get it. There is nothing more 
tragic than the efforts at self-recovery of a 
man who has either through misfortune or 
his own fault been deprived of educational 
advantages which should have been his. 
Often supplemental education helps a man 
to solve his most vital life problem. In aid- 
ing a man to betterment in his chosen field 
supplemental education often staves off 
the paralysis of fixedness. It prevents men 
from becoming prematurely crystallized in 
their intellectual processes. In little more 
than a decade the supplemental work of the 
Y. M. C. A. has developed so that there are 
now 726 reading rooms, 36,000 men in edu- 
cational courses with 1,827 teachers. It 
is impossible for the Y. M. C. A. alone to 
carry forward this work as it should be 
done. The educational emphasis in the 
future should not be laid on professional 
and classical education for the few but in- 
dustrial and supplemental education for the 
many. 

Mr. Woods' address was the first of 
an evening's program devoted to the 
school as a social organism. 

In discussing Self -Government by 
Students in School and College, Pres- 
ident Wl O. Thompson of Ohio State 
University said that the new idea which 
is fast taking hold on the educational in- 
stitutions of the land places more re- 
sponsibility on the student. It purposed 
to train him for social usefulness by giv- 
ing him opportunity to function through 
problems of school government. The old 
idea that the college is a place for dis- 
ciplining students is dying out and the 
new conception that the student is a citi- 
zen, amenable to the same laws as other 
citizens is taking its place. The school 
more and more relates itself to the prac- 
tical affairs of life. Discipline is only an 
incident in college life. The student that 
does not recognize this is not fitted for 
college. The student should be brought 
face to face with college law as the citi- 
zen is brought face to face with the law 
of the state. 



"The education of the past was a sort 
of breathing-in process. All that has 
changed now ancf it is an unfolding pro- 
cess from within," said Professor Wil- 
bur S. Jackson, principal of the Univer- 
sity of Chicago elementary school. Fur- 
ther he said : 

There has been a determined effort to 
keep pupils from rendering each other as- 
sistance. That is all wrong. There is the 
greatest need that pupils should grow social- 
ly by mutual assistance. The natural ten- 
dencies of the child should always be jtil- 
ized for his development. This method re- 
duces the peril of transition from the life of 
the school to the life of the world. 

That many of the same problems con- 
front England as those with which we 
have to do was shown by Dr. Cecil Red- 
die, headmaster of the Abbottsholme 
School which of all English schools is 
dealing most successfully with these 
problems. He explained the plan of self 
government in athletes in operation in 
his school and the efforts to make con- 
ditions right for the growth of the best 
impulses among the boys. He said that 
he was endeavoring to establish a point 
of contact between the secondary school 
life of the boy and his after career as 
a man and a citizen. The boy must be 
socialized through his work as well as 
through his play. 

Prof. Samuel McCune Lindsay of the 
University of Pennsylvania spoke on 
Nezv Duties and Opportunities for the 
Public Schools. He said in part: 

Social work and the growing social spirit 
in America represent both the fulfillment 
of a demand which older institutions did not 
satisfy, and the creation of a demand for 
new and effective machinery to carry out the 
larger social purposes of our day. 
, Every step of progress in child study, in 
appreciation of the needs and value of child 
life, in the restriction of child labor and the 
detection of the causes of juvenile crime, im- 
poses new obligations and places a greater 
strain on the home and the school as the 
two general agencies charged with the su- 
pervision and training of the child. The 
one is a private and the other a public in- 
stitution. Therefore the chief direct means 
of social action and social control is through 
the institution created and controlled by the 
society, namely, the public school, supported 
by the state. 



442 



Charities and The Commons 



The Plea ^he i m P ortanc e of illdus- 

for industrial trial education was recog- 

Education. nized ^ ^ lafge pkce it 

was given on the program of the con- 
gress. A well attended section meeting 
discussed it Saturday morning, the mass 
meeting Saturday evening was devoted 
to it and throughout the other sessions 
speakers kept recurring to it as a su- 
preme present day need. 

President Frederick P. Fish of the 
American Telephone and Telegraph 
Company was the first speaker of the 
mass meeting, his theme being The 
Place of Industrial Education in the 
Common School System. President 
Fish said : 

There are few public questions so clearly 
within the range of ordinary citizens as this. 
It is a matter upon which the business man, 
the professional man, the working man 
should think, make up his mind and face ac- 
tion. It is a tremendous responsibility 
which the modern state has assumed in ar- 
bitrarily setting aside a term of many years 
in every child's life in which he is subject 
to the dictations of the state through its 
school system. As late as 1860 the law of 
Massachusetts required only twelve weeks 
of attendance at school for children between 
the ages of eight and fourteen. Poverty of 
the parent was a sufficient excuse for non-at- 
tendance. The boy of those days, free the 
greater part of the year, was able to pick 
up the practical knowledge he needed for 
his later life. He lost very much of the 
mass of human knowledge and experience 
recorded in books, but he got instead first 
hand touch with his future social and in- 
dustrial environment. The industrial pro- 
cesses were then comparatively simple and 
were carried on all around the boy. He 
might easily decide what his vocation should 
be and pick up the essentials in his vacation 
periods. The apprentice system made it 
possible for him to step into his work after 
his years of probation ready to do his work 
well. Modern industrial developments and 
the heavy requirements of his school work 
now make it impossible for the boy to be- 
come familiar with mechanical processes as 
the boys of forty years ago did. The state 
must make recompense to the boy for this 
deprivation by giving him a chance through 
the school to overcome this disadvantage 
at the same time retaining the great ad- 
vantages of liberal education. 

Mrs. Mary Schenck Woolman told 
of the work in the Manhattan Trade 
School for Girls. The trade school must 
turn out graduates who can supply just 
what the trade demands — the teacher 



must not take too much interest in the 
pupil, nor on the other hand must she 
care too much for the product and neg- 
lect the leading out of her pupil into a 
richer world. Things taught must be 
shown to have a relation to life or the 
children will take no interest. That the 
school is accomplishing its purpose was> 
shown by the comparatively high wages 
which graduates of the school can com- 
mand. That new industries may be es- 
tablished in the United States as the 
standard of efficiency in our workman- 
ship is raised was shown by the fact 
that the good work done by the Manhat- 
tan school has brought three new indus- 
tries for girls into the United States. 
In New York city 130,000 women are 
employed in factories. Many of these 
commenced work immediately after their 
compulsory school days were over. They 
obtained positions not on account of 
their preparation or adaptability to them 
but because they were forced to take the 
first thing offered. Their education 
checked at the vital time, they are not 
adaptable to trade conditions. They 
lose their positions, drift from trade to 
trade, become discouraged and often 
fail morally and physically because they 
can not make a living wage. When the 
school was first established it was re- 
garded by the workers as a very doubtful 
experiment but it has now in its four 
years obtained a recognized place as a 
practical training school for the indus- 
tries. 

Trade ^ comparison between the 

Training in opportunities for industrial 
Europe. training here and those ob- 
tainable in European countries was pre- 
sented by Frank A. Vanderlip of New 
York. 

A trade school system makes men eco- 
nomically efficient and mentally strong. 
America must establish trade schools to 
prevent our youth from becoming auto- 
matic workers. Skilled artisans are 
greatly needed in many industries. Pri- 
vate initiative can help only the few, 
there is no way to get at the heart of 
the problem but to develop the trained 
artisan from the grammar school boy. 
"Industrial education is frankly utili- 



The Congress on Social Education 



443 



tarian," said President E. Benjamin An- 
drews of the University of Nebraska. It 
will result in culture but that is not its 
primary object. It is the inevitable re- 
sponse to the steadily increasing demand 
for direct help. Industries have come 
to take rank as professions and the as- 
pirant for success in them must be 
specially trained. The remarkable de- 
velopment of the engineering and agri- 
cultural departments of Western univer- 
sities are conspicuous examples showing 
the way in which the youth of the land- 
welcome such opportunities. Other 
features are the training in domestic art 
and science and in forestry. Dr. An- 
drews outlined in detail some of the re- 
markable achievements of scientific agri- 
culture in reclaiming arid lands, in pro- 
moting dry framing, in developing new 
methods of culture, in introducing new 
products better adapted to a particular 
soil and in animal husbandry and dairy- 
ing. Achieving these successes in agri- 
cultural experiment constitutes but half 
the task undertaken by the schools. 
The other half is securing the adop- 
tion of these advanced methods by 
the farming constituency. Seed train 
lectures, agricultural bulletins and gen- 
eral publicity campaigns are bringing the 
improved methods within reach of all. 
But the work has only just commenced. 
The possibilities of educational advances 
along this line are almost limitless. 



The Economic 
Problem 
Involved. 



Professor Charles R. Rich- 
ards of Columbia Univer- 
sity presided at the morn- 
ing conference on industrial education. 
He outlined the general problem. He 
said in brief: 

Capitalistic organization of industries 
leaves no natural place for trade training. 
It can be truly said that the problem of the 
trade school is essentially an economic and 
only in a very secondary way an educational 
problem. First and most serious is the 
great expense entailed upon the learner in 
losing a steady though small income during 
the period of school training. This is by 
far the most serious problem that the trade 
school must face. 

The second economic difficulty presented 
by the trade school as compared with the 
shop school is the expense of operation. 
Perhaps the least line of resistance opening 



out before us at the present time is, first, 
in the extension of the shop schools in the 
large industrial establishments, and, second- 
ly, in the provision by state or municipality 
of preparatory trade schools for boys and 
girls of the ages from fourteen to sixteen 
years — the period when the question of self- 
support is far less serious than in later 
years. 

"We should not lose sight of the fact, how- 
ever, that industrial education involves an- 
other problem also, viz.: the improvement 
and advancement of the condition of those 
already entered in the trades. This happily 
is a much simpler problem and one in which 
a great deal has already been accomplished 
through the provision of evening industrial 
schools. 

The needs from the manufacturers' 
standpoint were presented by M. W. 
Alexander of the General Electric Com- 
pany. He maintained that the educa- 
tional system has not yet answered the 
demands of the industries for skilled 
hands. Skill among the trades has not 
developed with the development of the 
system of industries. 

Efforts are being made by some manu- 
facturers to solve the problem by pro- 
viding shop schools or training rooms 
to initiate the boys into the trade. This 
works to the equal advantage of em- 
ployer and employe but has been by 
no means so generally adopted as it 
should be. Manual labor is dignified if 
the worker takes the attitude toward it 
he should. 

"Both the manufacturers and working 
men are gradually waking up to the con- 
viction that industrial and technical edu- 
cation is for the common weal of all," 
said John Golden, president of the 
United Textile Workers of America, 
speaking as the representative of labor. 
The labor unions, naturally deeply in- 
terested in all that affects earning 
capacity of the working people, were at 
first suspicious of the industrial educa- 
tion movement. But if its true aims are 
conserved, labor will go hand in hand 
with the employer in any effort made 
for the betterment of trade conditions. 

The labor unions to-day do not know 
what kind of trade schools they want. 
That is the problem for all. But they 
do know what kind of schools they do 
not want. They do not want make-shift 
schools. 



444 



Charities and The Commons 



industrial The Bearing of Industrial 

Ed a C Sociai as Education Upon Social 

Force. Conditions was the subject 

of an address by Robert A. Woods of 

the South End House, Boston. To quote 

briefly : 



The two years between fourteen and six- 
teen in the lives of the vast mass of the chil- 
dren whose education ends with the gram- 
mar school are clearly wasted — lost to them- 
selves, their families, and the community. 
At the same time, by what seems like the 
irony of fate, pedagogical research is show- 
ing that those two years are among the best 
of all for absorbing such practical training 
as would increase from two to one hundred 
times the industrial and social value of 
these young people's careers. The incalcu- 
lable loss of productive capacity involved in 
this strangely anomalous situation, now that 
our eyes have been opened to it, cannot be 
allowed to go on. This situation brings in- 
to a striking relief, set off with black shad- 
ows, the inaptness of our present school cur- 
riculum so far as at least four-fifths of the 
pupils are concerned. They are taught 
everything but the one thing needful. It is 
as though the maker of edge tools should go 
through all the processes, forging, moulding, 
tempering, grinding, polishing — but omit to 
give the edge! 

The workingman and his family will 
easily learn to sacrifice themselves in order 
to carry their children through another year 
or two of education for productive, remuner- 
ative, masterful efficiency. Where such pos- 
sibilities do not exist the community must 
see its opportunity of sustaining the needy 
but promising ones during this course of 
training, as is now done in France and Eng- 
land. The opposition of some employers 
and of some workmen to such a movement 
is tending rapidly to disappear, as it is un- 
derstood on all hands that no school can un- 
dertake to turn out the fully equipped jour- 
neyman; and that an increased supply of 
thoroughly trained men, instead of crowding 
the labor market, will greatly stimulate new 
economic enterprise and open many new 
avenues of employment. 

At the morning conference on The 
Relation of the Library to Social Edu- 
cation, Dr. Horace G. Waldin, librarian 
of the Boston public library pointed out 
that its field lay in serving not only pu- 
pils of the public schools but large num- 
bers of young artisans or mechanics who, 
on account of age or restricted opportun- 
ity, have had no school training, by pro- 
viding books in all departments of the 
arts and sciences which would otherwise 
be beyond their reach. 



There were also conferences on Self- 
Organised Group Work; Special School 
Classes for Troublesome Children, and in 
connection with the Massachusetts State 
Teachers' Association session. The 
segregation of troublesome children as 
it is accomplished in the Providence, R. 
L, schools was explained by Superin- 
tendent W. H. Small. 

The school Dr - Washington Gladden 
and the of Columbus, Ohio, Mrs. 

Family. Mary ^ Simkhovitch of 

Greenwich House, New York, Professor 
Jeremiah "Wl Jenks of Cornell Univer- 
sity and Dr. Henry M. Leipziger, super- 
visor of lectures, New York, were speak- 
ers at a mass meeting of the congress 
on Saturday afternoon. Miss Jane 
Addams of Hull House was unable to 
be present and Professor Jenks spoke ex- ' 
temporaneously to fill the gap in the 
program. An outline of Dr. Gladden's 
address is as follows: 

The family is the first and most import- 
ant of all the institutions of society. All 
social functions have been evolved, by a nat- 
ural process, from the family. Protection, 
economic activity and socialization are three 
primary social functions. All these were 
originally exercised within the family. All 
the work of protection now performed by 
courts, sheriffs and constables, fire depart- 
ment, sanitary department, police and state 
militia, was primarily done by the family. 
All the economic operations of the commun- 
ity are an evolution from the life of the 
pioneer family. All the movements which 
tend to socialize the community — the educa- 
tion, the moral and religious training — origi- 
nate in the family. These functions are now 
largely handed over to other agencies. But 
the family is not released from responsibil- 
ity for them. The family must still remain 
the vitalizing, energizing force, in them and 
behind them all. All this work of protec- 
tion, production, education must find its 
spring and its impulse in the home. The 
capital defect of our modern society is in 
the tendency of the family to shirk these 
primary social functions and pass them over 
to other agencies. 

Mrs. Simkhovitch showed the serious- 
ness of the problem of keeping the child 
of extreme poverty supplied with ade- 
quate clothing and food during the years 
of compulsory education. Often the 
child is most seriously handicapped men- 
tally by physical needs. She suggested 
the appointment of a special school offi- 



The Congress on Social Education 



445 



cer to investigate the home conditions 
of pupils. Cases where there is need 
could then be turned over to the regular 
charity organization. Mrs. Simkhovitch 
discussed the relation of the school to 
the immigrant family, dealing especially 
with the problem of assimilation. What 
we need to instill into the children is 
an admiration for the best qualities of 
each race and by that admiration to cul- 
tivate these qualities until they become 
a competent part of American make-up. 
Dr. Leipziger outlined the system of 
public lectures in use in New York, 
showing how they are adapted to special 
needs and accomplish much in widening 
the mental horizon of the people at large. 
Professor Jenks argued that in the mod- 
ern school arrangement the teacher had 
come to have a better knowledge of a 
given child's capabilities than the par- 
ent. This was largely because she had 
devoted more time to the problem, the 
average parent having little opportunity 
to become acquainted with the child's 
most vital qualities of character. Help, 
he urged, could be secured from the 
teacher, that could be got in no other 
way by the anxious parent, and the 
closest co-operation would result in the 
most fruitful outcome of a social edu- 
cation program. 

Education The closing session of 
of the the congress, held Sunday 

Conscience. • . ' , « ^ , . % 

evening in the Colonial 
theatre, treated, especially the ethical 
side of the question. The theme of the 
evening was The Education of the Con- 
science. The Rev. William J. Long of 
Stamford, Conn., declared from the 
standpoint of the naturalist and natural 
growth was always toward unselfish- 



ness and social helpfulness. It is only 
the man that is cruel to his kind and 
then not naturally so. Even ravenous 
beasts are gregarious. The creator in- 
tended that man should be a social 
creature. Child life should be permitted 
to grow naturally and it will grow so- 
cially. 

Dr. G. Stanley Hall urged that honor 
be made a basis in ethical instruction. 
It is a natural transition from the child- 
ish state where the sense of right and 
wrong is closely bound up with religion 
to the stage of high school and college 
where the sentiment of honor competes 
with conscience as the guide of life. 
Honor is a keynote for ethical harmony. 
For the majority of intelligent young 
men or women, it is in fact, or at least 
is capable of being made, the dominant 
element in controlling life, more potent 
perhaps even than conscience or religion 
itself. Strong as it is, it is easily per- 
verted. Perhaps the root of honor is 
fidelity to the unborn, but its branches 
bring the soul into the closest and purest 
relations with the good and the true. 

Dr. Cecil Reddie took the place on the 
program which was to have been filled 
by Alfred Mosely of London and de- 
scribed interesting features of the 
method in use in his English school. 
Archbishop William H. O'Connell, who 
was the concluding speaker of the con- 
gress spoke to the subject, The Aspects 
of Conscience. He used the system of 
ethical training in use in the Catholic 
church to exemplify methods in educat- 
ing the conscience. 

No organization of the social educa- 
tion movement was effected at the con- 
gress, but preliminary steps to that end 
were taken. 



For the Defense of Public Health 



A militant organization for the defense 
of public health and morals with a na- 
tional headquarters and a branch in every 
state and city was launched recently in 
the new Public Health Defense League. 
"There is no excuse for it if it is not 
militant," says the originator of the idea, 
Champe S. Andrews. "Therefore, we 
are working for resources and members 
to make it so." New York, Pennsylva- 
nia, Massachusetts and Maryland have 
already practically organized and though 
the movement was started scarcely 
a month ago, its vitality is such that Ala- 
bama, Georgia, Tennessee, Illinois and 
Ohio are taking the first steps to get into 
line. 

One hundred and forty-nine medical, 
philanthropic, religious and charitable 
organizations from every state in the 
union as well as Hawaii and the Philip- 
pines met in New York at the Hudson 
Theatre on November 15 to work out a 
scheme of organization for conserving 
public health along lines suggested 
by Mr. Andrews last spring. The meet- 
ing was successful in every way. 

Briefly the Public Health Defense 
League can best be described as the na- 
tionalizing of the New York County 
Medical Society's work. For years the 
society has waged a warfare against 
quacks at its own expense, its only source 
of income being the dues of its members. 
Within six years it has conducted over 
600 prosecutions, secured 550 convic- 
tions and paid out for the work about 
$15,000 more than it has received in fines. 
One hundred years ago the society was 
incorporated and at the centennial of its 
birth the new scheme was born, to ex- 
tend its work over the entire country — 
not only the fight against quackery but 
against all menaces to the public health. 
New York, it is said, spends over a 
million dollars a year on its quack doc- 
tors. Other cities are as bad, if not 
worse. In the patent medicine quacks, 
who have been exposed in the maga- 
zines but not injured, the new league will 
have to fight an organization with over 
446 



a billion dollars of capital behind it. The 
method will be to create and keep alive 
an active public opinion stimulated not 
only by what ought to be done but also 
by what has been done. 

At the Hudson Theatre meeting a 
reporter for the Cleveland News told how 
a newspaper ran the quacks out of busi- 
ness in that city. After being examined 
and pronounced practically sound by two 
of the best physicians in the city the re- 
porter visited the quacks. His experi- 
ence was like Jerome K. Jerome's read- 
ing of the medical books — the quacks 
discovered that he had every disease 
known to their science. "Regardless of 
expense," he exposed their fake ma- 
chinery, medicines, and the graft of their 
"private drug stores." The newspaper 
crusade ran them out of business. 
Something of this sort the new league 
aims to do as well as to give proper pub- 
licity. 

But it is not only into the warfare of 
science against quackery that the league 
purposes to go. The charter of incor- 
poration, modeled after the American 
National Red Cross, seeks to carry the 
fight on in many fields. The league will 
"obtain and disseminate accurate infor- 
mation concerning practices and condi- 
tions of every kind that are dangerous 
to the public health and morals." It 
will work "for the enactment of laws 
in the United States, territories and co- 
lonial possessions, for the protection and 
preservation of the public health and 
morals." 

Another of its purposes will be "to 
assist the constituted authorities in the 
enforcement of all laws affecting the pub- 
lic health including those laws for the 
prevention of quackery, charlatanism 
and criminal practices in the healing art 
whether by licensed or unlicensed prac- 
titioners." Drug and food adulterat'n 
it will combat and will endeavor to pre- 
vent "the sale of narcotics, alcohol and 
dangerous substances of every kind 
whether under the guise of proprietary 
remedies and so-called patent medicines- 



The International Congress of Public and Private Relief 447 



and nostrums or whether sold as nar- 
cotics in violation -of law." Another 
purpose will be to secure the exclusion 
from the mails of advertising matter of 
a harmful nature. It is also planned to 
work for the enactment of a law adding 
a department of health to the cabinet of 
the president of the United States. 

To direct the crusade a committee has 
been appointed of which Austin G. Fox 
is Chairman. John S. Cooper has been 



chosen secretary and A. E. G. Good- 
ridge, vice-president of the Interborough 
Bank of New York city, treasurer. The 
committee itself is composed of: 

Dr. Frank Van Fleet, Dr. Silas F. Hallock, 
Albert M. Austin, Ohampe S. Andrews, John 
S. Cooper, Austen G. Fox, Dr. Wendell C. 
Phillips, Dr. Floyd M. Crandall, Dr. Walter 
Lester Carr, Dr. Earnest J. Lederle, J. M. 
Rice, Dr. Henry S. Stearns, Livingston Far- 
rand, Herbert C. Lakin, Rev. J. J. Wynne, 
Dr. William M. Polk, 0. E. Edwards, Jr., 
Gaylord S. White, Rev. Thomas R. Slicer,. 



THe International Congress of Public 
and Private Relief 



CHarles R. Henderson 



M. Casimir Perier, president of the 
international committee, ex-president of 
the French Republic, has issued a state- 
ment relating to the next International 
Congress of Public and Private Relief 
which will be held in Copenhagen in Au- 
gust or September, 19 10. The Paris 
committee requests that questions for 
discussion shall be sent to them before 
January, 1907, for comparison and con- 
sideration. If any charity workers in the 
United States wish to propose subjects 
which they think will have an interna- 
tional interest, they may forward them 
directly to the Comite International des 
Congres D' Assistance Publique et 
Privee, Paris, 23 Rue Nitot, or to the 
writer at the University of Chicago. It 
should be remembered that very few 
questions will be considered, not more 
than four or five. In order to avoid du- 
plication the subjects of previous con- 
gresses are printed below. 

In sending a subject, it should be ac- 
companied by a brief commentary indi- 
cating various branches of the problem 
and reasons for placing it on the pro- 
gram of an international congress. The 
topics already discussed have been : 

Congress of Paris (1889): (1) In 
what measure should public relief have 
an obligatory character? Results of 
this system in countries where it ob- 
tains. (2) Systematic organization of 
benevolence. Study of different systems 
founded on the two following principles : 



(a) relief conditioned on previous in- 
vestigation by a visitor of a charity or- 
ganization society, etc. ; (b) able bodied 
indigents are helped only in a way to 
assist them to become self-supporting. 
-3) Methods of placing children who are 
in charge of public administration, and 
the means employed to assure their phy- 
sical, intellectual and moral welfare. (4) 

-^ organization of medical relief in the 
rural communities. 

Congress of Geneva (1896): (1) Re- 
lief of foreigners. (2) Organization of 
charity. (3) Relief by employment. (4) 
Physical protection of children and prop- 
er administration. 

Congress of Paris (1900) . (1) Re- 
lief of needy families in their homes, — « 
methods and results ; ways of securing 
an understanding between public relief 
and private charity. (2) Treatment and 
education of children under the care of 
public or private relief, who for some 
moral cause are not suitable for placing 
in families. (3) Nature and methods of 
relief by work ; is not this essentially the 
proper field of private charity? (4) 
Relief of tuberculosis. 

Congress of Milan (1906): (1) Re- 
lief of foreigners. Necessity for an in- 
ternational understanding. (2) Profes- 
sional education of benevolent assistants 
of public relief officers. (3) Institutions 
having for their object the protection and 
assistance of young girls and homeless 



44 8 



Charities and The Commons 



women. (4) Measures which should be 
taken to diminish infant mortality. (5) 
By what systems and within what limits 
can and should various kinds of insur- 



ance and thrift displace and supplement 
the functions of charity and public re- 
lief, with the co-operation of institutions 
which actually perform these tasks. 



Communication 



What's the Matter witK New Yorh? 

To the Editor: 

After reading the observations of Doctor 
Spratling under the heading "No Randall's 
Island Relief in Sight," I conclude that this 
island must lie outside the path of the re- 
form cyclones which have been speeded by 
the statesmanship of New York, and that 
its "House of Refuge" (God save the mark,) 
still vexes the patient strategy of faithful 
superintendents. Nearly thirty years ago 
the writer sat in a close official conference 
in the parlor of the Randall's Island House 
of Refuge with Superintendent Israel Jones, 
and listened to the delightful profession of 
faith with which he outlined a new plant to 
comprise one thousand acres of land, a com- 
prehensive cottage family system, numerous 
trade industries suited to the needs of the 
young life which was the sacred trust of 
the state as a mother guardian, and believed 
with the hopeful superintendent that it 
really was to be. 

Superintendent Jones advised his callers 
on the occasion referred to, not to pattern 
after New York, but to profit by the experi- 
ence of New York, and do better. He was 



kind enough to commit his views to a pamph- 
let which was used before a state legisla- 
ture to secure the adoption of the open fam- 
ily group cottage system, with diversified 
industry, as the best type of institutional 
care for such children. 

The new state profited by the confession 
of the old one, but the old state continues 
in its sinning, and it is both fair and appro- 
priate to inquire what is the matter with 
New York? 

At the time of my visit among other ex- 
hibits of factors of child helping benevol- 
ence, we were impressed by the knitting 
machine with its child operator, and the 
yarn, on one side; and the profit sharing 
contractor for child labor on the other, and 
endeavored to figure out the ethical value of 
the guardianship. Of course all this has 
passed away, and our good friend Superin- 
tendent Byers is hopefully cherishing the 
traditional faith of the superintendent's of- 
fice that the acres, the cottages, the indus- 
tries, and the encouragements to useful liv- 
ing, will all be realized before the judgment 
day. 

C. E. Faulkner. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 



ASSEMBLY ROOMS TO RENT 

Rooms, accommodating 160, to rent for meetings 
or classes. Facilities for tea or collations can 
be arranged. Exceptionally low terms for 
classes. 

For further particulars, apply to 

Miss Frances H. Puller, Ass't Sec'y, 19 E. 26th St., N. Y. 



HANDBOOK WANTED. 
The edition of the HANDBOOK ON THE PRE- 
VENTION OF TUBERCULOSIS is exhausted. The 
anti-tuberculosis propaganda "will be helped if persons 
having copies of this book which they are willing to 
part with will send them to the undersigned for the 
use of physicians and others studying tuberculosis and 
engaged in organizing work for the prevention and 
cure of this disease. 
The Committee will be glad to refund postage. 
COMMITTEE ON THE PREVENTION OF 
TUBERCULOSIS of the NEW YORK CHARITY 
ORGANIZATION SOCIETY, 
105 East Twenty-second Street. 



Charities 

AND Xhe Commons 



Social Forces 

A Foreword FortnigHtly by tKe Editor 



the: message 

It might plausibly be held that the most potent social force in America at 
present is the personality of the president. It is not so much the office as the 
man that is of sociological interest. The recent message to Congress, the most 
comprehensive embodiment of the president's views on social questions, is an 
epoch-making document and deserves the careful study of all who are concerned 
about the common welfare. Whether it prove to be a program for the next ten 
years of federal social legislation, or, on the contrary, merely the high water 
mark before a period of inaction and reaction, it will inevitably stand conspicuously 
among the messages as an expression of noble enthusiasm, and of practical states- 
manship wholly directed towards higher standards of life and conduct, industrial 
democracy and social control. 

The message recommends specifically that corporations be forbidden to con- 
tribute to the campaign expenses of any party; that the government be given 
the right to appeal on questions of law in criminal cases ; that higher courts be 
prevented from setting aside judgments, or granting new trials in either civil or 
criminal cases on technical grounds, unless the error has resulted in a miscarriage 
of justice ; that abuse of the power of injunctions be checked; that the pending bill 
limiting the length of the working day of railroad employes be enacted ; that 
provision be made for a thorough investigation of the conditions of child labor and 
of the labor of women in the United States, and that a drastic and thorough-going 
child-labor law be enacted for the District of Co'lumbia and the territories ; that 
the provisions of the recently enacted employers' liability law be extended ; that a 
mechanism be created for the compulsory investigation of controversies between 
employers and employes ; that the nation's remaining coal lands be withdrawn 
from sale or entry save in special circumstances, and that these lands be worked 
by private individuals under a royalty system and under government control ; 
that, when next our system of taxation is revised, the national government should 
impose a graduated inheritance tax, and if possible a graduated income tax ; that 
in the District of Columbia the schools should develop the highest type of com- 
mercial and industrial training; that vigorous action be taken to preserve the 
forests in the White Mountains and Southern Appalachian regions ; and that by 
constitutional amendment the whole question of marriage and divorce be relegated 
to the authority of the national Congress. 

The few remaining recommendations of the message relate to currency reform, 
449 



45° Charities and The Commons 

the navy, encouragement of American shipping, naturalization of Japanese, the 
conferring of American citizenship on Porto Ricans, the ratification of the 
Algeciras and the Geneva Red Cross conventions, and the prevention of pelagic 
sealing. 

Thus reduced to bare skeleton, the general spirit of the message is but faintly 
indicated. To appreciate its full significance, it is essential to read the message, 
to weigh the arguments by which its specific recommendations are supported, to 
catch its insistent note of humanitarianism and to feel at least some little stirring 
of response to the inspiring and undaunted confidence, which the author of the 
message unquestionably feels profoundly, in the capacity of the nation, when using 
all its reserve resources, to deal with vital questions of social welfare. 

There are many paragraphs which do not lead to definite recommendations 
for federal legislation, such as those dealing with the further control and super- 
vision of corporations, lynching, the relation of capital and labor, industrial 
education, agricultural associations, international morality, the treatment of the 
Japanese in California, the preservation of justice and order in Cuba, and the 
relative claims of peace and righteousness in binding the conscience of the nation. 
In the message there are some very pregnant and epigrammatic sentences. 
A few of these which will bear removal from their context we venture to re- 
produce : 

"Let justice be both sure and swift; but let it'be justice under law, and not the 
wild and crooked savagery of a mob." 

"The horrors incident to the employment of young children in factories or at 
work anywhere are a blot on our civilization." 

"In spite of all precautions exercised by employers there are unavoidable 
accidents and even deaths involved in nearly every line of business connected 
with the mechanic arts. This inevitable sacrifice of life may be reduced to a 
minimum, but it cannot be completely eliminated. It is a great social injustice 
to compel the employe, or rather the family of the killed or disabled vicitm, to 
bear the entire burden of such an inevitable sacrifice." 

"We hold that the government should not conduct the business of the nation, 
but that it should exercise such supervision as will insure its being conducted 
in the interest of the nation." 

"The best judges have ever been foremost to disclaim any immunity from 
criticism." 

"It is well to recollect that the real efficiency of the law often depends not upon 
the passage of acts as to which there is great public excitement, but upon the 
passage of acts of this nature as to which there is not much public excitement, 
because there is little public understanding of their importance, while the interested 
parties are keenly alive to the desirability of defeating them." 

"It should be one of our prime objects as a nation, so far as feasible, constantly 
to work toward putting the mechanic, the wageworker who works with his hands, 
on a higher plane of efficiency and reward, so as to increase his effectiveness in 
the economic world, and the dignity, the remuneration, and the power of his 
position in the social world." 

"It is neither wise nor right for a nation to disregard its own needs, and it is 
foolish — and may be wicked — to think that other nations will disregard theirs. 
But it is wicked for a nation only to regard its own interest, and foolish to believe 
that such is the sole motive that actuates any other nation." 



CHARITIES 

AND The Common 



THe Common Welfare 



Paragraphs in PHilantHropy- and Social Advance 



Books ^ n this number are pre- 
of 1905 and sented brief reviews of 
books published in 1905-6, 
in the field of philanthropy and social ad- 
vance. The list is not complete. Such 
notable books in the field of charitable 
relief as Capen's Historical Development 
of the Poor Lazv of Connecticut; in eco- 
nomics, as Mitchell's Organised Labor; 
and in social theory, as George's The 
Menace of Privilege, are not included. 
The groups are, however, it is believed, 
representative and are an earnest of plans 
for the future. Announcement can be 
made that hereafter not only will books 
within the field of this journal be review- 
ed as they come from the press, but in a 
special department a running digest of 
the principal magazine articles will be 
presented. 

The san Fran= The meeting of the Ameri- 
cisco Relief can National Red Cross in 
Washington on December 3 
and 4, together with other recent meet- 
ings in Philadelphia, New York and Bos- 
ton, has renewed the interest of the east- 
ern part of the country in San Francisco's 
problem. 

At this date, almost eight months after 
the disaster, housing and rehabilitation 
are the most conspicuous features of the 
relief work, though the care of depend- 
ents still necessarily requires consider- 
able attention. Of the nine million dol- 
lars constituting the relief fund there re- 
mained at the end of November in the 
hands of the Relief Corporation or ready 
to be turned over to them about four mil- 
lion. It is contemplated that this sum 

45i 



will be expended somewhat as follows : 

1. For the care of camps, including 
the Home for the Aged and In- 
firm which is being erected and 
which will require furniture and 
fittings, and for the maintenance 
of the inmates until the begin- 
ning of the next fiscal year when 
it is expected that the city will be 

able to take over this institution, $500,000 

2. For the relief of the needy other 
than those who will be sent to the 
home, and for the care of the sick 
who have to be maintained in 
hospitals, and for transportation, 
special food, and similar pur- 
poses "' 500,000 

3. For the rehabilitation of fami- 
lies, enabling them to again occu- 
py their individual homes and 
for the furniture and utensils re- 
quired for this purpose 500,000 

4. For the rehabilitation of persons in 
business, professions and call- 
ings, to enable them to pursue 
the same means for gaining a 
livelihood as before the calamity, 
(For this the New York Chamber 

of Commerce has provided the 
funds.) 

5. For the rehabilitation of chari- 
table institutions which have lost 
heavily by the fire and which are 
partly or wholly deprived of their 
income .'. 



500,000 



500,000 



6. For providing proper housing 
and shelter for those now living 
in tents, basements, shacks and 
other unsanitary and unsuitable 
shelter, including 6,000 tempo- 
rary cottages already in course of 
construction 1,000,000 

On November 28 there had been ex- 
pended for special relief and rehabilitation 
over a million dollars, for 15,131 fami- 



45 



Charities and The Commons 



lies or individuals; 6,495 cases had been 
referred to others or not found or their 
requests refused or withdrawn; 2,568 
applications were pending, about half of 
them being for housing and business and 
awaiting the maturing of plans. 

After the New York Chamber of Com- 
merce funds were made available express- 
ly for business rehabilitation, the Re- 
habilitation Committee published a notice 
in the daily papers for a week inviting 
applications. On November 30, when the 
time announced for receiving applica- 
tions ended, 850 had been received in 
response to the notice. 

The rehabilitation of hospitals and 
charitable institutions had been under 
consideration for some time and a list 
of institutions and amounts was recom- 
mended to the Corporation by a special 
committee appointed by Mr. Dohrmann. 
The initial appropriations, amounting to 
$190,000 and covering thirty-nine organi- 
zations, were made at the meeting of the 
executive committee on November 27. 

At the beginning of December the 
Housing Committee advertised that it 
would receive applications from lot own- 
ers for assistance in building inexpensive 
houses, on the following conditions : 

1. Applicant must have suffered material 
loss as the result of the fire or earthquake. 

2. Applicant must be the head of a house- 
hold and must show his ability to support 
his family. 

3. Applicant must be unable to obtain suit- 
able housing accommodations at rents within 
his means. 

4. Applicant must own the lot and the 
house must be fitted with sanitary fittings, 
as required by the city ordinance. 

Other plans, of which we have not yet 
received the final form, are under con- 
sideration, and those in dosest touch 
with the situation seem to feel hopeful 
that the most serious difficulties in con- 
nection with housing are clearing away. 

The History Committee appointed by 
the mayor has made a report under 
date of November 20. It has collected a 
ton and a half of material, — documents, 
newspapers, and personal accounts of ex- 
periences, which is being classified by 
university students under the direction of 
Professor H. Morse Stephens. The 
draft of the history will be prepared by 
Prof. Morse Stephens. The book wil'l be 



divided into four parts, dealing with the 
earthquake, the fire, the measures 
adopted for the government of the city 
and the work of relief. No date is 
announced for its appearance but the 
work cannot be hurried and the committee 
feels that delay will not be a disadvantage. 
This committee is itself a unique feature 
of a calamity and it is probable that never 
before has the material for an accurate 
account of events in any great crisis of 
the life of a city been so carefuLy col- 
lected. 

The Maryland TJie new child labor law of 
Child Labor LawMaryland went into effect 

in Operation. September fa^ and for the 

first time that state has some machinery 
with which to enforce its legislation on 
this subject. The Maryland Bureau of 
Statistics and Information is made re- 
sponsible for the enforcement of the law 
and six inspectors have been appointed 
according to the provisions of the act, to 
work under the direction of the chief of 
the bureau. The twelve school attend- 
ance officers of Baltiimore city, working 
under the compulsory school attendance 
law of Maryland, are also charged with 
the duty of filing complaints with magis- 
trates against violators of the child labor 
law. Splendid spirit has been manifest- 
ed by the officers and the friends of the 
children are much gratified. 

The Bureau of Statistics and Informa- 
tion has examined something over 12,200 
children between 12 and 16 years of age 
who have applied for employment per- 
mits. 11,000 permits have been issued 
and slightly over 1,200 children have been 
refused permits, either because they could 
not read and write simple English sen- 
tences, or because they had not attained 
sufficient physical development. Up to 
this time nearly all of the work of the 
bureau and its inspectors has been con- 
fined to Baltimore and the adjacent coun- 
ties. 

The Minnesota The correction and preven- 
conference of t j on of juvenile and adult 

Charities and ■> , t 

Corrections, delinquency was the general 
topic before the Fifteenth Minnesota 
State Conference of Charities and Cor- 
rection which met November 17, at Red 
Wing, under the presidency of Superin- 
tendent Frank L. Randall, of the state re- 



The Common Welfare 



453 



formatory. At seven different sessions, this 
subject was discussed from many points 
of view. The progress which Minnesota 
has made in this direction was pointed 
out, while emphasis was placed upon cer- 
tain urgent needs, such as a separate in- 
dustrial school for girls, with increased 
facilities to develop • the cottage system 
and family group plan ; provision for 
further classification in the state training 
school for boys ; more probation officers, 
both paid and volunteer ; detention homes 
as adjuncts to the juvenile courts in St. 
Paul, Minneapolis and Duluth ; the ex- 
tension of the juvenile court into all coun- 
ties of Minnesota; the extension of the 
state agency system to include all state 
institutions; and the indeterminate sen- 
tence. 

Amos W. Butler, president of the Na- 
tional Conference of Charities and Cor- 
rection and Alexander Johnson, its gen- 
eral secretary, were present. Mr. John- 
son gave an exceedingly helpful and prac- 
tical address at the opening session on the 
value of conferences, an address which 
should be heard in every state where con- 
ferences of charities and correction have 
not yet been organized. Two delegates, 
heads of institutions in a neighboring 
state, heard it at Red Wing and decided 
forthwith to take up at once the matter 
of organizing a conference in their own 
state. 

In his presidential address Mr. Ran- 
dall referred to the results of the law en- 
acted by the last legislature which pro- 
vides "that a person under detention and 
charged with felony which he admits, 
may on his petition be brought before the 
judge of the district court at any time 
or place, upon the filing of information 
against him by the prosecuting officer and 
sentenced, upon his plea of guilty, with- 
out waiting for the return of the true bill 
by the grand jury, which may not con- 
vene for months after his arrest." Under 
the provisions of this intelligent enact- 
ment, numerous criminal cases in Minne- 
sota are being disposed of, justly and ex- 
peditiously. Idle and debilitating stays 
in the county jails are being avoided, 
while much expense is being saved the 
tax payers. 

In pleading for the extension of ju- 



venile courts into all the counties in Min- 
nesota, Mr. Randall said : 

The same sensible procedure which is ad- 
vised for the boy, may some time in the fu- 
ture be applied to persons of more years in 
place of the sometimes technical, expensive, 
dilatory and formal proceedings of the pres- 
ent. A man's legal rights are no greater 
than a boy's legal rights, and no more im- 
portant to himself or society. The most suc- 
cessful, if not the only successful, juvenile 
courts, are conducted with absolute infor- 
mality, but in the trial of a man, the court 
is hedged about with a wonderous arrpy of 
principles and presumptions, which often de- 
feat justice, and hold up to scorn, the ad- 
ministration of the law. 

One of the features of the Minnesota 
conference is the active support of the 
Board of Control and all the institutions 
under its management. This year, the 
response to the address of welcome by 
L. A. Rosing of the Board of Control, 
was full of the characteristic optimism 
of the speaker. Under the chairmanship 
of Andrew J. Eckstein, a well attended 
general session was held on Sunday after- 
noon, devoted to the work of the county 
commissioners. In an address on the 
moral responsibility of county commis- 
sioners to the community, Einar Hoidale 
county attorney of Brown county, empha- 
sized the importance of the work in deal- 
ing with children, delinquents, and the 
poor. It was fitting that Mr. Butler's 
very informing address on township and 
county charities should follow, drawn 
largely from his fruitful experience in 
Indiana. 

The Red Wing churches joined in a 
union meeting on Sunday evening in the 
Red Wing Auditorium. Although it has 
a seating capacity of over 1,200, many 
were compelled to stand. The first 
speaker was Rabbi I. L. Rypins of St. 
Paul, pastor of the largest and most in- 
fluential Jewish congregation in the 
Northwest, who spoke in a forceful and 
original manner on parental responsibility 
to the home. He was followed by Rev. 
Father J. M. Cleary of Minneapolis, who 
spoke on parental responsibility to the 
state. It was interesting to note that at 
this session five members of the execu- 
tive committee of the national conference 
were on the platform, the chairman of one 
of its standing committees, together with 



454 



Charities and The Commons 



the president of the state conference and 
five of its ex-presidents. 

At the session of county commissioners, 
under the chairmanship of Andrew J. 
Eckstein, of Brown county, papers were 
presented on such subjects as the common 
school as a factor in our educational 
system ; social and economic phases of 
the good roads question ; the business man 
as a county commissioner; taxation, and, 
ideals, services and rewards of county 
commissioners. 

Child saving work, centered in the ju- 
venile court, was the general subject for 
Monday afternoon. Papers were pre- 
sented by the juvenile court judges of 
the three Minnesota cities in which such 
courts are established — Judge Josiah D. 
Ensign of Duluth, Judge John Day Smith, 
and Judge Grier M. Orr of St, Paul. 
Superintendent Charles E. Faulkner of 
the Washburn Memorial Orphan Asylum 
of Minneapolis, discussed the importance 
of complete and adequate records in all 
juvenile court cases. 

On Monday evening a largely atend- 
ed general meeting was held in the Audi- 
torium, where Mr. Butler delivered an 
address on Society's Fault, taking up 
some of the larger social problems arising 
from crime and poverty. 

Problems connected with the work of 
state institutions were discussed on Tues- 
day morning, — The indeterminate sen- 
tence, by Henry Wolfer, warden of Min- 
nesota State Prison, the after care of the 
insane, by Dr. H. A. Tomlinson, superin- 
tendent of the St. Peter State Hospital, 
and state agents as auxiliaries to state in- 
stitutions, by Miss Grace Johnson, state 
agent for the Minnesota State Training 
School. The concluding session of the 
conference was held in the assembly 
room of the State Training School for 
Boys and Girls, where Mrs. Russell R. 
Dorr of St. Paul, argued strongly in favor 
of the separation of the girls' training 
school from the present institution. Gen- 
eral Superintendent F. A. Whittier of the 
State Training School and M. L. A. 
Rosing of the Board of Control expressed 
themselves very strongly in favor of the 
plan. Possible results can not be secured 
until such separation is accomplished. 
The next conference, for 1907, will be 



held at Fergus Falls and will meet under 
the following officers : 

President — Andrew J. Eckstein, New Ulm. 

Vice-presidents — F. A. Whittier, Red Wing, 
and J. G. Durrell, Fergus Falls. 

Secretary and press agent — Edwin D. So- 
lenberger, Minneapolis. 

Enrolling secretary — H. C. Withrow of Du- 
luth. 

Night work The Appellate Division of 
dSISS^uS- the New York Supreme 
constitutional. Court has upheld the decis- 
ion of the Court of Special Sessions and 
has pronounced unconsitutional the pro- 
hibition of work after 9 p. m. for minors 
and women in factories. There was no 
argument on this extraordinarily im- 
portant case, as no representative of the 
attorney general was present in court. 
The people were thus deprived of their 
right to have their case argued. This 
is of the more importance as the decision 
is not unanimous. Justices Scott, Laugh- 
lin and Clark concur, Justices Ingraham 
and Houghton dissent. 

Justice Scott for the majority, said: 

The provision under examination is aimed 
solely against work at night, without re- 
gard to the length of time during which 
work is performed or the conditions under 
which it is carried on, and in order to sus- 
tain the reasonableness of the provision we 
must find that, owing to some physical or 
nervous difference, it is more harmful for a 
woman to work at night than for a man to 
do so, for, concededly, the clause in ques- 
tion would be unconstitutional if it applied 
to men as well as to women. We are not 
aware of any such difference, and in all the 
discussions that have taken place none such 
has been pointed out. 

On the other hand, Justice Houghton, 
in emphatic contradiction, writes: 

I think the act limiting the hours and 
times of day in which women may work in 
factories is a valid exercise of police power 
for the preservation of the public health, 
and is not in conflict with either the state 
or federal constitution. 

Justice Ingraham, also dissenting, 
adds: 

Regulation by the legislature as to the 
hours of labor by women when engaged in 
such work as would have a tendency to im- 
pair their health is, I think, within the 
power of the legislature. 



The Common Welfare 



455 



No argument could state more clearly 
than do these dissenting opinions of the 
court, that prohibition of nighjt work for 
women is a police regulation, imperatively 
necessary for the health and morals of 
working women, and therefore within 
the power of the legislature. 

In the opinion of numbers of social 
workers, the decision is the most dis- 
astrous blow which has ever been dealt 
the cause of working-women in New 
York state. The reason why it is, as the 
court says, "more harmful" for women to 
work at night than for men are not far 
to seek. For nightwork means broken 
sleep, irregular meals, artificial light 
throughout their working period, the ab- 
sence of the ordinary restraints of con- 
duct in the rest hour at midnight (in con- 
trast with the noon-hour) . It means go- 
ing home at all hours between n P. M. 
and 6 A. M. whenever the job may come 
to an end. The transit facilities are then 
at their worst and the dangers of the 
street too obvious to mention. 

The case may next be appealed to the 
New York State Court of Appeals. 

The Chicago I say this on the most care- 
Truancy ful deliberation. I have 

Conference. learned more — have noted 
down more points — in this conference than 
in any other educational meeting or conven- 
tion during the long period of such occa- 
sions in my experience. 

The speaker was President G. Stanley 
Hall of Clark University. The confer- 
ence was that on Truancy : Its Causes and 
Prevention, held last week under the 
auspices of the Chicago Board of Edu- 
cation. The occasion of his statement 
was when Dr. Hali faced the largest au- 
dience of the conference, at its last ses- 
sion on Saturday afternoon. The audi- 
ence itself was an indication that his feel- 
ing was shared by throngs of Chicago 
teachers, probation and compulsory edu- 
cation officers, settlement folk, and plain 
citizens, interested in the welfare of all 
Chicago's "kids," as well as by the many 
prominent educators who came from all 
sections of the country. Fullerton Hall 
in the Art Institute was taken by storm 
long before the hour of meeting, and an 
overflow meeting, hastily arranged, soon 
outgrew its narrow quarters and was 



compelled to seek room, where the 
swarming late comers could join them 
and where everyone good-naturedly 
availed himself of his share in the ex- 
tensive seating capacity — a bare stone 
floor. 

The discussion for the tast session was 
upon The Solution — The Co-operation of 
School, Home and Court. And it was a 
fitting culmination to the survey of the 
problem which had been going forward 
for two days. A more complete State- 
ment of the work of the conference will 
appear in a later issue. Suffice to say 
here that the subject was taken up both 
from within the school and without. 
Mrs. Gertrude Howe Britton, of Hull 
House, and Miss Gertrude E. English, 
principal of the Farren School, Chicago, 
discussed the results of a thorough inves- 
tigation in which they took part to get 
at the home and neighborhood conditions 
of truants. The problem of the foreign 
child, ungraded rooms for subnormal 
pupils, physical defects and the need for 
medical examination, probation and pa- 
rental schools, and school nurses, were in 
turn discussed. Mrs. Harriet Vander- 
vaart, of the Illinois Consumer's League, 
called attention to the large numbers of 
truants caused by the desire for earnings, 
and spoke of the scholarship plan of pay- 
ing the amount of the child's earnings 
to dependent widows in order to keep 
the child back in school. She empha- 
sized particularly the need of legislation 
covering the ages from 14 to 16. 

Three special conferences occupied 
Saturday morning. The first was on 
"The importance of improving the meth- 
ods of administration in following the 
truant from his first lapse in attendance 
through all the stages of truancy until 
his return to school ; the necessity of co- 
operation between school and court." The 
second considered "Better methods of 
census and enrollment; the possibility of 
abolishing suspensions." And the third 
tried to answer the question "What can 
the teacher do to prevent truancy?" 

The crowded meetings of Saturday 
afternoon brought together Judge Ben B. 
Lindsey, of the Denver Juvenile Court, 
Dr. Hall, Supt. E. G. Cooley, of the Chi- 
cago school system, and Miss Jane 



45^ 



Charities and The Commons 



Addams of Hull House. In summing 
up at the close, Miss Addams pleaded for 
that compunction and sympathy which 
would afford the average boy the op- 
portunities now found largely in reform 
schools, and declared that we could not 
make better facilities too free. 

what the The Brooklyn Social Re- 

Brooklyn J 

social form Club was formed in 

R ii iKini" b February to discuss the 
civic, social and industrial problems 
which affect the residents of Brooklyn, 
and to work for better conditions. Both 
men and women belong to the club and 
its motto is, "The cure for the ills of 
democracy is more democracy." The 
first full season's work begins this 
month ; but enough was done last spring 
to indicate that the organization has con- 
siderable vitality back of it and may be 
expected to effect something during the 
winter through its public meetings and 
committee work. The officers of the 
club during its first year have been : 

Francis H. McLean, president. 
John J. Pocte, vice-president. 
S. H. Corbett, treasurer. 
Jane E. Robins, secretary. 

The meetings last year were held tem- 
porarily at Trinity House. They began 
with an address by Dr. Samuel J. Bar- 
rows of the Prison Association, on the 
Raymond Street Jail. John E. Smalley 
of the jail is a member of the club. Com- 
mittees got to work and altogether con- 
siderable impulse was given to the move- 
ment to better the conditions there. 
Charles B. Stover told of the ocean 
beach park project; Miss Gertrude Bar- 
num of women and labor unions ; Rob- 
ert Van Iderstine, a lawyer, went into 
the subject of water supply, and Sydney 
Reid of The Independent put forward a 
public-meetings-in - the - public - schools 
idea which seemed thoroughly work- 
able ; Fred. S. Hall of the City Club, 
spoke on child labor; and T. P. Ryan, 
Ernest Crosby, Charles Frederick Adams 
and C. E. Moffett of Collier's, went into 
wider ranges of thought — Mr. Ryan, a 
long-time single taxer, discussing "The 
Apparent Failure of Democracy," Mr. 
Crosby, "Democracy of Walt Whit- 



man," Mr. Adams, "the Brotherhood 
Commonwealth," and Mr. Moffett, "The 
Beautiful City." 

Campaign The New Jersey Associa- 
TubeSuiosis tion for the Prevention 

in New Jersey. and Relief of Tuberculosis 

began its work on May I, 1906. Dur- 
ing that time it has been actively en- 
gaged in the campaign of education, and 
has succeeded in arousing a great deal 
of interest throughout the state. Local 
committees have been organized in 
Camden, Trenton, Paterson, Elizabeth 
and Jersey City. Meetings in these 
cities, with the exception of Trenton, 
have been called either by the mayor or 
in his name, and have been represented 
by boards of health, school boards, phy- 
sicians, and laymen. Other cities of im- 
portance in line for local associations are 
Newark and Atlantic City. Each local 
association deals with its own problem, 
but in the main the thing to be striven 
for is registration of all consumptives, 
disinfection of homes, distribution of lit- 
erature in the public schools, department 
stores, shops, factories, and in homes 
where consumption is found; to deliver 
lectures in churches, clubs, private par- 
lors, and before organizations and insti- 
tutes and at noon hour in shops and fac- 
tories; to procure the establishment of 
dispensaries, and to secure a special diet 
for all indigent consumptives. 

The association is laying stress on the 
establishment of sanatoria throughout 
the state, believing that every city the 
size of Trenton, Camden, and Elizabeth 
should have its own sanatorium. The 
state sanatorium at Glen Gardner will 
soon be ready for occupancy, but this 
provides for only 104 incipient cases. 
There is no provision in the state for 
advanced cases, which are the menace to 
the community. The Oranges are com- 
bining in the establishment of a sana- 
torium for Essex county, ground having 
already been secured. Paterson has an 
appropriation of $5,000 from the muni- 
cipality for the erection of a sanatorium 
and is to ask for $7,000 more. There is 
assurance that the amount will be se- 
cured. Orange and Lakewood have em- 
ployed visiting nurses. 



As an Educational Force 



457 



The efforts of the association are be- 
ing directed toward the glass factory 
district. Mr. Smallwood spent a week 
in Millville and Bridgeton with a view 
of determining how much tuberculpsis 
exists there and what might be done by 
prevention through education, with the 
result that local tuberculosis associations 
are to be formed in Millville and Bridge- 
ton during December; the interest of 
the heads of the great glass factories in 
both districts, the mayors, boards of 
health, school board, and physicians have 
been secured. 

Other avenues of education have been 
opened through the State Federation of 
Women's Clubs. At its annual meeting 
held in Asbury Park, Mr. Smallwood 
made a plea for the interest of the clubs, 
and succeeded in having a resolution 
passed to make tuberculosis a study for 
the next two years ; the New Jersey 
Neighborhood Workers' Association, 
representing the settlement movement in 
the state, the physical directors of the 
Y. M. C. A., the state and county teach- 
ers' institutes, and the State Federation 
of Labor have been reached, and will 
engage in the campaign against the dis- 
ease. 

The association is preparing a state 
exhibit, which is now about complete, 
and will be placed in Camden some time 
in December. The exhibit will be shown 
in all cities where local committees have 
been organized, and will remain for a 
period of two weeks, during which time 
there will be daily lectures, and an effort 
made to interest all grades of people. 

The office of the association is at 164 
Market street, Newark, N. J. Wil- 
liam C. Smallwood is executive secretary. 



needed. In time, some of these grew un- 
able to use machines and tend to become 
public charges because of failure of 



Sewing There is considerable agi- 
Women and tation in Germany as to 

Their Sight. , i • • ,, J < 

the injury to the eyes due to 
certain kinds of industry. This gener- 
ally has had to do more especially with 
the men, because bad eyesight is so often 
discovered by the military examinations. 
Lately, however, attention is being called 
to a spread of the evil among women, 
especially among those who sew. Of the 
patients treated, scarcely any are beyond 
forty years of age when glasses are 



sight. 



immigrant The Inter-Municipal Re- 

Women's i r* •.. 1 

Aid in search Committee has es- 
New York. tablished ' an Immigrant 
Women's Aid under the direction of 
Miss Rosa Fried at 40 Stuyvesant street, 
New York. Through a system of paid 
and volunteer visitors, who speak the 
languages of the immigrants, this bu- 
reau is reaching newly landed women of 
all nationalities, finding out their special 
need and giving them friendly advice 
and direction. The scope of the work is 
described as follows : It discovers 
whether the girl is living amid sanitary 
and moral conditions, and, if necessary, 
finds better lodgings for her. It inquires 
into the girl's training and employment 
and helps her, if possible, to better work. 
It brings the girl into touch with schools 
and settlement classes where she can 
supply her lack of education in Ameri- 
can laws and standards. In short, it 
bridges the gulf between the old life and 
the new and gives the gorl the friendly in- 
terest and guidance during the time of her 
least familiarity with the city and her 
greatest danger from fraudulent or im- 
moral influences. 

j\s an Educational Force 

FranR T\xcKer- 

At the recent New York State Con- 
ference of Charities and Correction, a 
prominent social worker was asked his 
opinion of Charities and The Com- 
mons. He replied : "There is such a 
wealth of suggestive material in it that 
I find it difficult to keep up with all the 
phases of social conditions it presents."" 
Unconsciously, perhaps, this man crystal- 
lized in his answer the educational func- 
tion of the magazine which has been 
made possible through the "educational 
fund" raised by its national publication 
committee. That others find it full of 
suggestive material is evidenced by two 
letters recently received from editors of 
well known periodicals. One writes: 



458 



Charities and The Commons 



Your November 3rd issue of Charities is 
a marvel, and I cannot resist writing to you 
to tell you how pleased I am with it. There 
is hardly an article in it that I would not 

have gladly accepted for "The " if I 

had had the brains to think of it first. It 
seems to me there is more readable and 
vital matter in this issue than I have seen 
in any American magazine of late. 

The other says : 

One of my associates in the editorial de- 
partment thinks that it would be a good 

thing if "The " were to exchange with 

Charities, provided that would be agreeable 
to you. How is it? We have practically no 
exchange list whatever, but once in a while 
we do send out a copy of the magazine in 
the way I have proposed. Just let me know 
your view at your convenience. 

Charities and The Commons occu- 
pies a unique place in the publication 
world. Its editors and contributors are 
men and women in daily contact with 
the human family and its needs. The 
dependent family is just like any other 
family in its needs. It must be housed, 
clothed and fed ; it must have education, 
insurance, recreation and care when 
sick; it must have employment and 
in finding it those who seek on 
behalf of the dependent come face 
to face with all the conditions gov- 
erning labor and its compensation. The 
study and knowledge of the human fam- 
ily in all its needs as developed by en- 
vironment, social and economic, is the 
basis of healthy national development. 
It is the educational work of this maga- 
zine to get at and present the facts of 
conditions that affect the human family. 
It is its educational work to present facts 
and read their lessons so that banker, 
merchant, doctor, statesman, public offi- 
cial, editor, writer, housekeeper, nurse, 
and every worker, man and woman, 
shall develop the social point of view 
and realize that conditions that surround 
us are only the sum total of the conf- 
monplace, ordinary, every day acts of 
each of us in his business and family 
life. To dig out facts is an educational 
work in itself for a journal carried for- 
ward along these lines. It can largely 
leave to other groups the work of legis- 
lation founded upon its facts ; the 
making of literature inspired by the 
conditions it reveals ; the task of 



industrial improvement that knowledge 
of the lives of workers it presents, shall 
impel. 

The country is full of the desire for 
betterment. To set loose the forces of 
public opinion the facts of life are need- 
ed. They must be discovered by impar- 
tial, competent investigators. They 
must be presented in a way that carries 
conviction. Here is our task. They 
must be brought to the average man by 
those common methods of communica- 
tion, the newspapers and the magazines. 
In sound public opinion lies our future 
welfare. 

Notes 

Denver's Jewish Free Loan Society. — The 
Jewish Free Loan Society of Denver, Col., 
has reported that its loans average over $100 
weekly lent in small sums of from $10 to 
$25. An almost equal amount is returned 
by borrowers in amounts of $1 to $2.50. 
During July, August and September the so- 
ciety loaned out $1,312, and received in re- 
turns from borrowers, $1,732.75. In all 
eighty-eight loans were made, an average of 
$20.60 per loan. The money is loaned with- 
out interest and as a business obligation. 
In the three years of the society's existence, 
it has loaned out over $14,000 and not one 
cent has been lost. 

Cooperative "Work, in Cleveland. — The Vis- 
iting Nurse Association, the Home Garden- 
ing Association and a part of the work of 
the Goodrich Social Settlement of Cleveland, 
have joined with the Associated Charities in 
the use of a residence formerly owned and 
occupied by Governor Tod. Other recent 
evidences of cooperation are the Society for 
the Improvement of the Condition of the 
Blind, promoted by various interested organ- 
izations, and the Charity Workers Associa- 
tion. 

Minneapolis Helps the Immigrant. — Min- 
neapolis is joining in the general movement 
for the education of the immigrant. Lead- 
ing Jewish business men of the city are lend- 
ing their support to a newly organized 
Young Men's Hebrew Association. The as- 
sociation is without religious features, but 
combines club life with educational work. 
A night school has been established for im- 
migrants, where both English and element- 
ary subjects will be taught. A nominal fee 
will be charged, which will entitle the hol- 
der to the privileges of the association as 
well as to tuition. 

District Nursing in Alabama. — There is a 
movement on foot to establish district nurs- 
ing in Birmingham, Alabama, in co-opera- 
tion with the work of the United Charities. 



Theories of Social Advance 

BOORS BY 

FLORENCE: KJELLEY C. F. G. MASTERMAN 

CHARLES FLETCHER DOLE JOHN SPARGO 

HENRY DEMAREST LLOYD 



SOME ETHICAL GAINS THROUGH LEGISLATION" 

Reviewed k>y Anna Garlin Spencer 
Associate Director New Yorh School of Philanthropy 



This book 1 is an attempt to prove first, 
that human beings have certain fundamen- 
tal rights as social and industrial factors, 
that can only be adequately recognized and 
effectively secured by law and its firm and 
intelligent enforcement: second, that there 
have been substantial gains in defining and 
maintaining through legislation these fun- 
damental rights of citizens, and of poten- 
tial citizens, of the United States; but that 
third, there remains a vast and dangerous 
area of social neglect to be invaded and cov- 
ered by legislation still more ethically ad- 
vanced. Under the head of "the right to 
childhood," infant mortality, although still 
frightfully excessive, is shown to be some- 
what diminished as a consequence of laws 
securing improved housing, legal restric- 
tions upon cruelty, upon street peddling, 
and by the general movement against child 
labor. Yet Mrs. Kelley scorches the con- 
science by a recital of child exploitation 
still permitted by law and. custom. In the 
chapter headed "the child, the state and the 
nation," the causes at work for the contin- 
uance of the social menace of child labor 
are shown to be the "greed of the parents" 
and their false ideals of saving and "get- 
ting on"; the "greed of employers for cheap 
labor"; and the "greed of the community 
in desiring to keep down the cost of main- 
tenance of the dependent class." To this 
latter point Mrs. Kelley devotes more at- 
tention than do most writers on child labor 
and loses no opportunity of impressing upon 
"philanthropists" the evil results of their 
sins against the higher social ideals. Pos- 
sibly her arraignment of this class is a 
trifle over-severe, since the rapidly improv- 
ing methods of philanthropists show "ethi- 
cal gains" as truly as recent legislation. It 
may be also that there is still left some 
ethical tonic toward character development 

1 Some Ethical Gains Through Legislation : Flor- 
ence Kelley. The Citizen's Library of Economics 
Politics and Sociology. Edited by Professor Ely 
of Wisconsin University. Pp. 341. Price, see 
facing page 449. 

459 



in the desire of the "widowed mother" to 
be as far as possible self-supporting, and to 
relieve others from the burden of her chil- 
dren's support as soon as they can earn even 
a part of their living. The accent placed 
by the earlier methods of charity organiza- 
tion societies upon stimulants toward self- 
dependence, industry and thrift is not a 
wholly outgrown emphasis in the relation 
between the philanthropic and the depend- 
ent classes. It is, however, a needed disci- 
pline to all charity workers to be made to 
face the facts Mrs. Kelley brings out so 
clearly: that child labor is never "self-sup- 
porting" and usually a sacrifice of the ^earn- 
ing power of the future: that excessive 
overwork of the mother of young children 
is never true economy any more than it is 
conducive to true family life; and that the 
only socially economic use of a child of 
tender years is to protect him from routine 
labor and devote his powers to the build- 
ing up of physical, mental and moral 
strength as a potential citizen. The chief 
ethical gains through legislation are those 
which record the tendency toward these 
convictions as to the best use of childhood. 
The analysis of present conditions in child 
labor, contained in pages 70 to 104, are of 
great value to all engaged in study and 
work in this line of social effort. The con- 
tention seems to be proved that deficiency 
of definite child protection in law leads to 
increasing exploitation of child life, and con- 
versely that all efforts to embody in legis- 
lation the ethical ideal of preserving child 
life for ends of education and social de- 
velopment (however inadequate those ef- 
forts may be at any given time), do tend 
toward a higher level of social responsibil- 
ity toward these potential citizens, and do 
register more effectively than any other 
agencies can do the advancing ethical 
standards of the people. The relation be- 
tween child labor and truancy, illiteracy 
and other social evils, is carefully traced 
and the dangers and disadvantages of di- 



460 



Charities and The Commons 



verse legislation in the different States of 
the Union brought definitely to the at- 
tention. The recommendations for an ef- 
fective child labor law contain the follow- 
ing provisions: First, the absolute prohi- 
bition of child labor under the age of four- 
teen years, and for all under sixteen who 
"do not measure 60 inches or weigh eighty 
pounds"; or who "cannot read fluently and 
write legibly simple sentences in the Eng- 
lish language"; and for all under sixteen in 
"occupations dangerous to life, limb, health 
or morals." Second, the limitation of child 
labor, for all between fourteen and sixteen 
years, to eight hours in any twenty-four and 
forty-eight in the week, with the prohibition 
of night work in any form. These require- 
ments of an effective law against child labor 
can only be enforced, Mrs. Kelley's expe- 
rience indicates, by means of rigid require- 
ments laid upon parents, employers, factory 
and shop, tenement and health inspectors, 
and upon the authorities of the school, who 
should have behind them a compulsory edu- 
cation law, compelling the attendance of 
every child under fourteen during the whole 
school term of every year. The final obli- 
gation is laid upon the community as a 
whole, to see that right laws are passed 
and that their enforcement is secured by 
means of competent officials, properly safe- 
guarded in salary and tenure of office, and 
able to obtain competent legal aid in the 
prosecution of their work. Mrs. Kelley sug- 
gests a federal commission, or permanent 
department of the general government, to 
unify and strengthen all the agencies for 
the protection of the child. She would have 
such a commission work to procure and dis- 
seminate needed information respecting "in- 
fant mortality, birth registration, orphan- 
age, desertion, illegitimacy, degeneracy and 
delinquency, offenses against children, il- 
literacy and child labor." She would have 
such a commission also aid actively in fo- 
cussing public attention upon the social evils 
named, and any others tnat might need at- 
tention, and in securing uniform laws in 
the several states for the checking, and so 
far as possible abolition, of these evils. In 
this part of her book Mrs. Kelley voices 
distinctly a growing tendency of all social 
effort to seek Federal aid, at least in mat- 
ters of investigation and the enlightenment 
of public opinion. She gives that tendency a 
strong acceleration in her showing that the 
oppression of the child in the Georgia mills 
is not a local but a national concern and 
that the fact that illiteracy has increased in 
Massachusetts during the ten years from 1890 
to 1900 is not a New England matter solely, 
but one of immense import to the civiliza- 
tion of the whole country. In the modern 
complexity of social life and the ease of in- 
tercommunication the States of the Union 
are more closely united in social needs than 
were nearby towns of a single State in the 
older and simpler life. Whatever halt to 
nationalization of social legislation may be 



called by states rights theory, the present 
movement is in the direction outlined by 
Mrs. Kelley when she says that the real 
question involved in child labor is "what 
the people of this nation as a whole are do- 
ing to assure the Republic, a generation 
hence, an intelligent citizenship." 

Mrs. Kelley's contention respecting the 
"right to leisure" is a plea for shorter hours 
of toil for all wage earners as a condition of 
a more consciously human and fruitful life. 
Her discussion of the "right of women to 
the ballot" is founded upon the argument 
that the best interests of society require 
that "human beings of the mother-sex" shall 
exercise their special functions of child care 
with specific direction and full power in all 
legislation which affects the weaker, the 
younger, and the less fortunate of the race. 
Mrs. Kelley finds in the advanced position 
in education, child labor and charitable and 
reformatory provisions of those states in, 
which women have the franchise a clear 
testimony to the social value of the full 
citizenship of women. This treatment of 
the woman suffrage question is one of the 
best evidences in recent literature that the 
belated 18th century individualism of the 
"women's rights movement" is already pass- 
ing into a new phase; namely, that of the- 
recognition of the claim of the community 
and the State upon the unfettered, and leg- 
ally reinforced, social service of all its citi- 
zens, both men and women. This is not the 
least valuable feature of Mrs. Kelley's book, 
that she thus registers the transformation 
(not yet fully conscious on the part of the 
majority of woman suffragists), of the plea 
for "rights" into the complaint against any 
arbitrary restriction upon social effort 
which makes less effective the labors of 
women in behalf of their permanent clients, 
the children, the aged, the sick and the un- 
fortunate. 

The consideration of the "rights of pur- 
chasers" includes the argument for the Con- 
sumers' League, the reason for the exist- 
ence of the Consumers' League is here as 
it has been elsewhere well and truly stated. 
Yet the main argument of the book is an as- 
sertion of the better and more effective way 
of reaching through legislation, and by the 
official enforcement of higher standards, a 
"common rule" of life and industry which 
shall make a healthful, intelligent and hap- 
py life not a class privilege but a human- 
right. All that is demanded as the "rights 
of consumers" rests, as Mrs. Kelley herself, 
says, upon "the previous assertion of the 
claim of the weakest and most defenceless 
persons in the community" to protection, 
education and true development of life. 
The appendices at the end of the book in- 
crease its value to the student, and the 
volume is one more call, and a most thought- 
ful and thought-compelling one, to the intel- 
ligence and conscience of the United States 
to translate its profession of democracy in 
terms of spiritual quality. 



THE SPIRIT OF DEMOCRACY 



Reviewed by Isabel C. Barrows 
New "YorK 



"It is my purpose in this book," * says Mr. 
Dole, "to show what real democratic govern- 
ment is. People have studied the outside 
of the body of democracy; they have hardly 
begun to know what makes its life, or upon 
what its good health depends." 

It is a lofty ideal which is set before the 
world in these pages, an ideal v/hich the au- 
thor is not giving for the first time. Indeed 
the volume is made up of chapters published 
first in the Springfield Republican, but Mr. 
Dole has long stood for the ideals which he 
here presents in another form. His Citizen 
and Neighbor, his Coming People, and other 
writings are full of the same sturdy com- 
mon sense, gentle spirit and noble idealism 
that mark The Spirit of Democracy. But 
the best of it is that he presents no impos- 
sible Utopia. He shows that the whole 
world is groaning and travailing in pain, but 
with the great hope of attaining a possible 
ideal; that even now, in places, there is 
more light than darkness, though he is not 
so purblind as to believe that full dawn has 
yet come anywhere. Still he is always brave- 
ly optimistic and is eager to show how the 
splendid experiment of democracy may be 
worked out. He makes no attempt to show 
a facile path, an easy panacea for the ills 
that need to be cured. Yet he believes so 
thoroughly in the possibilities of humanity 
that he sees the future bright with hope. 

The thirty-two chapters into which this 
book is divided take up in turn the various 
problems which face a democracy. The dif- 
ference between the ancient democracy and 
the modern is traced. "Who ever heard of 
an ancient democracy planning for the wel- 
fare, the prosperity, and the happiness of 
its subjects?" he asks. "Early democracy 
arose out of no abstract doctrine of the 
rights of men. * * * How can the pre- 
cedents of ancient democracy have much, if 
any, value in solving the problems of an in- 
dustrial age? A militant age offered no 
suitable conditions for any kind of govern- 
ment that would seem bearable to modern 
men." New ideas have displaced old ones 
in every other direction; they must have 
their force in creating a new democracy 
founded on better knowledge of nature, of 
humanity, of the universe. The one thing 
that has disintegrated society in the past 
has been injustice. Men must learn the 
sovereignty of justice, the power of good 
will; that no power is so great as that of 
the man who combines intelligence, skill, 
courage and patience under the dominant 
force of good will; that the hope of dem- 
ocracy lies in the union of such men in the 
carrying on of the affairs of the world. The 
democratic gospel is the gospel of unselfish- 
ness, for selfishness narrows life and activ- 

ir The Spirit of Democracy : By Charles Fletcher 
Dole. Pp. 435. Price, see facing, page 449. 

461 



ity. "He is the most complete individual 
who at the same time puts the richness of 
his individuality to the public good. We 
have here a motive of political action upon 
which we have hardly yet begun to draw. 
Show men that what they do is for the good 
of all, and they naturally love to do it. 
Appeal to their social spirit and they will 
answer this appeal." * * * "What is 
called altruism is simply the man's sight of 
and identity with, large social interests." 
"Tne demand has been too much for craft 
and fighting power. The new demand is for 
all-round social and democratic men, not for 
those who seek to get the most and give the 
least." 

These are the ideals with which the pages 
— one dares not say bristle in such gentle 
connection — let us rather say, with which 
they shine. * * * "To serve, to bestow, 
to give, and to leave the world better off," 
such is the ideal of the man who wants to 
help found the true democracy. 

Mr. Dole then considers where the spirit 
of democracy must reign to produce the 
best results: In the family, where the dem- 
ocratic form of family life, whose bond is 
in mutual respect and love, "makes the hap- 
piest, the most successful and the most vital 
type of home that the world has yet seen"; 
in trade, where "true wealth flows from the 
freest possible exchange of goods and ser- 
vices"; in relations with other nations, for 
"the eternal laws of the world are against 
the men or the nations who imagine that 
they can prosper by getting more than they 
give, by enriching themselves while they 
make others poor"; in politics, for "that 
parties should fight each other is far from 
the spirit of democracy; one party supple- 
ments another. Each party is here to bring 
forward its contribution of a thought or a 
purpose for the common good. * * * The 
idea of democracy is essentially the co-oper- 
ation of various minds acting willingly to- 
gether. 

"The ideal of the democracy is not that a 
few trees shall lift their heads above the 
rest and grow strong, but that by admir- 
able arboriculture the whole forest shall 
flourish. Neither is there any inconsistency 
between this ideal and that of the develop- 
ment of each individual tree. It will be 
found that the best democrat is the noblest 
type of the individual man." 

After considering the history of ancient 
democracy and the ideals of the new, Mr. 
Dole takes up practical work under our own 
democracy, beginning with suffrage. The 
democratic method, be believes, would not 
exclude women from the polls. 

The treatment of crime in a democracy 
has a chapter to itself, which might be print- 
ed as a leaflet embodying the most recent. 



462 



Charities and The Commons 



ideas on penology. To quote from it all that 
is worthy of reprinting would be to transfer 
it bodily to these pages. Referring only 
to the relation of crime to his chief theme, 
Mr. Dole says, "Punishment is a dangerous 
word in a democracy, implying a subtle as- 
sumption of superiority in those who inflict 
it over those who suffer it. It bars sym- 
pathy; it carries the idea of retaliation. The 
most effective of all natural deterrents 
against crime probably lies in men's sense 
of shame and social disgrace. * * * The 
worst effect of herding wrong-doers in jails, 
and crowding them down into an outcast 
class by themselves in the ,dark alleys of 
great towns, is that they are enabled to give 
one another social countenance and to set 
up heroes of villainy. In a trulj democratic 
society, where no submerged tenth suffered 
the pressure of alienation from their more 
fortunate neighbors, no evil-doer could think 
himself a hero. * * * Society takes on 
itself a fearful responsibility, if for its own 
protection it locks men from their fellows 
and then returns them worse in every way 
than they were before." He wisely sees 
that the chief deterrent, after all, is the 
curative treatment of the criminal, and that 
even the death penalty is not so good a pre- 
vention of the worst crimes as a rigorous 
but kindly treatment of the man behind the 
bars, keeping him there only till he has 
learned the lessons set him in industry and 
good behavior and is ready to earn an honest 
living like ordinary men. Mr. Dole has a 
rather original suggestion as to one way of 
avoiding the imprisoning of men: 

"The natural punishment of a cheat is 
not imprisonment, but simply to publish 
him as unworthy of credit. There is no 
need to send the dishonest grocer, or milk- 
man, or liquor dealer to jail. Mark his shop 
or his wagon with the established fact that 
he cheats or adulterates his goods. Keep 
the mark of his dubious character as long 
as he deserves such a character." 

With reference to the after treatment of 
the criminal he is also entirely in the right 
when he says that in a democracy we do not 
aim at bare justice, but at something infin- 
itely higher, the welfare of all kinds of 
men. "We must not only give men whole- 
some work while we confine them; we must 
teach them to do such work as the world is 
ready to pay for; we must also give them 
some reward for their labor, to be paid them 
when they go out from confinement; and 
we must take pains to help them find honest 
occupation and decent friends, so as to make 
valid connection again with the vital forces 
of society. Otherwise we neither save the 
man nor protect society." That is prison 
reform in a nutshell. 

"The Problem of Pauperism" includes 
poverty and pensions as well. The national 
system of pensions in his eyes is a tremen- 
dous peril, requiring from the taxation of 
all the people "a sum as large as the Ger- 
man empire lavishes upon its gigantic mili- 
tary establishment." "While the spirit of 



democracy urges endless sympathy, it can 
never suffer us to shut our eyes to the facts 
of life and the stern but kindly laws that 
guide the growth of society. On the other 
hand, we may well hope to develop out of 
various interesting experiments, now under 
trial, a real and considerable amelioration 
of the evils of pauperism. * * * Provid- 
ed with a decent home, as the common right 
of the family, few people would any longer 
suffer the conditions which now reduce so 
many to pauperism. The democracy can 
never be content to contemplate a great 
houseless, proletariat class. The democracy 
can never comfortably face the question why, 
in a world fast growing rich, only the few 
should possess all and the many should in- 
herit nothing to keep them from hunger 
and cold." 

Several chapters are devoted to a critical 
examination, by the standards of a true 
democracy, of various phases of our politi- 
cal institutions and doctrines and of our 
attitude towards various problems. All 
are interesting and inspiring, but it is im- 
possible to do more than refer to a few of 
the suggestions. In the matter of taxation, 
for instance, he puts a strong emphasis on 
the idea that the taxes to meet the expenses 
of a democracy should be paid gladly, as in- 
dicating not a burden from which one would 
like to escape, but a privilege, because it is 
a common burden shared by all the people. 

In the matter of immigration, Mr. Dole is 
conservative while hospitable. He would 
have the steamship companies which press 
emigration bear a heavier share of the load 
at this end of the line and demands from 
them better steerage quarters. Like many 
others who have studied this problem he 
finds that after all the chief difficulty in the 
problem is the congestion of immigrants in 
a few great centers, not the steady stream 
pouring into the country. In the labor 
unions he sees peril from overcentralization, 
and that too great authority is apt to be 
delegated to distant centers of control and 
lodged in the hands of men whose characters 
are unequal to their burden of responsibil- 
ity. Nowhere does Mr. Dole speak with 
greater certainty than about schools in a 
democracy. "In the long run it can never 
be good to divide the children of the dem- 
ocracy into different schools upon the line 
of culture or wealth, or much less, of diver- 
sities of creed. The children of all need to 
be educated together. True culture will 
never rub off by human contact. The chil- 
dren of the virtuous must indeed be poorly 
trained if they lose their good character, or 
their good manners, by mixing with the 
children of humbler moral opportunities. 
The children of the poor have as much to 
teach the children of the rich as to learn 
from them. It is surely a bad symptom in 
a democracy if any considerable number of 
its children must be educated in private 
schools. In the ideal democracy the pub- 
lic schools will generally be the best for 
every one." 



In Peril of Change 



463 



The chapter on anarchism and socialism 
is characteristic of Mr. Dole's generous and 
friendly attitude to all classes of men. Mod- 
ern life is already so socialistic that we may 
say "it is only other men's socialism that 
we fear, as it is the anarchism of men 
whose language we cannot speak that alarms 
us." The world is large enough for all sorts 
of social experiments. 

The real peril of a democracy "is in the 
want of moral courage, the courage to stand 



alone, to say one's honest thought and bear 
up against popular or party pressure for a 
truth, a principle, a common good which the 
many do not see or own. That is the whole- 
some courage which characterizes Mr. Dole 
himself and the reading of his book may 
well kindle it in others. It is specially to 
be commended to young men and women 
who have not yet learned the value, the pos- 
sibilities, and the triumphs of a true dem- 
ocracy. 



IN PERIL OF CHANGE" 



Reviewed by Edward T. D 



evine 



Among the members of that new parlia- 
ment which has taken into renewed consid- 
eration the condition of the people of Eng- 
land, there is an essayist, Mr. C. F. G. Mas- 
terman, whose volume In Peril of Change, 
written, as the author testifies, in time of 
tranquillity, may fairly be taken as proof of 
his entire fitness to receive with his col- 
leagues so important a mandate. Among 
the things which are now in England in 
peril of change, as we learn from the clos- 
ing essay, are the land system, the estab- 
lished church and the popular religion. Al- 
though the times give opportunity for a 
Statesman who can rightly apprehend the 
situation, and interpret to the nation the 
danger of the collapse of ruins, yet the au- 
thor is inclined to dwell upon the almost 
forlorn heroism of the enterprise. It would 
be an interesting speculation whether the re- 
turn of the labor members and the over- 
whelming victory of the Liberal government 
emphasizes in the critical mind of the lit- 
erary member the hopelessness of the enter- 
prise or the impossibility of standing still. 

The substance of the book had appeared 
in the daily and periodical press, as we learn 
from an acknowledgment printed at the 
end, instead of at the beginning of the vol- 
ume, as is the custom in American books. 
A curious defect of the edition before us is 
that it bears absolutely no date, unless we 
except a quotation from Parliament and the 
People of England, printed on the title page 
and dated 1653. From the subjects dis- 
cussed we infer that the present volume is 
issued some 253 years later. 

The first essay, entitled "After the Reac- 
tion," traces the change from Henley and 
Kipling, both men of genius, but associated 
with a passing spirit of impatience with re- 
form, a Tory scoffing at the futilities of free- 
dom, to a saner, more dignified, and truer 
spirit embodied in Watson, Yeats, Nevinson, 
Belloc and Chesterton. 

Mr. Masterman writes of the dead: of 
Henley, Shorthouse, Henry Sidgwick, Fred- 
eric Myers; of Spencer and Carlyle: a com- 
parison; of Disraeli and Gladstone: a con- 
trast; and of four others, Temple, Westcott, 
Creighton and Dolling: The Church Mili- 
tant. Again, he brings the roaring modern 
industrial city of Chicago into quaint con- 
trast with the Assisi of St. Francis; beef 
trust and corner in wheat in the twentieth 

Hn Peril of Change : C. F. G. Masterman. Pp. 
331. Price, see facing page 449. 



century with the Madonna of Poverty in the 
thirteenth century. 

The chapter entitled "The religion of the 
city," is a model for critical, intelligent, 
sympathetic reviewing. The text is the 
seven volumes of Charles Booth, with pass- 
ing references to the Daily News Census of 
church attendance on certain Sundays in 
1902-3. 

The facts stand out clearly in the review. 
From the census it appears that in the 
county area of London one man out of every 
twelve, and one woman out of every ten, at- 
tends some form of divine worship each Sun- 
day morning; and one man in every ten and 
one woman in every seven, attends each Sun- 
day evening; or combining these figures with 
an allowance of 38% double attendance that 
one man out of every six and one woman out 
of every five, attends some place of wor- 
ship at least once every Sunday. Further 
sifting, however, follows, from which ap- 
pears the meagre attendance of the poor (ex- 
cept the Roman Catholic poor), the absence 
of the workingman, and the presence of the 
tradesmen and middle class and of residents 
in the suburbs. 

This chapter is not merely a summary, 
and an interpretation. It is a contribution 
to the understanding of the facts and of 
the philosophy of the subject. With a firm 
hand, and from his own consistent point of 
view, the author discourses of the statistics 
and the essential truths which they reveal. 
The methods of modern charity and its alli- 
ance with religion come in for severe ex- 
posure. The typical East End, the happy 
hunting ground of the slummer, is "over- 
done with religion and relief." The phrase 
is quoted presumably from Mr. Booth as is 
also the description of certain mission funds 
as not audited at all or "audited in heaven." 
On the whole the conventional mission is 
a failure but the appeal of such men as 
Father Dollinger for "a chance" for "my 
people," strikes the popular imagination and 
wakes a pathetic gratitude. 

There is little to give unity to the essays 
of this volume although the author makes 
good his assertion that in every case he 
has less interest in the manner of saying 
than in the thing said. The book deals 
with the "business of life" in its literary 
reviews no less than in its essays which 
deal directly with those institutions which 
are in peril of change. 



SPARGO'S "SOCIALISM" 

Reviewed by E.mily- Greene Balch 
Wellesley College 



A handy and readable little volume is Mr. 
Spargo's recent book on socialism. 1 

The distinguishing characteristic of the 
book is that it is, as the author himself 
says, "written frankly from the standpoint 
of a convinced socialist." 

The body of the book, about two-thirds of 
it in fact, is devoted to the doctrines of 
Karl Marx discussed in the spirit of a dis- 
ciple though with some reference to mod- 
ern criticism. Of this the most direct and 
"actual" part is the attempt to defend the 
doctrine of the "class struggle." "If the 
socialists would repudiate the doctrine that 
socialism is a class movement and make 
their appeal to the intelligence and con- 
science of all, instead of to the interests of 
a class," they could probably, Mr. Spargo 
holds, "double their numerical strength at 
once." Nevertheless, he is opposed to such 
a course, which would be, in his opinion, 
"to emasculate socialism, to dilute it in 
order to win a support of very questionable 
value." His reasons for this view, which, 
occupy nearly forty pages, are worth con- 
sidering. 

As original documents are often not easy 
for general readers to get hold of, it may 
be noted that the National platform of the 
Socialist Party of America, adopted in 1904, 
is given in the appendix. 

The most interesting part of the book, at 
least to one reader, is the concluding chap- 
ter, which deals with the ideal of the so- 
cialist state. Mr. Spargo is careful to 
make clear that he is here speaking, not in 
the name of a party or school, but for him- 
self only. Nevertheless, he believes that "in 
the main these principles will be accepted 
by the vast majority of my fellow-socialists 
throughout the world." 

To really imagine an economic organiza- 
tion different from that to which we are 
accustomed seems to be impossible for most 
people. The mere belief that the future 
will be different from the past is in itself a 
folly to many. Whereas if one considers a 
little more deeply, the one obvious fact is 
that change, like death and taxes, is strictly 
inevitable. Society has been continuously 
changing throughout all the history that we 
know or can guess at; it has changed per- 
ceptibly within our own brief personal mem- 
ories. Social changes appear, indeed, to 
be going on at an accelerating rate. 

The creation of a Utopia as a dream of 
a world fashioned after the heart's desire, 
with no reference to the historical facts 
which actually condition the future or to 
real tendencies, is one thing. Quite a dif- 
ferent thing is the effort, on the one hand, 
to analyze the currents whose resultant is 

1 Socialism; a Summary and Interpretation of 
Socialist Principles : John Spargo. Pp. 257. 
Price, see facing page 449. 

464 



the stream of social progress and to cal- 
culate and project its course, and, on the 
other, to fix goals and beacons for that 
progress which is, in part at least, self-di- 
rected and self-determined. 

The fact that socialism is the chief sys- 
tematic attempt to thus project and shape 
the future course gives it a claim on the 
attention of every thinking person. Mr. 
Spargo's views, which if not authoritative 
are representative, have the merit of being 
those of a socialist who is an educated man 
commanding a clear and temperate style, 
accustomed to dealing with actual affairs 
and thinking in terms of American life. 

In outlining his conception of the social- 
ist state, Mr. Spargo's first care is to meet 
the objections of those who, like Spencer, 
fear socialism as a "coming slavery." "The 
socialist ideal," he says, "may be said to 
be a form of social organization in which 
every individual will enjoy the greatest pos- 
sible amount of freedom for self develop- 
ment and expression; and in which social 
authority will be reduced to the minimum 
necessary for the preservation and insur- 
ance of that rig.it to all individuals." So 
far there is nothing distinctively socialistic. 
The stoutest individualist might say amen. 

The second point is the democratic or- 
ganization of the political machinery with 
universal suffrage, popular initiative and 
referendum, proportional representation 
and the right of constituencies to recall 
those they have elected. 

This is so far an unquestionably prac- 
ticable program. Men differ as to whether 
or not it is desirable but many besides so- 
cialists advocate it. 

Even when we enter the economic field we 
find Mr. Spargo's general principle so wide 
that one need not be a socialist to accept 
it. "Wherever private enterprise is dan- 
gerous to the social well being or is ineffi- 
cient" the state has the right to replace it, 
to organize and control the production and 
distribution of social wealth in its stead. 

The socialist is distinguished by his con- 
victions as to where, under this rule, the 
state is called upon to act. Five classes of 
such functions Mr. Spargo postulates as a 
minimum of what should be undertaken by 
the State. 

"1. Ownership of all natural resources, 
such as land, mines, forests, oil wells, and 
so on; 

"2. Operation of all the means of trans- 
portation and communication other than 
those of purely personal service; 

"3. Operation of all industrial production 
involving large capital and associated labor, 
except where carried on by voluntary dem- 
ocratic co-operation 1 ; 

italics are the reviewer's. 



Spargo's Socialism 



465 



"4. Organization of all labor essential to 
the public service, such as the building of 
schools, hospitals, docks, roads, bridges, 
sewers and the like; the construction of 
all the machinery and plant requisite to 
the social production and distribution, and 
of things necessary for the maintenance of 
those engaged in such public services as 
the national defense and all who are wards 
of the state; 

"5. A monopoly of the monetary and 
credit functions, including coinage, bank- 
ing, mortgaging, and the extension of 
credit to private enterprise." 

With these wider economic functions, the 
state would be able to guarantee employ- 
ment and "to see that the physical and 
mental benefits derived from its wealth, its 
natural resources, its collective experience, 
genius and labor were universalized as be- 
fits a democracy." As a large employer it 
would be able to set a standard of earn- 
ings and leisure "which private industry 
would be compelled by competitive force to 
observe"; as a great producer it would be 
able to regulate and equalize production and 
so avert crises; through its credit function 
it could prevent exploitation by the money 
power; it could also carry on insurance on 
an extended scale. 

With government occupying this strategic 
position private industry would still have a 
wide, if subordinate, field in which it was 
permitted. The results of the competition 
between private and public undertakings, 
their relative showing in efficiency and econ- 
omy, would determine whether socialized 
production should be extended beyond the 
minimum. Co-operative enterprises would 
be welcomed and encouraged. 

As regards the management of State bus- 
iness Mr. Spargo conceives of it not as a 
simple bureaucratic administration regu- 
lated from above, like the present post office, 
but as something much more complex, in 
which the organized working force which 
now appears as militant trade unionism 
would have an integral part to play though 
not entire control. 

In the interest of the general welfare all 
citizens available for work should be re- 
quired to work, while overwork and espe- 
cially the work of children could be put an 
end to. 

The employment of all productive forces, 
together with the saving of the energy 
wasted in competition and in useless self- 
neutralizing functions, like advertising, 
would make shorter average hours compat- 
ible with higher average comfort. 

The choice of occupation should be free, 
and the supply of labor for different kinds 
of work could be regulated without any 
compulsion by offering different scales of 
payment, and different hours, in employ- 
ments of different degrees of attractiveness. 
At the same time many disagreeable tasks 
could be eliminated when once an urgent 
motive for bringing inventiveness to bear on 
the problem were present. 



All this means of course that there would 
be differences in people's means but the 
differences would be Vastly less than now, 
since earnings would be the main source of 
income and the great mass of the nation's 
yearly dividend would go directly into so- 
cial channels and be distributed, not as 
rent, profit or interest, but as wage or sal- 
ary; especially if, as Mr. Spargo proposes, 
inheritance were not allowed. 

Apart from the relative size of incomes 
the measure of substantial equality would 
be increased by making education free in 
universities as in kindergartens, and by 
making justice and the incidental legal 
services also free public functions. 

Mr. Spargo's argument is not original nor 
deep nor eloquently expressed. One conse- 
quence is that the reader is free from the 
disturbing sense that his judgment is 
swayed by the magic of a great art or the 
compulsion of a powerful personality. 

Not only is one left quite free to judge, 
one must fill out the bare outline with one's 
own thought to dimly realize what it im- 
plies — for one thing, what nightmares 
would in such a state be lifted from the 
spirit of all from whose eyes the scales of 
complacency have once fallen. 

To a considerable extent it means merely 
a more systematic carrying out of the 
things that philanthropy has long been 
working for and accomplishing piece 
meal, such as protection of childhood, 
protection of public health, the opening up 
of opportunity. It means further the real- 
ization of much that charity workers are 
only beginning to consider seriously, such as 
a standardized wage — the only method that 
seems to promise anything like a real pre- 
vention of the "sweating" of labor — guar- 
anteed employment ?nd universal insur- 
ance against the chief casualties of life, in- 
cluding old age. 

After all it is a question of more or less. 
A society with no element of social enter- 
prise and communal ownership is almost 
unthinkable. On the other hand a society 
without any competition, individual owner- 
ship and private enterprise, without per- 
sonal freedom from social supervision in 
certain parts of life at least, is equally im- 
possible to contemplate. 

The American cries "socialism" at Ger- 
many's state railroads and compulsory in- 
surance and dislikes to be registered by 
the police every time he moves; the Ger- 
man-American while he is so shocked that 
the police can give him no clue to the 
whereabouts of a migratory relative sees 
state tyranny in the American's ideal of 
state regulation of the liquor traffic. The 
Frenchman in England is scandalized alike 
at the anarchy of private pawnshops in- 
stead of his reasonable and useful Monts de 
Piete, and at the communism of the Poor 
Law. The Englishman in the United States 
may be aghast at the injustice of taxing 
those who do not care to use them to sup- 
ply other people with books and at the 



466 



Charities and The Commons 



folly of leaving the telegraph system — the 
nerves of the modern state — in irresponsible 
private hands. 

If a sturdy Manchester man of a century 
ago could visit us would he not think he 
had stepped into socialism incarnate, when 
he not only saw for the first time public 
paving, lighting and police, but studied the 
communisms of our water supply, schools, 
parks, playgrounds, baths, libraries, of our 
municipal lecture and concert halls, of our 
hospitals, asylums and colonies for the de- 
fective, of our fire system and lighthouses, 
our agricultural experiment stations, state 



universities, forest reserves and irrigation 
schemes, the weather bureau and the Pana- 
ma canal? Would he be happier or less 
happy when he stepped across into the field 
of private enterprise and saw our magnifi- 
cent railway systems with their sad shadow 
of excessive and unnecessary fatalities, our 
show packing houses with their ^ark cor- 
ners, oUr jerry-built houses and our sweat 
shops? 

Is it not all a matter for experiment, com- 
parison, tentative advance — above all for 
tolerance, for minds open and unclouded by 
passion or partisanship? 



"MAN THE SOCIAL CREATOR" 

Reviewed t>y Florence K.elley 
Gen'l Secretary National Consumers' League 



Any book edited by Miss Jane Addams of 
Hull-House would command the careful at- 
tention of students of the social problem in 
America. An author of originality and dis- 
tinction, and one of the creative educators 
of our generation, Miss Addams' chief serv- 
ice to her time is as an interpreter of De- 
mocracy. This service she performs in a 
new and different way as one of the editors, 
with Miss Anne Withington, of Henry De- 
marest Lloyd's latest volume issued more 
than two years after the lamented death of 
the author. 

As friend, neighbor and spokesman of the 
shifting populations of Chicago's most 
crowded and poverty-stricken district, Miss 
Addams, if anyone, should fathom the 
depths of the dangers which threaten the 
Republic, and should speak the word of 
warning. 

The truth is the opposite of the seeming 
probability. The new volume is a trumpet 
call of courage, hope and cheer. It is the 
interpretation of the new century, bid- 
ding to new achievement in fairer fields 
and on loftier heights than mankind has 
yet known. 

The stimulus which this book offers is of 
the highest value, for it interprets in terms 
of faith and of immediate action, the life 
of our own day. The acceptance of its 
teaching would make any year an epoch 
for an individual or a people. It illumines 
with radiant hopes the broad fields of phil- 
anthropy now in many respects so dreary 
and discouraging. 

While the editors expressly state in their 
introductory note that they have confined 
themselves to arrangement and selection, 
the result shows a profound sympathy with 
the author's philosophy and point of view. 
Without these the difficult task could not 
have been performed. For this work is 

1 Man, the Social Creator : Henry Demarest Lloyd. 
Edited by Jane Addams and Anne Withington. 
Pp. 279. Price, see facing, page 449. 



compiled from Mr. Lloyd's notebooks cov- 
ering several years, without chapter heads 
or other guides to the editors. The pain- 
ful labor of compiling a posthumous vol- 
ume has been performed with tact and skill, 
and the book is a precious contribution to 
the thought of the new century. 

Henry Demarest Lloyd, student, lawyer, 
editor, and later man of leisure and travel, 
sensitive to the social life of his time in 
all parts of the earth, knew the work of his 
generation as few men knew it and as none 
has attempted to interpret it. He saw its 
noble and hopeful aspects and, because he 
was its most penetrating critic, his clearer 
vision discerned the coming good even in 
days of national disgrace and dishonesty. 

Henry Demarest Lloyd was a man of the 
type in which our country is so sadly poor — 
a man of high ability who deliberately 
turned away from the accumulation of 
wealth to the study and elucidation of so- 
cial and industrial problems, treating these 
with a scholar's mind yet with a journalist's 
trained perception of what our fellow 
countrymen can be induced to read. To 
give popular form to material gathered and 
sifted with the scholar's conscience was the 
task he set himself. To make known to 
workingmen, professional men, teachers, and 
all public-spirited men and women of to-day 
successful experiments in administration of 
industry and government, was the aim of 
his mature life. And his success is seen in 
the wave of interest in these themes which, 
during the past fifteen years, has mounted 
steadily. 

The son of a minister of the Dutch Re- 
formed church, born, like his ancestors for 
neariy two centuries, in New York city, the 
author helped himself and a younger 
brother through Columbia College and after- 
ward studied law at Columbia, becoming a 
member of the bar of New York. While 
still a boy he earned money for his educa- 
tion by working in vacation, on Saturdays, 



Man the Social Creator 



467 



and during his free evenings in the Astor 
library. Later, he was for several years 
financial editor of the Chicago Tribune in 
its heyday of ability and influence under the 
ownership and editing of Joseph Medill. 

The editors have placed upon the title 
page a sentence which epitomises the ex- 
perience of Mr. Lloyd's whole life. "It is 
pleasant to see before others what is com- 
ing, but it is hard to wait until enough of 
the others see it to make the coming pos- 
sible." He constantly saw the future in the 
life of to-day. 

To an audience at Cooper Union to whom 
he had most persuasively described the ben- 
efits which, during a recent journey, he had 
seen working people in England deriving 
from co-operative manufacturing, he said, 
"It is not visions that we need in order to 
behold the good the future holds for us. It 
is vision, sight, insight, the power to rec- 
ognize the germ that is growing under our 
eyes." He was never content to wait for 
the others to see the present good, the com- 
ing improvement; no man ever labored 
more incessantly to clear the vision of his 
contemporaries, to hasten the coming day. 

In his little volume entitled A Strike of 
Millionaires against Miners, he anticipated 
by full ten years the crisis in which Presi- 
dent Roosevelt established his beneficent 
though extra-legal arbitration commission 
during the coal strike of 1902. In that 
work Mr. Lloyd first set systematically 
about making known to the man in the 
street the sinister facts, as these lay 
hidden in court records where no man then 
heeded them. 

In the same way his Wealth Against Com- 
monwealth preceded by ten years Miss Tar- 
bell's researches, and prepared the reading 
public to welcome her later chapters, as 
the history of monopoly continued to chron- 
icle itself in the court records of many 
states. 

So now, in Man the Social Creator, the 
author sounds the note of the coming epoch. 
Years hence, the hand organs of the weekly 
magazines will doubtless grind out discus- 
sions of proposed transition steps to the 
new industrial and social order with the 
same pleased sense of discovery which they 
now disclose, as they chronicle the devel- 
opment of disease in the industrial disor- 
der under which we suffer. Their themes 
they will have found, consciously or uncon- 
sciously, in this volume, just as they are 
now exploiting the results of Mr. Lloyd's 
initiative in the years following 1888. Af- 
ter that crisis in the history of Illinois, the 
state in which until his death, he kept his 
citizenship, Mr. Lloyd devoted several 
years to stating the case for the people 
against the monopolists, revealing the true 
anarchists of the deed in the Strike of Mil- 
lionaires against Miners, and in Wealth 
against Commonwealth. But never did he 
lose sight of the fact that, in our democ- 
racy, whatever is done can, in the long 



run, be achieved only with the consent 
(tacit or active) oC the people. 

It was during these years that he pub- 
lished the New Conscience, the germ chap- 
ter, from which developed the material now 
made public under the title, Man, the So- 
cial Creator. 

Later, knowing that demoralization alone 
can come to a nation as to an individual, 
from seeing evils while doing nothing to 
remove them, and fearing reaction in the 
public mind from dwelling upon negative 
criticism without constructive guidance, the 
author gave the rest of his life to seeing 
and publishing the results of attempts, 
wherever made, by the people to serve the 
collective interest, to substitute co-opera- 
tion for competition, public service for 
private profit. Thus followed in rapid suc- 
cession the volumes on Labor Co-partner- 
ship, A Country Without Strikes, and lew- 
est England. 

This "quest for the accomplished good" 
confirmed his native optimism, and he ex- 
hibited the delightful spectacle of a man 
whose every passing year, after the fiftieth 
birthday, was cheered by constantly bright- 
ening hopes. Akin to this deepening, 
ripening hopefulness was his reverence for 
the mind of youth, his incessant turning to 
the generation who will be the Republic 
when we, of to-day, are dead. 

A generation hence, new forms of shar- 
ing among the workers in America the 
fruits of labor and of scientific discovery 
will have become commonplaces of Ameri- 
can life as they are now the every day ex- 
periences of nations more socially progres- 
sive. Co-operation, postal savings banks, co- 
operative banks of farmers, industrial ar- 
bitration, workingmen's insurance, when 
they come, an unheeding nation will owe, in 
large measure to the thoughts planted with 
reverent patience, by the author of Man, 
the Social Creator, in the minds of eager 
boys and girls. 

The chapter heads selected by the editors 
from among the notes are, "the discovery of 
social love; social progress always relig- 
ious; mere contact making for spiritual 
union; the new conscience in industry; the 
new conscience transforming politics, kill- 
ing party spirit; the new conscience mani- 
festing itself in educational aims and 
methods; a new political economy, predict- 
ing a new wealth; the church of the deed; 
the religion of labor." 

The keynote of the book recurs in the 
closing passages: "The religious adventure 
of one era becomes the habitual virtue of 
another. The sore consciousness of our 
world of to-day, of its evils of greed and 
selfishness, is the sure sign that we are 
travailing into a new conscience, and 
through it into a new and finally uncon- 
scious happiness of brotherliness in labor. 

"No man can be truly religious who be- 
lieves in the God of yesterday or rests in 
the God of to-day. There is no salvation 
save in the God of to-morrow." 



Economics and Industry 



BOOHS BY 



CARROLL D. WRIGHT 
VICTOR D. CLARK. 

FRANCE^ A. KELLOR 



FRANK JULIAN WARNE 
JOHN R. COMMONS 
JOHN A. RYAN 



SIX BOOI1S ON LABOR PROBLEMS 

Reviewed k>y "W. B. GutHrie 
College of the City of New Yorh 



Wright: The historical outlook on the 
"Battles of labor conflict, given by Car- 
Labor." roll D Wright in his Battles 

of Labor, is of importance. It tends to cor- 
rect a notion altogether too prevalent to-day, 
viz., that the battles of labor and the organi- 
zation of labor with its many problems are 
features unique to the modern machine age. 
Historians have been too free in disregard- 
ing the story of the laborer's struggle. For 
centuries he was scarcely credited with a 
soul. The author points out one difference 
between the modern and the earlier strug- 
gle: in ancient times the question of indi- 
vidual liberty and political equality and 
fairness formed a part of labor's program; 
in recent times the economic and industrial 
aspects of the social problem take the field. 
As labor was less regarded in earlier times, 
so greater cruelty was shown in the suppres- 
sion of labor revolts. Labor movements 
were also viewed as dangers to the govern- 
ment, and were dealt with at once by the 
public power. Striking examples of these 
facts are given from Roman history, as the 
overthrow of Spartacus in 74 B. C., when 
sixty thousand workmen were slain. Chap- 
ter II reviews those half-political, half- 
industrial uprisings in mediaeval Europe, 
such as Tyler's Rebellion and the Revolt of 
Miinster. The author points out that, 
though these conflicts were often very close- 
ly associated with religious and political 
movements, there was still a large indus- 
trial problem at bottom of them. 



l The Battles of Labor, by Carroll D. Wright; 

220 pp. 
The Labor Movement in Australasia, by Victor S. 

Clark ; 319 pp. 
Out of Work, a Study of Employment Agencies ; 

their treatment of the Unemployed by their 

Influence upon Homes and Business. Frances A. 

Kellor; 292 pp. 
A Practical Programme for Workingmen; 227 

pp. 
The Coal Mine Workers, a Study in Labor Or- 
ganization, by Frank Julian Warne, Ph.D. ; 

232 pp. 
Trade Unionism and Labor Problems; edited with 

an Introduction by John R. Commons ; 1 Vol., 

628 pp. 
For prices, see facing, page 449. 



Strikes occurred in New York as early as 
1741, and "scab" labor was discussed 
as early as 1809. An interesting review is 
given of the attitude taken by the courts 
and lawmakers toward labor's activities. 
Among the great modern battles, the Pitts- 
burg strike is treated — a movement that 
helped much to unite the sympathies of 
labor in this country. The period of '85-'87 
receives considerable attention, as these 
struggles did much to create the Knights of 
Labor and also to strengthen the American 
Federation of Labor. The great battles at 
Homestead, Pullman and more recently in 
the Anthracite coal regions are reviewed. 
The closing chapter gives a survey of the 
treatment of labor in modern times. 



In treating the labor move- 
ment in Australia and New 



Clark: 
"The Labor 

in Australasia." Zealand, Dr. Clark begins 
with the geography, climate and general en- 
vironment of a new land; next traces the 
people who went there, their origin, nature 
antecedents and qualities; then advances to 
the discussion of the institutions which re- 
sulted from their contact. This scheme 
seems about ideal. In treating the history 
of the political labor party of Australasia, 
he has handled a subject in which much par- 
tizan feeling has entered, at least in this 
country, very nearly "from the standpoint 
of the agnostic in social creeds." The extent 
to which a writer is able to treat such a sub- 
ject objectively is a test at once of his abil- 
ity and of the value of his work. Emphasis 
is rightly laid on the narrower field covered 
by trades-union agitation in America; the 
problem here is chiefly industrial; there so- 
cial, educational and political questions enter 
to complicate matters. Chap. III. deals with 
the more general relationships of the differ- 
ent trades and the epochs of trade union 
history. The influence of Henry George and 
of such legal decisions as that in the Taff- 
Vale case, adopted at once in Australia, is 
pointed out. A statement of the substitution 
oi political methods for the earlier trade 
union propaganda leads to a discussion of 



468 



Economics and Industry 



469 



the political labor movement, the main con- 
sideration of the book. It was out of the 
failure of trade union tactics and the bad 
economic conditions of 1893 that the move- 
ment arose to carry the labor question into 
politics. The effect was, that labor achieved 
political rather than social victories. The 
methods of party action, financing, and the 
character of the labor party platforms grow- 
ing as they did out of their earlier pro- 
grams; these with kindred problems are ably 
discussed. The important part the labor 
unions played in the work of organizing the 
federal state is interestingly told. The atti- 
tude of the labor leaders toward reform is 
most progressive, and there is no finality in 
their program. The seven planks of the fed- 
eral "fighting platform" are — maintenance of 
a white Australia; compulsory arbitration; 
old age pensions; nationalization of monopo- 
lies; citizen defence force and Australian- 
owned navy; restriction of public borrow- 
ing; and navigation laws." The chapter on 
"a white Australia" has some important 
statements touching socialism. "The atti- 
tude of the labor party toward colored races 
marks the limit self-interest imposes on the 
altruistic side of socialism," and "the pass- 
ive hosts of the Orient are natural enemies 
of socialism." The chapters on minimum 
wage boards, industrial arbitration acts, and 
compulsory arbitration, furnish abundant 
food for reflection. Dr. Clark has given stu- 
dents of this problem a most admirable 
statement of the situation in Australasia, — 
free from bias, well arranged and compre- 
hensive enough to include the essential 
facts. 



Kellor: 
•Out of Work.' 



Perhaps nowhere is the dis- 
mal story of the methods 
whereby "white slavery" is 
kept up better told than in the portrayal by 
Miss Kellor in Out of Work. Here is a picture 
of the industrial experience of the body of the 
unemployed and of classes of working peo- 
ple too often neglected in consideration of la- 
bor conditions. As an exposure of the means 
whereby traffic in girls is carried on for im- 
moral purposes, there are chapters which 
rank with Bebel's Die Frau, which exposed 
similar conditions in Germany and caused 
so much discussion that attempts at reform 
followed. While they are not the only of- 
fenders, the employment bureaus are by 
far the most vicious and effective agencies of 
this nefarious traffic. 

The work is divided into two parts, one 
treating agencies where women are chiefly 
employed, the other, those bureaus which 
bring idle men and work together. Of these 
the former draws the darker picture. Miss 
Kellor's investigations, which led to the pass- 
age of legislation in New York state and the 
creation of a special municipal bureau, re- 
vealed that many employment bureaus car- 
ried on a traffic in girls and preyed upon 
homeless girls, foreigners and innocent peo- 
ple from the country, by offers of lucrative 



positions too often to be basely deceived. 
Here was a criminal perversion of a very 
commendable and useful institution — the bu- 
reau which helps to bring the laborer and 
the employer together. 

"Practical A Practical Programme for 
for°Wo!Sr Workingmen" that was work- 
Men." able would certainly be a con- 
summation devoutly to be wished. In 
the preface of the book here referred to, it is 
stated that it was written before the great 
movements in England, Russia and the Unit- 
ed States had set in toward political action 
and municipal control. It is likely mrce at- 
tention would have been given this side of 
the labor movement had this not been the 
case. The writer's confidence in political 
and conscious control in social life is set 
forth in the statement, "The environment 
moulded the animal before man; since the 
advent of man, man moulds the environ- 
ment." It is in the field of politics, there- 
fore, that the laboring man should enter, and 
here lies his strength rather than in the 
realm of economics. His efforts there should 
be directed toward such a control of the 
forces of competition as to lessen the margin 
between cost and price, which thus keep 
down wages. The tone of the book is highly 
optimistic; the style is epigramatic. It 
abounds in such expressions as, "by his con- 
trol over this environment, man can accom- 
plish the promise of Scripture: "Ye are 
gods," "True philanthropy is not charity, but 
justice," "It is impossible to reconcile Chris- 
tianity and the competitive system." 

The body of the book is made up of three 
parts, — "book of exhortation, book of facts, 
and book of Wisdom, Faith, Karitas." The 
opening chapters remind one of the style 
of treatment so prevalent in France in the 
18th century, used by such semi-mystics, 
semi-materialists, as Volney, D'Holboch or 
Helvetius. The chapter on environment ap- 
pears as an interesting quasi-scientific treat- 
ment of the doctrine of evolution. Two kinds 
of environment are recognized: that of na- 
ture and that of man's own creation, mean- 
ing social environment. From the former, by 
means of the latter, man is constantly free- 
ing himself. By proper methods, man will 
gradually become able to avoid the hard- 
ships of the processes of nature and give di- 
rection to natural selection. Much of the 
suffering and sacrifice, therefore, attending 
the lower stages of evolution can thus be 
averted; a fact readily admitted by all who 
have any confidence in the remedial agen- 
cies of modern society. In the process of 
evolution, two general lines are distinguish- 
able: the individualistic and the communis- 
tic. The survival of the fittest will lie in a 
mean area between these opposing princi- 
ples. The author's treatment of what he 
calls human environment reminds one of the 
theories of Robert Owen, whose great mis- 
sion it was to awaken a consciousness of the 
helpless condition of the individual in his 



470 



Charities and The Commons 



environment and the need of social coopera- 
tion, whereby the environment may be im- 
proved; an idea carried out to-day for ex- 
ample through the tenement house move- 
ment. Much as Buckle has done, the au- 
thor intimates that progress goes on under 
the operation of two forces which he calls 
intelligence and self-restraint. Intelligence 
is helpless where self-restraint does not ex- 
ist to put in force what seems to be best. 
That spirit of altruism which suggests and 
leads to self-restraint and finally to coopera- 
tion has come down from Christianity. 

The chapter dealing more directly with 
the program has chiefly to do with the mer- 
its of trades unions and socialism, and has 
some keen observations and suggestive criti- 
cism. Many of the questions raised, though 
not always clearly answered, are very 
thoughtful and timely and the book closes 
very much stronger than it opens. Through- 
out runs the idea so much in evidence to- 
day — that the conflict is soon to shift from 
the old traditional questions of free trade 
and the like and center in problems arising 
between mass and class, cooperation and 
competition. 

t Warne: As was pointed out in the 
" T ivfine° aI Dook Just reviewed, the first 
Workers." step in successful politics is 
organization, and the second step and the 
third step are organization; so it might be 
affirmed concerning successful labor agita- 
tion. It is this aspect of the labor question 
that Dr. Warne ably treats in The Goal 
Mine Workers. When one considers that 
there are over 595,000 mine workers in this 
country and 300,000 of these are in the 
union; while 75% of the total number em- 
ployed are ruled by their scale of wages, the 
writer seems entirely justified in making an 
intensive study of this type of labor organ- 
ization, Not only this; but when, as is 
pointed out, the unions are very much alike 
as to fundamentals, this study is valuable 
as a commentary on the forms of labor 
union in general. Under eleven articles 
clearly stated may be found the purposes 
and program of the union. 

Following the plan adopted by the Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor in 1882, the coal 
miners have a very democratic form of or- 
ganization, each member having a vote and 
the whole body being the final tribunal. To 
facilitate business, however, the national 
convention, meeting annually, has very large 
powers, and it outlines the plans for the 
union in a most absolute manner. Owing 
to the exigencies of strikes very much 
power is lodged in the hands of the presi- 
dent. It is in course of this tendency to 
centralize that the office has come to mean 
so much in the hands of John Mitchell. The 
very general nature of the organization is 
seen in the fact that neither race, color, nor 
nationality bars from membership. Organiz- 
ers are working among all these people to 
gain members. The importance of the local 



union in organizing a strike and carrying 
it through is emphasized, showing again the 
influence of these autonomous groups. In- 
teresting material is found dealing with the 
financing of the unions, which is, of course, 
one of the problems: less important here 
than in England, where, as a result of the 
Taff-Vale decision, the unions are financially 
responsible and liable for damage suits. 
Chapter II deals with the important matter 
of interstate joint conferences, and Chapter 
III treats the historical aspects of the inter- 
state relationships. Chapter III treats of 
the state agreement or contract, the result 
of the conferences between operators and 
mine employes of a state or district. This 
fixes a set of prices at a basing point and 
aids very much in determining rates in 
that district. Chapter IV deals with the 
Anthracite Board of Conciliation, and is 
interesting in view of the very important 
work done by the "Strike Commission," ap- 
pointed by President Roosevelt. Chapter V 
discusses the strike "as a piece of industrial 
machinery." The evils of the strike are 
pointed out, as is the difficulty unions have 
in preventing their violent aspects. The 
necessity of close organization is emphasized 
in order to have successful strikes. 

The book, in brief, deals in a definite 
manner with a set of concrete facts con- 
cerning the function and organization of 
the most important labor organization in 
the world. 

In close relationship to the 
Trade Unionism foregoing is the work edited, 

Labor ^oblems W «J an . introduction by 
with an introduction, by John 
R. Commons. Trade Unionism and Labor 
Problems was planned specially for but 
has very much interest for the gen- 
eral public. It i s an example of the 
"case study' method in the field of social 
science. The chapters, to the number of 
twenty-eight, dealing with a great variety 
of matters, treat actual conditions and fur- 
nish a very valuable body of fact from 
which students can make their deductions. 
Subjects like trade agreements, the Negro 
artizan, the printers' health and workmen's 
insurance in Germany, give an idea of the 
scope of the work. The purpose of trade 
unions is defined as being the trade agree- 
ment. It is pointed out that the unions look 
toward peace in having agreements which 
will avoid disputes, and arbitration is thus 
made far less important. Unions aim at 
avoiding disputes; arbitration serves to set- 
tle disputes. The view seems to prevail 
that more perfect organization on both sides, 
laborers and employers, means more trade 
agreements, thus avoiding disputes or arbi- 
tration when such arise. In the trade 
agreement two large questions figure: 
The wage question and the method of man- 
aging employes. Features in the manage- 
ment of unions are taken up and afford a 
grasp of the business and structural side of 
unionism. Interesting also are those chap- 



A Living Wage 



47i 



ters dealing with the Negro artizan, wom- 
en's wages in manual work, and the benefit 
system of the cigarmakers' union. The lat- 
ter is called, "with respect to the variety and 
the value of its benefits, the model beneficiary 
organization of the United States." These 
benefits came soon to include not merely 
traveling, sick and death benefits, but an 
out-of-employment benefit, which was a hew 
departure for benefit funds. 



So varied are the problems treated in this 
volume and so numerous are the facts and 
details presented, that little justice can be 
done it in a review. One thing the general 
reader will miss in the book is any general 
summary or any estimate of the effect of all 
these social tendencies upon the social and 
economic life. This is the supposed task of 
the students who use this cyclopedia of so- 
cial facts. 



"A LIVING WAGE" 

Reviewed by- Rev. Wm. J. White 

BrooKlyn 



The significance of Father Ryan's timely 
book 1 lies in his attempt to express as pre- 
cisely as may be what Christianity has to 
say about wages. Professor Ely of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, who writes the intro- 
duction, "welcomes the attempt to get be- 
yond vague and glittering generalities to pre- 
cise doctrine and to pass from appeals to sen- 
timent to reasoned arguments." 

The great majority of fair-minded persons 
believe that labor does not get its full share 
of the wealth that it helps to create, but 
they are not agreed as to the precise mean- 
ing of that ideal share. All unprejudiced 
men hold that wages should be sufficiently 
high to enable the laborer to live in a man- 
ner consistent with the dignity of a human 
being. The end of the present volume is to 
defend this general conviction by economical 
and ethical arguments as well as by the 
authority of theologians of the Roman Cath- 
olic church. 

Father Ryan's arguments may be sum- 
marized as follows: Men have by nature a 
strict right not merely to a bare subsistence 
but to a decent livelihood. This right is de- 
rived not from any mere social benefit to 
accrue from maintaining the workers in the 
condition of the highest industrial efficiency, 
nor from the principle of giving a man suffi- 
cient to repair the energy that he expends 
in his labor, nor from the common estimate 
of what constitutes a just price for work, 
but from the personal dignity of the laborer. 

In the present industrial organization this 
indefinite right takes the definite form of a 
living wage, for the reason that there is no 
other way in which the right can be exer- 
cised. This living wage should be sufficient 
to support a family, for "celibacy for the 
average man is not normal and should not 
be taken as a measure of reasonable and nat- 
ural rights." 

Father Ryan then determines what a living 
wage means in concrete figures. It should 
conform in a reasonable degree to the con- 
ventional standard of life that prevails in 
any community or group. The dwelling 



*A Living Wage : By Rev. John A. Ryan, L. T. L., 
Professor of Ethics and Economics in the St. Paul 
Seminary. 



occupied by the laborer and his family 
ought to consist of at least five rooms and 
in general conform to the requirements of 
reasonable comfort. This includes moder- 
ate food, clothing and shelter; festival days 
and some recreation; proper education for 
the laborer's children; and suitable provi- 
sion against accidents, disease and old age. 
Stated in terms of money this wage would 
be, he thinks, about six hundred dollars a 
year in any of the cities of the United 
States, although the author admits that this 
amount would not suffice in some of the 
largest cities of the West, North and East. 
Miss Goodyear of the Charity Organization 
Society, in her excellent paper read at the 
recent Rochester conference, has shown that 
a living wage in New York city means at 
least one thousand dollars a year, with 
which conclusion Frank Tucker and Dr. Lee 
Frankel agreed. 

In his attempts to fix the obligation cor- 
responding to this right, the reverend au- 
thor cannot be accused of sheltering himself 
behind generalities. After showing that the 
obligation to pay a living wage falls upon 
the industrial community in which the la- 
borer lives and specifically upon the em- 
ployer of the laborer, Father Ryan con- 
cludes that the employer is morally bound 
to pay all employes a living wage before 
he pays himself interest on his invested cap- 
ital, and in the case of corporations the 
stockholders are morally bound to pay all 
their employes a living wage before they 
pay themselves dividends. The consumer, 
since he profits by the productivity of the 
laborer, is morally answerable for insuffi- 
cient wages in proportion to his power to 
make reasonable efforts towards bettering 
them. He is bound to pay a fair price for 
the goods he buys, and a fair price necessar- 
ily means one that will enable the producers 
to be decently remunerated. In the simpler 
economic relations of the middle ages when 
the consumer usually dealt directly with the 
maker of the goods he bought, the obliga- 
tion to pay a price that would cover fair 
wages was early perceived and acknowl- 
edged, but the complicated mechanism of 
modern industry obscures this obligation 
and divides responsibility. Still the con- 



472 



Charities and The Commons 



sumer can do something in his individual 
capacity towards putting an end to the evil 
of underpaid labor, and industrial employ- 
ment. The labor union label or the Con- 
sumers' League label are affixed to goods 
that are produced in accordance with their 
standard of remuneration, hours and work- 
shop conditions. Purchasers who call for 
these goods contribute very materially to- 
wards the encouragement of fair employers 
and the discouragement of the unfair. 
Father Ryan defends his conclusion with 



quotations from the works of Roman Cath- 
olic theologians, notably from the encyclical 
letter of Pope Leo XIII on the condition of 
the working classes, but he shows himself 
widely read also in secular works on many 
aspects of the economic question. 

The book is especially interesting as the 
first attempt in the English language "to 
show exactly what the received doctrines of 
the church signify in the mind of a repre- 
sentative Catholic when they are applied to 
the economic life." 



Sociology and Social TKeory 

BOORS BY 

FRANKLIN H. GIDDINGS MICHAEL M. DAVIS 

THOMAS NIXON CARVER W. J. GHENT 

EDWARD ALSWORTH ROSS WILLIAM MORTON GRINNELL 

ELSIE CLEWS PARSONS 



TEXTS IN SOCIOLOGY 

Reviewed by R. C. Chapin 
Deloit College 



With the passing of the old Fifth Reader 
in the grammar grades has come the day of 
the reading-book in the higher education 
and for the public. The new reader, some- 
times dignified with the name of "source- 
book", consists of selections of varying 
length, chosen for the purpose of supple- 
menting the more systematic presentations 
of the subject in hand. The two books 1 
before us are designed to serve as reading- 
books in sociology. 

Although at first sight the two might be 
supposed to cover the same ground, they are 
really distinct in scope, and, in hardly a 
single instance are the selections duplicated. 
This is because of the radical difference in 
the ends and methods of the compilers. Pro- 
fessor Carver has centered his attention on 
the idea of social progress, and brought to- 
gether passages from the writings, whether 
of philosophers, jurists, or men of science, 
which have contributed most to the develop- 
ment of a theory of social evolution. Some 
thirty-five selections, from twenty-eight au- 
thors, are grouped under the headings: Na- 
ture of Sociology, Direction of Social Pro- 
gress, Factors of Social Progress. The last 
title includes three-fourths of the book, and 
is subdivided into Physical, Psychic, Social 
and Economic, and Political and Legal Fac- 

i Readings in Descriptive and Historical So- 
ciology : Edited by Franklin H. Giddings, Ph. D., 
LL. D., Pp. xxiv. ; 553. 

Sociology and Social Progress : a handbook for 
students of sociology. Compiled by Thomas Nixon 
Carver, Ph. D., LL. D., Pp. iv. ; 810 

For price, see facing page 449. 



tors. Beyond an introduction, in which the 
compiler's point of view is vindicated in a 
suggestive manner, Professor Carver him- 
self contributes only a few foot-notes, all too 
brief. 

Professor Giddings, on the other hand, has 
sought to collect, not the results of social 
theorizing, but its raw material, which he 
has arranged under the rubrics of the sys- 
tem of sociology which he has been devel- 
oping in the last dozen years in his own 
writings. He has done more than this, 
for he has in this volume given us both a 
comprehensive formulation of his whole 
system and some important additions to it. 
Thus, a careful analysis of inter-mental 
stimulation and response precedes the sec- 
tions on the consciousness of kind, sugges- 
tive classifications of types of society and 
of social policies are given, and an explan- 
ation of social causation is offered in terms 
of least effort. As regards social progress, 
the author emphasizes what he calls the 
"double process" by which, while social or- 
ganizations are increasing in variety and 
complexity, freedom and opportunity for the 
individual are continually enlarged. 

The selections made by Professor Giddings 
are shorter and more numerous than those 
in the other collection, and are drawn from 
a much wider range. Narrative historians 
are, of course, laid under contribution, but 
wherever a clear and vivid picture of inter- 
mental action or social co-operation has been 
found it has been included. Codes of law, 
ancient and modern; sacred writings; 
Homer's poems and Sienkewicz's novels have 



Four Books in Social Theory 



473 



all been drawn upon. The result is a collec- 
tion of highly interesting sociological data 
unified by arrangement under a well-known 
system, which is itself illustrated, if not 
demonstrated, by the selections. 

In Professor Carver's volume, the trend 
of the selections suggests a philosopy of so- 
cial progress, but the book includes pas- 
sages from authors differing as widely as 
Fiske and Nordau, Buckle and Kidd. A 
real service has been rendered in thus mak- 
ing accessible to every student the essential 
portions of certain famous works that are 
more often talked about than read. It is 
well, for instance, to have within easy reach 
Comte's chapters on the positive method and 
its application to the study of society. 
Buckle's "History of Civilization," too, is 
one of the books which is too often taken 
at second-hand. Yet some readers may ques- 
tion the wisdom of assigning to Buckle two 
hundred of the eight hundred pages in- 
cluded in the book. Three authors, — Comte, 
Buckle, Darwin, — occupy almost exactly 
one-half of the manual, some twenty-five 
others the remainder. Of these, perhaps a 
minority are professed sociologists, place be- 
ing given, among others, to Adam Smith, 
J. S. Mill, Lord Macaulay and Francis Gal- 



ton, as well as to Gabriel Tarde and Lester 
F. Ward. 

It would be captious to complain of the 
exclusion or the inclusion of specific ex- 
tracts in either book. Both editors are able 
teachers, and have evidently chosen their 
selections with definite pedagogical ends in 
view, which justify the principles of selec- 
tion employed. No two persons would agree 
on every point as to what should be put in 
and what left out in compiling a golden 
treasury of sociology, any more than they 
would agree as to what should be included 
in an anthology of poems. If any one re- 
grets that his favorites have been neglected, 
he will have no trouble in finding material 
for a new compilation that will include them. 

Although designed primarily as an ad- 
junct in academic instruction, both collec- 
tions will appeal to the general reader. 
Those who want to review, in convenient 
compass, what wise and brilliant men have 
written regarding human progress, will take 
satisfaction in Professor Carver's compen- 
dium. Those who desire to follow the con- 
structive work of Professor Giddings, or to 
see how broad and illuminating is the socio- 
logical point of view, will enjoy the "Read- 
ings." 



FOUR BOORS IN SOCIAL THEORY 

Reviewed fc>y "W. B. Guthrie 
College of the City of New Yorh 



Mr. Keynes in his Scope and Method in 
Political Economy, discussed in a very in- 
teresting manner the relation of the social 
theorist to the problems of social reform. 
While the conclusions reached favored rather 
complete separation of the art and the sci- 
ence of society, and though the writers on 
social science would probably support these 
conclusions, yet few works on society ap- 
pear which do not have at least some large 
principles for the social reformer. Some 
such features may be said to mark the group 
of volumes 1 here reviewed on sociology. 

Ross: Among those few books that 

Foundations have appeared in this field 
Sociology." that have escaped the color 
of partizanship is the Foundations of So- 
ciology by Dr. Ross. In quite an orthodox 
manner the author spends two chapters de- 
fining and limiting the term sociology. Part 
of this discussion here and elsewhere seems 
not unlike a type of apologetics, yet had 

*The Foundations of Sociology : Edward Als- 
worth Ross. 410 pp. 

Gabriel Tarde,' an Essay in Sociological Theory: 
Michael M. Davis. 117 pp. New York. 

Mass and Class; a Survey of Social Divisions: 
W. J. Ghent. 260 pp. The Macmillan Company, 
New York. 

Social Theories and Social Facts : William Mor- 
ton Grinnell. 146 pp. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New 
York and London. 

For price see facing page 449. 



other social sciences, earlier developed, 
more clearly defined their fields perhaps so 
large a burden would not now fall to the 
sociologist. No one, however, who is ac- 
quainted with the earlier writings of Dr. 
Ross, specially his Social Control, will fail 
to read what he has to say upon a theme 
treated ably before by writers like Giddings, 
Simmel and Gumplowicz. The writer criti- 
cises discriminatingly the ground taken by 
other theorists in this field. Simmel's ideas 
in his Problem of Sociology he treats favor- 
ably, but rejects Tarde's dictum that "the 
social is the imitated." Sociology he likens 
in its relation to the other social sciences 
to a trunk of a tree, providing the tree be a 
banyan tree whose great branches run down 
separately and all take root in human na- 
ture. The discussion of the field of econ- 
omics will be read by those anxious to learn 
where economics leaves off and sociology 
begins; and the lines will seem some clearer. 
Attention is very rightly called to the glib 
use made by writers of the term "social 
laws." It is vain to frame a universal law 
for the succession of political forms. An- 
alysis must be made of each social environ- 
ment which controls largely the particular 
political form. There may be evidence of 
the steps whereby the use and nature of 
money has evolved, but it would make so- 
cial laws cheap to base social progress on 



474 



Charities and The Commons 



these as its laws. The typical relation to 
be discovered is that of cause and effect. In 
his chapter on the "unit of investigation in 
sociology," Professor Ross makes some in- 
teresting distinctions between the philosophy 
of history and sociology. The former is called 
the forerunner of sociology and rested upon 
the assumption that the experiences of one 
particular society are but a part of a single 
mighty process. Sociology also at first erred 
by recognizing only a few large causes. En- 
vironment is an influence, but care must be 
exercised in choosing the size of the unit 
where it operates. Sociology does not want 
unique, it wants recurrent facts. The rec- 
ords of the past are the common sources 
from which history and sociology both draw 
material. Sociology will never be able to 
deal with a single element. Social processes 
are too complex. 

The author's discussion of the "mob-mind" 
is quite original. A one-mindedness is a 
mark of the true mob. It is irrational, cow- 
ardly, and transitory. "A mob is a crowd of 
people showing a unanimity due to mental 
contagion." "Mob mind working in vast 
bodies of dispersed individuals gives the 
craze or fad." The author recognizes the 
terms "social statics" and "social dynamics" 
as marking valid divisions of sociology in 
theory. There are, however, many factors, 
as law, government, etc., that are actively 
static. Social dynamics is concerned with 
change and not necessarily with evolution. 
Among the factors viewed as dynamic are, 
growth of population, accumulation of 
wealth, migrations to new environments, al- 
teration of environment. 

The last chapters of the volume are occu- 
pied with a careful survey of recent tenden- 
cies in sociology, which are rich in illustra- 
tion and reach with discriminating criticism 
many of the theories advanced by writers 
in this field. 

The theories of Gabriel 

an K^ a i V i s: a » Tarde are discussed by Mi- 
"Gabnel Tarde." , . _ . J 

chael M. Davis in a mono- 
graph submitted in partial fulfillment of the 
degree of doctor of philosophy at Columbia 
University. In his treatment of the funda- 
mental laws laid down by the versatile 
French philosopher, judge and academician, 
the laws of imitation and invention, Dr. Da- 
vis has combined brevity with clearness in a 
happy manner, has been critical without cyn- 
icism, and has given a thoughtful estimate 
without depreciating the work of this rather 
bold speculator in the field of social theoriz- 
ing. In speaking of Tarde's dictum that the 
best is the most imitated, it might have been 
apropos to point out that the worst is also 
the most imitated. The worst despotism 
tends also not only to perpetuate itself but 
to serve as a model for others. As Prof. 
Ross points out, in many fields imitation 
tends to equalize conditions but in others it 
tends to widen the inequalities. Dr. Davis's 
criticism on Tarde's "pseudo-quantitative 



psychology" seems quite to the point and 
might be carried into other realms of social 
science, as for instance economics, where, 
through mathematical formulae and countless 
geometric shapes, attempts are made to "ad- 
vance numerical examples of quantities 
which are admittedly not measurable in 
practice." This part therefore has value as 
applying to very much "pseudo science" in 
other divisions of the field. The author's 
plea for the use of more simple every-day lan- 
guage is certainly timely and such use would 
do much to simplify and no doubt to popu- 
larize the subject. The method applied to 
the study of these theories was' that of see- 
ing their development in the mind of their 
author. As one writer Suggests, you can- 
not go into a student's mental workshop and 
study the steps whereby he reached certain 
conclusions; but by tracing his reasoning 
for a course of years the growth of ideas 
may be seen with some clearness. This Dr. 
Davis has rather carefully if not exhaustive- 
ly done. In this survey the references to 
the law of imitation by other writers are 
pointed out. Parts of the criticism might 
be open to the objection of too great brevity 
relative to the weight and complexity of the 
problems treated. Chap. IV. contains a dis- 
cussion of the power of suggestion and some 
valuable evidence gained from actual experi- 
ments, bearing upon this subject. The im- 
pression might be received from a first read- 
ing that the connection here with the main 
thesis was not sufficiently clear. As the 
proposition to be proved is, however, that 
"Tarde's suggestion theory of society is arti- 
ficial and wholly inadequate" the material 
referred to will seem to be none too exten- 
sive. The writer's criticism that Tarde has 
not made the use he should have made of the 
literature on the subject might be extended 
to stand against the French writers gener- 
ally. The race is not given to writing anno- 
tated bibliographies. Perhaps they lose from 
the side of accuracy; probably they gain in 
originality and independence of thought. 



Ghent: To those people who are 

"Mass and acquainted with Mr. Ghent's 
Class." clever satire, Our Benevo- 
lent Feudalism, the later work, Mass 
and Class, will not be unwelcome. The name 
is certainly catching, as the air in these lat- 
ter times is surcharged with ideas of class 
struggles, of the submerged masses, and of 
the triumphant classes. In this work it is 
intended to analyze the social mass into its 
component classes. The volume, then, may 
be classed among works in practical soci- 
ology with the writer perhaps slightly biased 
as to what is the dominant spirit and the 
general drift of society. The work might be 
characterized as a mixture of philosophy of 
history, social theory and social pathology. 
The first chapter, on the meaning of his- 
tory and the modern tendency to study the 
social aspects of development and to inter- 
pret facts from an economic standpoint, is all 



Mrs. Parson's "The Family" and its Critics 



475 



very true, though it has been told a good 
many times recently. The analysis in Chap. 
III. of the classes and their relations and 
inter-relations is clear and has strong points. 
The difficulty of clearly differentiating the 
social classes is urged and the vague and un- 
satisfactory nature of the works discussing 
the social structure is emphasized. Relative 
income is inadequate to furnish a standard 
for distinguishing classes. After abandon- 
ing certain categories that have been set up, 
the author proceeds to classify society in his 
own way, — not altogether unlike the classi- 
fication found in the last census of popula- 
tion. A large part of the book is devoted to 
a discussion of class ethics. 

The author defines the moral sense as hav- 
ing its origin in the instinct of group-safety. 
The last chapter is taken up with the "reign 
of graft." Graft is pointed out as a result 
of our competitive method of industry and 
its history marks all our national life. The 
danger that "graft" in business should pass 
over to "graft" and corruption in public life 
is dwelt upon. 

Taken with such writings as those of 
Henry George, Jr., and Lincoln Steffens, it 
forms at once an interesting and startling 
revelation of conditions in modern business 
and of individual ethics. Such books should 
be read. Humiliating, depressing, — they yet 
sound a needed note of warning. 

Grinnell: The book by Mr. Grinnell 

jheortes is a compilation of inter- 

and Social esting essays on more or 

Facts." less related subjects. It 

deals in separate chapters with trusts, 

competition, socialism, cost of living, 

legislation and the like. As the name 

suggests, the work is partly theoreti- 

party practical. It would probably be 

conceded that the latter part is by far the 

more valuable. The general attitude taken 

in the preface is rather sweepingly unfav- 



orable and this i*'iew carries through- 
out the various chapters; socialism and la- 
bor unions are both condemned as being un- 
fair and tending to abase some and elevate 
others to one dead level of humanity. The 
author states a part of his creed in saying, 
"we enact fantastical laws opposed to the 
laws of nature and economics, and we inter- 
fere with the laws of supply and demand." 
By the writer's attachment to natural laws 
one might judge he would be a devotee of the 
English theory of Laissez-faire, and feel per- 
fectly at home in the Cobden Club. So- 
cialism of the political kind is condemned. 
Social equity will dawn when i larger num- 
ber of persons share in corporate wealth 
and have a voice in its management. The 
trust is not per se a bad thing; dishonest 
men can misuse corporate wealth and priv- 
ilege. The figures seem to show that while 
there is concentration in the control of 
wealth, there is a broadening of the num- 
ber of shareholders, a fact pointed out some 
years ago by E. Bernstein in his Premises 
of Socialism. The function of govern- 
ment is, to Mr. Grinnell's mind, to see that 
there is fair play; further than this it is 
out of its sphere, and its results will be 
unhappy. No confidence is expressed in 
public control of railroads; owing to differ- 
ent conditions more success might follow 
muncipal control of public utilities in the 
city. Mr. Grinnell is "sound" on the money 
questions; believes silver was put out of 
the market by natural laws, and should 
not be brought back by law. The reader 
is a little puzzled by the emphasis placed 
upon ethical and economic and natural laws 
as unchanging, while attention is so in- 
sistently called to the facts of social evolu- 
tion requiring constant adaptation in legis- 
lative activity. 

Trade unionism is attacked on the 
ground that it robs the individual of his 
independence. 



MRS. PARSON'S "THE FAMILY'' AND ITS CRITICS 

Reviewed by Edward T. Devine 



An extraordinary display of ecclesiastical 
hysteria greeted the birth of this volume. 
A single sentence from the middle of a par- 
agraph in its final chapter was seized upon 
by a shrewd editor who discerned its sensa- 
tion-creating possibilities, and transferred it 
from its natural place in the reviewer's 
column. This sentence removed from its 
context appeared to place the author among 
the avowed enemies of the institution of 
which the text-book treats, viz., the family. 
It will appear difficult of credence to many 
of the sober-minded readers of this review 
that none of the bishops, clergy and other 

1 The Family; an Ethnological and Historical 
Outline, with Descriptive Notes; Planned as a 
text book for the use of college lecturers and stu- 
dents of sociology, by Elsie Clews Parson. 
4] 6 pp. For price, see facing page 449. 



zealous defenders of this institution who 
rushed into print before the middle of No- 
vember with all the familiar epithets of 
hate which have too often characterized re- 
ligious controversies, thought it necessary 
to read the book, or to verify the quotation, 
or to ascertain on what conditions or for 
what reasons the author would welcome 
changes. Yet such is the fact, for the book 
was not published until after the nine days' 
sensation had virtually run its course. One 
interesting fact Which the voluntary adver- 
tisers of the new book may profitably con- 
sider is that an edition which would doubt- 
less have been sufficient to meet the legiti- 
mate needs of an academic par was ex- 
hausted on the day of publication. For this 
popular sale to a curious public which has 



4/6 



Charities and The Commons 



no interest in the scientific study of social 
institutions, the publishers and the author 
and the more or less duped purchasers have 
to thank the critics — not of the book — but 
of the single sentence to which reference 
has been made. 

The full title is The Family; an Ethno- 
graphical and Historical Outline, with De- 
scriptive Notes. Planned as a Text-Book 
for the Use of College Lecturers and Students 
of Sociology. It is written by Elsie Clews 
Parsons, Ph.D.; formerly Hartley House 
Fellow and Lecturer in Sociology in Bar- 
nard College. It is dedicated to the 
author's son and daughter, but as its descrip- 
tive sub-title suggests, it is neither a juvenile 
nor a popular book. 

Mrs. Parsons has however written a very 
useful guide for the study of the family as 
a social institution. It gives evidence of 
wide reading and of class-room experience. 
It is only in the final chapter that ethical 
interpretations are considered. We are in- 
clined to think that the general conception 
of the marriage relation which the author 
sets forth is higher, and not lower, than 
that which meets the favor of existing pub- 
lic opinion. The fact is emphasized that 
parental duty begins before parenthood. It 
is shown that prostitution is not only im- 
moral but essentially undemocratic and that 
both prostitution and adultery should be 
condemned in men as well as in women. It 
is urged that the age of consent should be 
identified witn the legal age of marriage, 
and that discriminations against those of 
illegitimate birth should be mitigated. It 
is suggested that divorce seekers with chil- 
dren should encounter greater legal obsta- 
cles than those who are childless; in other 
words, that the effect upon offspring should 
be a chief consideration in the granting of 
divorce. The preface contains an acknowl- 
edgment to Professor Giddings for read- 
ing this final chapter in manuscript and for 
suggesting "a clearer statement than that 
originally made about tne desirability of 
youthful trial marriage." After late mar- 
riage has become the rule and prostitution 
has disappeared, there would be, the author 
thinks, two alternatives, a requirement of 
absolute chastity of both sexes until mar- 
riage and a toleration of relations avowedly 
less stable than those of the normal family. 

Of these the former is, of course, to be 
preferred. "As a matter of fact," says the 
author, "truly monogamous relations seem 
to be those most conducive to emotional or 
intellectual development and to health, so 
that, quite apart from the question of pros- 
titution, promiscuity is not desirable or 
even tolerable. It would, therefore, seem 
well from this point of view, to encourage 
early trial marriage, the relation to be en- 
tered into with a view to permanency, but 
with the privilege of breaking it if proved 
unsuccessful and in the absence of offspring 
without suffering any great degree of public 
condemnation." 

The author has elsewhere declared that 



trial marriage, or time marriage, is not true 
marriage, and to be consistent she should 
have suggested here as a possible alterna- 
tive for rigidly monogamous and life-long 
marriage, a marriage which might be more 
readily dissolved by divorce. It is, how- 
ever, from the point of view of bringing 
an end to prostitution, while still permit- 
ting late marriage, and as a substitute for 
clandestine polygamy now so generally 
practiced, that the author suggests, without 
at all elaborating or arguing in favor of the 
• ; an, the tolerance of what she unwisely 
termed early trial marriage. 

Another possible expression of the auth- 
or's meaning, as we understand it, might 
have been the suggestion of a greater for- 
mality of betrothal, giving in that way the 
opportunity for a more intimate acquaint- 
ance upon which a sounder conclusion as to 
the desirability of marriage might be based. 
At any rate it is not the life-long, truly 
monogamous family, but the promiscuous, 
clandestinely polygamous relation, with its 
inequalities as to sex, and its injury to 
character, that needs reformation. So at least 
we read the chapter, and whether this inter- 
pretation be right or wrong, and whether 
the author's views be sound or not, their 
statement is judicial and temperate and 
does not amount to an attack upon the fam- 
ily or the home. 

The present reviewer does not accept the 
author's remedy for present evils. Prostitu- 
tion, we hold, exists because men do not 
learn self-control in their youth, and be- 
cause neither the laws nor public opinion 
gives necessary protection to woman. It 
may be expedient as a temporary makeshift 
to grant divorce or legal separation more 
readily among people of moderate means. 
At. present the poor man's form of divorce is 
desertion and a very expensive and destruc- 
tive form of divorce it is. The real remedy, 
however, lies far deeper. It lies, as the 
author of this volume would be among the 
first to admit, in education. The family 
needs as its true defenders those who will 
show how men may be brought to practice 
purity of life, and to respect both parental 
and marital obligations. We need not so 
much tolerance for those who, having found 
marriage unsuccessful, decide to give it 
up, as guidance in the inculcation of the 
elementary virtues which will make it suc- 
cessful. We believe that further patient in- 
vestigation of the institution of the family 
will show that in spite of the flagrant and 
odious offenses with which every man of the 
world is familiar, there is even now in our 
own communities distinct progress towards 
the realization of the highest ethical type of 
the family. It is because we believe that 
Mrs. Parson's book is a contribution towards 
this understanding of the family, whether 
she is right or wrong in regard to a particu- 
lar remedy for existing evils, that we have 
objected at the beginning of this notice to 
the intemperate criticism of one of its para- 
graphs. 



Illustrations 

'WHicH Find Place in Current DooKs 

of a Sociological Trend 




Copyright, igoj, by J. E. Purdy, Boston 




From Man; The Social Creation. 
Copyright Doubleday, Page & Co. 




THE MODERN SAMSON, 
"rom Mitchell's The Silent War. 
Copj'right Life Publishing Co. 





THE GREAT SOCIALIST. 

From Mitchell's The- Silent War. 
Copyright Life Publishing Co. 




LEO TOLSTOY. 
From Tolstoy's A Great Iniquity. 



FROM THE DEPTHS. 

From Mitchell's The Silent War. 

Copyright Life Publishing Co. 



(A Great Iniquity is Tolstoy's famous letter of July, 1905. to The London Times, in which 
he advocated that "the Russian people should not become proletarians in imitation of the people 
ot Europe and America ; but on the contrary that they should solve the land question at home, 
Dy the abolition of landed property, and show other nations the way to a rational, free and 
happy life, outside industrial, factory or capitalistic coercion and slavery — that in this lies 
their great historical calling." The letter is being circulated generallv in pamphlet form by the 
Public Publishing Company, Chicago. The photograph is one whose circulation was interdicted 
in Russia, presumably, it is said, "because the minds of the peasantry might be inflamed by the 
simple dres- and pose, giving to their friend the appearance of a prophet.") 




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WILL THEY LET ME IN? 

It is a serioiis matter to many a man who has invested his all in a ticket 
for the New World to face the nossibility of rejection 

ON THE TRAIL OF THE IMMIGRANT 
Copyright 1906 by FLEMING II. REV ELL COMPANY 




ST! 



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SUNDAY NIGHT AT THE PEOPLE S INSTITUTE 

From Smith's Working With the People. A. Wessels Company. 




THE MERCHANT OF VENICE. 
From Smith's Working With the People. A. Wessels Company. 



Social TKougKt in Fiction 

BOORS BY 



DOROTHY RICHARDSON 
RICHARD WHITING 
UPTON SINCLAIR 



BART KENNEDY 
JOHN AMES MITCHELL 
H. G. WELLS 



"THE LONG DAY" 

Reviewed by Margaret Dreir Robins 

Chicae'o 



The Long Day, 1 the true story of a New 
York working girl as told by herself, — this is 
the title of the book and yet the moment 
we begin to read the story we are conscious 
of the fact that in spite of her claim to 
the contrary, the author is an outsider to 
the great working world. The picture of 
the industrial conditions under which the 
working girls of our large cities are asked 
to work is so true and so vividly described 
that it is a special pity that the author 
did not permit the story to tell its own 
tale without any interpretation on her part. 
We are shown the utter desolation of a girl 
alone in a city. We go with her to the 
miserable boarding and lodging houses and 
we join her in the pitiful attempt to room 
with light house-keeping privileges on $1.00 
a week, while earning $3.00 a week. The 
leering smile which $1.50 a week is offered 
for work ranging from seven in the morn- 
ing until nine at night — and Saturdays until 
midnight — the complacency with which $3.00 
a week is offered — these are familiar facts 
in the working girls' world and we meet 
them in The Long Day. Even the dullest 
mind must grasp the hunger, the misery and 
the bitterness of such a life. 

The author's work brings us into contact 
with the various grades of working people. 
From the skilled, self-respecting working 
girl with the background of a home — found 
in the factory for artificial flowers — to the 
girls picked up on the street by the barber's 
wagon and carried into the Pearl Laundry 
for work. That these different classes of 
working girls should have different stand- 
ards is self evident. The girl coming from 
a self respecting home carries with her a 
quality which can rarely be found in the 
girl whose home means two or three rooms 
shared with the family and boarders or 
lodgers. When life must be passed under 
conditions that necessitate absolute free- 
dom in all its ordinary occurrences, speech 
naturally takes unto itself the same coarse 
candor. The child brought up under such 
conditions does not find it easy to clothe 
its ideas in any other language than the one 

1 The Long Day , by Dorothy Richardson. For 
price, see facing, page 449. 

484 



it has known, even if that language be at 
variance with its thought. As refinement 
of speech does not always indicate refine- 
ment of thought or heart, so the reverse is 
equally true and coarseness of speech may 
not by any manner of means indicate coarse- 
ness of thought or heart. The author's 
misconception on these points is due to a 
lack of understanding and when she re- 
cites deeds of thoughtfulness such as alone 
emanate from a heart refined and sensitive 
in its feelings, she contradicts her own 
statement. Those who know the daily acts 
of kindliness and friendliness, of courtesy 
and self-sacrifice, which take place in the 
tenement homes in spite of the squalor and 
dirt and work, understand that language 
after all is but one means of expression. 

It is difficult also to understand how any 
woman who has seen the pressure of life 
brought to bear on her fellow workers can 
interpret the wrong which she sees perpe- 
trated by some of the workings girls with 
so little sympathetic comprehension. Most 
of her fellow workers were daily experienc- 
ing great nerve exhaustion and what this 
means can be readily appreciated. It is a 
well-known fact that dangerous machinery 
is successfully avoided during the greater 
part of the day but that accidents frequently 
and almost invariably occur during the last 
hours of the working day. The girl, in 
mind and body, is too exhausted to be on the 
alert and the fatigue is too great to create 
anything but a feeling of indifference. The 
author herself gives an illustration of this 
thought when the girl in the laundry tells 
the story of the loss of her hand. "It hap- 
pens every once in a while when you are 
running the mangles and are tired. That is 
the way it was with me. I was clean done 
out one Saturday night and I just couldn't 
see any more and the first thing I know the 
hand went right straight clean into the 
rollers. I was just tired — that's all." In 
the same way utter exhaustion of mind and 
body produces a certain indifference to a 
sense of right, creates a need for a stimu- 
lant which is imperatively commanding in 
its desire and produces a physical and men- 
tal condition when it is difficult to resist 



The Socialist in Recent Fiction 



485 



temptation. The feeling of being "just 
tired," when it is the daily accompaniment 
to life explains many of the miserable stor- 
ies told. No greater arraignment of our in- 
difference can be made than the brutal con- 
ditions found in the Pearl Laundry and 
graphically described. The overpowering 
heat caused by the engine room directly un- 
der the work room, the dangerous machin- 
ery, the hot, sloppy floor, are no exaggera- 
tion of the conditions existing in many pub- 
lic laundries. Nor are these conditions dif- 
ferent, except in detail, from those we find 
in many factories. 

The hospital sheets found in the Pearl 
Laundry are a comment on some of our 
methods. The conditions in these laun- 
dries create patients as fast as the days 
speed by. We are willing to build hospi- 
tals and reformatories; we think it our 
duty and privilege to visit women in jails 
and prisons; but we too rarely ask ourselves 
what we have done to send them there. 

Certain details described in the life in 
the factories are untrue to the life of the 
working people. The individual incidents 
may have happened but the author has made 
the same mistake an artist makes who does 
not hold his details in subjection. An added 
emphasis is given to the false picture thus 
produced by the miserable frontispiece. 
Nothing could be more absurd, because 
nothing is further from the truth, than the 
picture of Broadway and the crowd of hat- 
less, collarless working girls jauntily trip- 



ping down the business center of the great 
metropolis. Such a p&ture is no light mat- 
ter; not only is it untrue to life but it sup- 
ports the contention raised so many times 
by the working girls themselves that the 
"other half" is only interested in them 
through a sense of curiosity or because 
their story lends itself to a certain pict- 
uresqueness. No less serious a mistake 
to the value of the book is the epilogue at- 
tached to the story by the author herself. 
Her statements made on page 284 regarding 
the Trade Union movement in New York 
are mistaken and it surely would not have 
been a difficult task to inform \ herself on 
that subject before making any public 
statement regarding it. The working 
woman is patient but she is not content 
or happy. That she is "worked," as the 
author states, is pitifully true in thousands 
of instances and it raises the question 
whether the girl so "worked" does not rep- 
resent the second generation of working 
women. Is she not the direct result of the 
conditions of her life? Are we not begin- 
ning to reap what we have sown? A girl 
brought up in a crowded tenement with her 
mother away at work all day, with the curse 
of poverty expressing itself in lack of food 
and care, enters the ranks of the workers 
handicapped in every particular. 

Underneath every other need of the work- 
ing world is the need for a living wage — a 
living wage. 



THE SOCIALIST IN RECENT FICTION 

Madeleine Z. Doty- 
New Yorh 



It's surprising how many socialistic nov- 
els have been written in the last few years. 
In two years there are at least fifteen books 
that might be put under that heading. I 
have considered only five of the most talked 
of. Apparently the growth of the social atti- 
tude increases every day. I have attempted 
to criticize the books rather with a 
view to their social philosophy, than to their 
merits as works of art. In other words, it 
has been in my mind first and foremost to 
note what the author's philosophy was, and 
what influence and what practical value 
that philosophy had for the community at 
large. 

Like The Long Day, which is in a sense its 
American counterpart, Ring in the New deals 
with the life of a working in a great city. 
In The hong Day, Dorothy Richardson de- 
scribed the life of a penniless, unskilled 
working woman in New York. The book's 
great merit lay in the fact that it was real 
and spontaneous, and extremely simple and 
natural; its chief defect was that Miss 
Richardson did not really have for 
her inspiration the underlying problem. She 
depicted conditions well, but her epilogue 
was weak. It was a sort of compromise 



and suggested minor remedies for a big 
need. 

Whiting: Ring in the New, on the other 

"Ring in the hand, has much greater liter- 
New*" ary value and a purpose be- 
hind it, but it has not the same vivid interest, 
the close contact with real, every-day life, 
that we find in The Long Day. It deals with 
the life of the working girl in London, but a 
girl who has had education and advantages. 
She is also an untrained worker, but her 
bringing up makes it impossible for her 
to go into a factory. She finally finds em- 
ployment as a private secretary. Eventually 
she meets a young man who is a socialist, 
and becomes absorbed in the socialistic move- 
ment. 

In a letter from the author he gives his 
own estimate of his work, comparing it 
with another American book, The Jungle, 
in a way that is extremely interesting. 

"The thing that struck me very much in 
reading it (The Jungle) was that Sinclair 
had done in a full, strong way, what I have 
been trying to do in Ring in the New, in a 
more timorous and weaker way. We are 
both apostles of socialism; he goes for it 
with his coat off, in the American way. I 



480 



Charities and The Commons 



have had to go for it with a thousand con- 
siderations for the state of society and the 
state of opinion about me. Here is the 
thing that we are all talking about said as 
it strikes a ■ writer who is too much influ- 
enced by the reserves and hesitations of 
the older societies, too mealy-mouthed, if 
you like to put it so, though he does not 
want to be mealy-mouthed at all. Sinclair 
has a propaganda paper written by one of 
his characters, The Appeal, just as i have 
The Branding-Iron, run by one of mine. 
We have both thought of the same thing — 
what such a paper might do. My book 
is not a jungle — at best, or at worst, it is 
only like all that English scenery to which 
it belongs, a trim garden that has got out 
of order." 

The book is not absorbing, and grows less 
interesting towards the close. The social- 
istic propaganda paper introduced is ex- 
tremely good. It is in the paper that the 
most original and telling work is done. 
Here is an extract from an item in the 
Branding-Iron, which is the name given the 
paper: 

"Has anybody in search of a sensation 
ever thought of spotting a look of some of 
the out-o'-works on London Bridge at closing 
time? I once saw a cyclist who had lost 
control of his wheel flying full speed down 
a hill with a flint wall at the bottom. There 
was death in the face and he found it. 
There's death, I swear, in some of those 
faces, O, my God! (Signed Y. L.)" 

Mr. Whiting has a big social purpose and 
he makes you feel it, but the book as a 
story is not sufficiently interesting and vital 
to hold popular attention. To sum up, The 
Long Day is by far the more absorbing 
story of two, but Mr. Whiting's work has 
greater literary value and a bigger purpose. 

There are three books that 

,, T . S in( jiair: (j ea i with the life of the work- 

Ine Jungle. . _, , „ 

ing man. Two touch on fac- 
tory life, and the other on the life of a young 
street musician. They are The Jungle, 
Slavery and The Voice of the Street. 

Mr. Whiting's remarks on The Jungle and 
socialism were interesting. As a novel on 
socialism The Jungle is a failure, but as 
a story to show up the frightful conditions 
in the meat trade, and the unspeakably 
hard conditions of the laboring men working 
for a big trust, it was a success. The book 
should have ended on page 355. It is there 
that the tirade on socialism begins. Up to 
that point it is thrilling and horribly fasci- 
nating. Once having started it, it is im- 
possible to put it down. 

If the author had throughout the book 
showed rifts of light, by suggesting that a 
change is what is needed to better condi- 
tions, the book would have been stronger 
than it is, but to lug in socialism at the 
end was an anti-climax. 

Upton Sinclair has said of his story: "I 
meant to hit the people in the heart, but 
by chance I hit them in the stomach." Per- 
haps the reason for this is that it is the 



horrors of Packingtown that leave the deep- 
est impression, for they are wonderfully 
vivid, and the laboring man and his needs 
are overlooked. There is no suggestion at 
a solution of the accumulated horrors until 
it is poured forth as a sermon at the close. 
It was one of the six best selling books this 
last year, not the best, and the reason prob- 
ably that it was not the best is because 
much of it is so dreadful that many women 
would not read it. It is a book that already 
has had great influence and is bound to have 
even more. It will at least make people 
think. 

The other book that deals 

4*2?|?y » witn tne life of a !aborer in a 
factory is entitled Slavery. It 
is an English publication. The author's name 
is Bart Kennedy. The book is a straight- 
forward narrative of the life of a working 
man in his home, in the factory, of his de- 
sire for change, of his life in the army and 
the dulling of all incentive to individual 
progress that the army life produces, of his 
life again in the factory, of his awakening, 
and his grasp at the social problem. "Jim's" 
awakening is described in the following 
graphic way: 

"Jim began to think in the curious, dis- 
contented way that belongs to men who 
work with their hands. Would he always 
have to work as he was working now? He 
had known nothing but blackness and dull- 
ness through the whole of his life. He had 
known nothing but hunger and poverty and 
the obeying of orders and working from 
morning till night. He remembered having 
to work when he was six years old. Noth- 
ing but work. He would have to work all 
through the hours of this day! He would 
have to work all through the hours of to- 
morrow! and the next day! and the next! 
and till he died! Nothing but work! 
Gentlemen did not work! Why not? He 
was unable to tell. It was beyond him." 

The sub-title of the book is Pictures from 
the Depths. The conclusion the author 
comes to after painting his pictures is that 
present conditions are wrong, and they must 
be changed, and that the only way to bring 
about that change is by a revolution. Man 
is restless. He brings about a revolution 
and the revolution purifies. To quote: 

"Revolutions are not upheavals. They are 
the periodic purifying of civilization. * * * 

"Revolution! 

"Through it sounds the terrible cry of the 
slave as he rises to smite the mighty that 
was. Through it sounds the excited shout 
of humans who have been beneath the heel, 
till with a vast effort they arose. Through 
it sounds the triumphing yell of the new 
mighty, as it crushes the old mighty, Revo- 
lution, an expression splendid and terrible 
of choked desires and wants. * * * 

"Revolution is the prelude to change. A 
power glorious and terrible. * * * It has 
led man upward from the protoplasm. It 
will lead him upward until he becomes a 
god." 



The Socialist in Recent Fiction 



487 



There is something unusual about the 
book. It is full of striking passages, passa- 
ges of unusual strength and power. They 
have the Whitman atmosphere, and carry 
one along with a rush. Yet there is a feel- 
ing of dissatisfaction when one lays the 
book down. I think the trouble lies in the 
vagueness of the hero's personality. It is 
an attempt at a story, where there is no 
story, and no characters. As an exposition 
of conditions, and the author's doctrine of 
change, it is a capital piece of work. 

Poole: The Voice of the Street, on 

"The Voice of the other hand, has less of a 



the Street.' 



social purpose than Slavery, 



but it is even more of a story than The Jungle. 
It is a picture story of real life among the 
boys and men of the slums of New York. 
The hero of the story is strikingly drawn. 
His name is Jim. He is a poor little, home- 
less boy of the streets, with a great love of 
music and a true, fine spirit. He has a 
wonderful voice, but no opportunity to train 
it. How can he, when he is only one of 
the dregs of humanity, with neither money 
nor friends, a street urchin? As he grows 
up he sings in cafes. The smoke, the bad 
air, the straining of his voice nearly ruin 
it, but not quite. In the end he becomes a 
great singer. 

With the writer, evidently, results are 
best attained by pictures of real life. He 
makes no attempt at the solution of present 
evils, nor has he given expression to any 
large social philosophy. The keynote of 
his philosophy is summed up in the last 
page. The hero is giving his first great con- 
cert. He has become a great singer and 
attained his end. His sweetheart is in the 
audience, and Jim's song seems to say to 
her: 

"Come — for the life we dreamed of is 
here. * * * Open your eyes and your 
ears and your soul to the world of Big 
Beauties with me. Be glad, for the street 
is forever behind us. The fight, the race, 
the lie, the gamble — are only parts of Death. 
Deep under the glare and the roar of the 
street life, real life is silently waiting for 
the time when we shall no longer be blind 
and deaf. Be glad — for life — real life — is 
not murder of the weak by the mighty. 
Be glad — for life is creation — the race where 
each helps his brother, that Big Beauty 
may come first ahead! Be glad — for life is 
birth and the growth of beauty and joy 
for all! Be glad, for life is love." 

It is a book that is full of promise, of 
things for the future. This story is crude 
and young. There is a continuous striking 
of one note that by its reiteration occasion- 
ally jars. It is full of warm feeling, how- 
ever, and completely holds the attention. 

In comparing these books, then, I should 
say The Jungle is quite the strongest and 
has made ard will make the greatest im- 
pression on the community. Slavery is 
essentially revolutionary and stands for 



that. There is not enough of a story for it 
to be widely read; while The Voice of the 
Street is strong in its story element, but is 
not likely to have a large influence in chang- 
ing conditions. 

Mitchell: Two books that deal imagin- 
"The Silent atively with socialism are 
War." j n ^ e D a y S f the Comet 

and The Silent War. Very different meth- 
ods are used in each, but still it is a changed 
social condition that each is aiming to 
show. The Silent War supposes the great 
mass of people to have united under what 
is called "The People's Leagi^." This 
league has a committee of seven whose busi- 
ness it is to raise money to fight capital 
with. By amassing millions they are en- 
abled to fight the moneyed corporation. The 
police, and most of the government officials, 
are on the league's side. 

A committee of seven raise money by vis- 
iting each man of large wealth and demand- 
ing a large sum. If he refuses to pay this, 
then a cross is put against his name which 
means that in due time he will be murdered. 
When the story opens, several millionaires 
have been disposed of and more are mur- 
dered in the course of the story's develop- 
ment. The hero of the book is a millionaire, 
who refuses to subscribe to the fund the 
committee of seven are raising. His life, 
however, is spared because he is, at heart, a 
fine, generous man, and because of one unu- 
sually generous deed' that stands to his 
credit. 

The book is in many ways strong. It is 
original, improbable, and not so well writ- 
ten as Amos Judd and others of Mr. Mitch- 
ell's books. I should think it might cause 
a millionaire several shivers. Possibly that 
was what the editor of Life had in mind in 
writing it. 

Wells: in In the Days of the Comet, 

"In th£ Days Mr We n s has gi ve n us ra- 
the Comet." ther his ideal conception of 
socialism; his practical working views had 
been set forth in his Modern Utopia. 

The outline of the story is as follows: A 
young man is fighting out his existence, and 
realizes the hopelessness of doing so under 
modern social conditions. He is in love 
with a woman, with whom another man runs 
off, without marrying her. The jilted 
youth pursues with murder in his heart and 
just as he is about to kill the other, a comet 
strikes the earth and a great change takes 
place. The hero describes it in the follow- 
ing way: "It perplexed me somehow that 
my body felt strange to me * * * and 
the barley, and the beautiful woods, and the 
slowly developing glory of the dawn behind; 
all those things partook of the same unfa- 
miliarity. I felt as though I was a thing 
in some very luminous painted window, as 
though the dawn broke through me. I felt 
I was part of some exquisite picture painted 
in light and joy." 



488 



Charities and The Commons 



Socialism had come to pass since the com- 
et struck the earth, and the brotherhood of 
man was established. An English paper 
has printed a clever review, part of which I 
quote: "Some of us like Mr. Wells' gospel 
better than his way of proclaiming it, and 
could wish that his attitude to the rest of 
mankind were rather less like that of Olym- 
pian Jove watching the struggles of a cap- 
sized beetle. The helpless stupidity even 
more than the depravity of his fellow men 
seems to fill him with a kind of incredulous 
amazement which gives place to something 
nearer rage when he surveys their poor, 
blotched contrivances for personal comfort, 
such as clothes, boots, wash-stands, sculler- 
ies, and the like. But, after all, he is no 



mere cynic; and here he gives us his dream 
of a world suddenly sweetened and enlight- 
ened, set free from all the shackles of the 
past, and building an earthly paradise on a 
basis of good humor, good sense, good will, 
and the abolition of private property." 

Mr. Wells' book stirred up considerable 
comment both here and in England because 
of his ideas on love and matrimony. It 
seems that the fault lay rather in the inter- 
pretation of his remarks, than in what he 
actually said. This story is wholly ideal and 
imaginative. It is exquisite in the imagina- 
tive art. Put it down and it is a shock to 
pick up a newspaper, and find life as sordid 
and narrow and hateful as ever. 



Special Census Reports 

the: institution population of the united states 

Reviewed by Lilian Brandt 



With the report on the Insane and Fee- 
ble-minded in Hospitals and Institutions the 
census bureau completes its presentation of 
the non-criminal institution population of 
the country in the year 1904. The number 
of persons who were living in institutions 
on the first of January, 1905, was over half 
a million, or about one in each 150 of the 
population. By no means all of those per- 
sons were being supported at public ex- 
pense, and still fewer were permanent de- 
pendents, but they were all inmates of in- 
stitutions, and were distributed as follows: 

In almshouses 85,290 

In benevolent institutions 284,362 

In hospitals and other institutions 

for the insane 158,040 

in institutions for the feeble- 
minded 15,511 



543,203 



The report on the insane and feeble- 
minded has already been noticed in Char- 
ities and The Commons (Vol. XVI., p. 597). 
The most interesting fact brought out in 
the report on paupers in almshouses is that 
their numbers are decreasing relatively to 
the population. This is the first census re- 
port which shows the movement of the alms- 
house population. The number of admis- 
sions in the course of the year was about 
the same as the number in the almshouses 
on the first of the year. The number of 
discharges was somewhat less, so that there 
resulted a slight net increase in the popu- 
lation. Certain personal statistics of the 
inmates are included which give in a gene- 
ral way the extent to which they were phy- 



sically and mentally incapacitated. An ap- 
pendix of nine pages gives an outline of 
the laws governing poor relief in each of the 
United States, "as a guide to a better un- 
derstanding of the conditions under which 
the almshouses are peopled." 

All three of these reports were prepared 
under the direction of John Koren, expert 
special agent, and all are unusually valu- 
able. Because the one on Benevolent 
Institutions represents a greater improve- 
ment over what had been done before, and 
because the inmates of the "benevolent in- 
stitutions" were over half the entire in- 
stitution population, it seems advisable to 
give it here more extended examination. 

Within its self-imposed limitations it is 
an unusually satisfactory piece of work. In 
a statistical investigation the ability to 
choose, from the things that would be de- 
sirable and interesting to know, those which 
are fundamental and possible to find out, 
is not the least among the elements of 
success. Because this inquiry was limited 
at the outset to what seemed reasonably pos- 
sible, the care expended in collecting and 
arranging the information has resulted, as 
Mr. Koren expressed the belief that it would 
result, in "a reference handbook of much 
practical value to persons engaged in phil- 
anthropic work." The analysis of results, 
preceding the general tables, calls attention 
to what the tables do show and warns 
against dangerous pitfalls. 

The 4,207 institutions included in the in- 
quiry are divided into these five classes: 

(1) Orphanages and children's homes, 
with which are included day nurseries, since 
they may be regarded as substitutes for in- 
stitutions; 



Special Census Reports 



489 



(2) Hospitals, and their substitute, dis- 
pensaries; 

(3) Permanent homes for adults, or for 
adults and children; 

(4) Temporary homes for adults and 
children; 

(5) Schools and homes for the deaf and 
blind. 

Every state and territory is represented 
in the list, the number of institutions vary- 
ing from one in Nevada (an orphan's home, 
supervised and maintained by the state) to 
659 in New York. Pennsylvania ranks sec- 
ond, with 409; Massachusetts third, with 
305; Ohio and Illinois have 267 and 257 
respectively; and five other states, New Jer- 
sey, California, Missouri, Indiana and Mich- 
igan, have between one and two hundred. 
Next to Nevada, at the other end, are Ok- 
lahoma and Wyoming, with six each, and 
Indian Territory and Idaho, with seven. 
The number of institutions, needless to say, 
does not, except in a few instances, bear a 
close relation to the population of the state. 

The institution was made the "unit of in- 
quiry, not the individual inmate; the insti- 
tution officials, "many of whom lacked the 
aid of systematic records and therefore were 
not prepared to state even the simplest 
facts," were the only source of information; 
and the questions asked were accordingly 
determined by the "information generally 
obtainable, rather than that which might be 
desirable," and were limited "to such ele- 
mentary matters as all could understand." 
These reduced themselves to the name and 
location of the institution; the form of 
management; the class of inmates received; 
the census on January 1 and December 31, 
1904, together with the number admitted 
during the year; the number of paid em- 
ployes; the total cost of maintenance for 
the year 1903; the annual subsidies from 
public funds; and tne income from pay in- 
mates. By dint of much correspondence 
most of these facts were obtained from all 
but eighty-five of the institutions whose 
names were secured for the list, less than 
two per cent of the entire number, a grat- 
ifyingly small proportion. 

Twelve per cent of the 4,207 are super- 
vised and maintained by some branch of 
the government; fifty-six per cent are un- 
der the control of private corporations; and 
thirty-two per cent are managed, but not 
exclusively supported, by religious denomi- 
nations, orders, or groups of churches. 

The aggregate number of inmates, on the 
last day of 1904. not including the 156 
dispensaries and 166 day nurseries, was 284,- 
362. The number of persons for whom the 
institutions afford accommodation is not 
included, so that the relation between pos- 
sible numbers and the actual ones on these 
dates is not apparent. 

The population changes fastest in the 
temporary homes and hospitals and most 
slowly of all in the permanent homes for 
adults and is relatively stable also in the 
orphanages and schools for the deaf and 



blind. The ratio of -admissions during the 
year to number remaining on December 31 
is as follows: 

Temporary homes 35:1 

Hospitals 15 : 1 

Orphanages 10 : 13 

Schools for the deaf and blind 10:21 

Permanent homes 10 : 27 

The financial items were the hardest to 
get, because of reluctance to give the in- 
formation or inadequate records, or the dif- 
ficulty of translating the value of donations 
into dollars and, cents. The institutions 
from which financial statements are lack- 
ing are, however, among the smaller ones 
and the omissions do not seriously affect 
totals or proportions. The total cost of 
maintenance, as reported, was $55,577,633, 
which is estimated to be an understate- 
ment of not more than $500,000. Of this 
amount thirty-nine per cent was supplied 
from the public treasury, either in support 
of public institutions, or in subsidies to 
private ones, and the income from pay in- 
mates (part of which also came trom pub- 
lic treasuries) aggregated $14,848,508, 
twenty-seven per cent of the total cost, leav- 
ing only $18,897,624, or thirty-four per 
cent, which was met by private benevolence. 
The total cost of maintenance represents 
an average expenditure for the year of sev- 
enty cents on the part of each man, woman 
and child in the United States; but the part 
contributed by private benevolence required 
a per capita expenditure of only twenty-four 
cents. Subsidies are found in all the states 
and territories except Idaho, Nevada and 
Oklahoma, ranging in amount from three 
hundred dollars in Utah to over three mil- 
lion in New York, and from four- tenths of 
one per cent of the total cost of mainten- 
ance, in Utah, to 43.2 per cent in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, 27.8 per cent in Indian 
Territory and 27.4 in New York. The rel- 
ative expense of caring for the different 
classes of dependents may be judged 
roughly by the annual per capita cost, based 
on the number of inmates on December 31. 
In other words, the cost of 365 days' care 
for one person in the five classes of institu- 
tions is as follows: 

In hospitals $394.00 

In schools and homes for the deaf 

and blind 239.00 

In permanent homes 123.00 

In permanent homes for adults.... 119.00 
In orphanages and children's homes 109:00 

The hospitals are the most 
Hospitals. numerous group, numbering 

1,493, or 35 per cent of 
the 4,207 institutions. A comparison with 
the figures for 1890 shows a remarkable de- 
velopment in the hospital facilities and the 
use of hospitals. Over half of the 1,493 
have come into existence since 1890. The 
number of patients under treatment at the 
end of the year was over three times as 
great as fourteen years before. On Decern- 



490 



Charities and The Commons 



ber 31, 1904, one person out of each 1.115 
in the country was in one of these hospitals. 
In Nevada and Oklahoma there were none; 
in Indian Territory, South Carolina, and 
Missisippi the proportion was less than one 
to 10,000 of the population; in Iowa, one to 
2,700; in Illinois, about one to 1,000; in 
Massachusetts, one to 090; in New York, 
one to 500; and in New Mexico, one to 308. 
This does not mean that there is forty 
times as much illness in New Mexico as in 
South Carolina, twenty times as much in 
New York as in Alabama and twice as much 
as in Illinois. It does indicate, in a general 
way, the relative adequacy and popularity 
of hospital provision for the care of the 
eick. The large proportion of the total 
cost of maintenance covered by income from 
pay patients (43 per cent) would seem, at 
the first glance, to show that to just that ex- 
tent the work of these hospitals is not 
"benevolent." But while it is true that hos- 
pital care, both in these institutions and in 
others which could not in any sense be 
classed as benevolent, is more and more 
growing in favor with persons able to pay 
for medical treatment, these figures do not 
prove the fact, if, as Mr. Koren points out, 
"in general ... to a very large ex- 
tent the moneys ... do not repre- 
sent the personal contributions of the 
patients or their relatives and friends, 
but the amounts collected from the 
public authorities legally responsible for 
their support." Such amounts are income 
for pay patients and not subsidies when 
they are paid to public institutions, as in 
the case of a state sanatorium for consump- 
tives which receives reimbursement for 
each patient, at a certain rate, from the 
town or county sending the patient; but 
this is only a small amount, and it is diffi- 
cult to see what other sum of any import- 
ance collected from public authorities can 
be included under, income from pay inmates. 
The statement "just quoted implies that 
per capita payments by the city or county 
for the care of the dependents in private 
institutions are not classed as subsidies. In 
the case of New York, however, a compari- 
son of the census figures with the more de- 
tailed statements in the report of the State 
Board of Charities indicates that the item 
"income from pay inmates" in the census 
corresponds to the "amount received from 
individuals for the support of inmates" in 
the state board report, and that the sum 
received from cities or counties "for the 
support of inmates" is included with ' the 
"amount of annual subsidy from public 
funds." In the case of New York, there- 
fore, the moneys collected from pay inmates 
must, "to a very large extent," represent 
"personal contributions of the patients or 
their relatives and friends." Either thte 
statement on this point in the analysis re- 
quires modification or the definition of sub- 
sidy has not been uniform throughout the 
report. 



In Utah and Oregon the income from pay 
patients exceeded the cost of maintenance; 
in Indian Territory, Nebraska, North Da- 
kota, and Oklahoma, it amounted to over 
80 per cent of the cost; in nineteen states, 
to more than 50 per cent but less than 
80; and in the other 24, including Illinois, 
California and Minnesota, to less than 50. 
New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts and 
Ohio, come in this last group, with 29.0, 29.8, 
36, and 41.6 per cent respectively. A hos- 
pital may still deserve to be described as 
a "benevolent institution/' it is pointed 
out, even if it does receive income from pa- 
tients equal to, or exceeding its running ex- 
penses, because the plant was originally a 
gift, or because the services of pnysicians 
are given free of charge, or for some sim- 
ilar reason. 

Dispensaries are included in 
Dispensaries, the report, as "too conspicu- 
ous a part of the medical 
charity to be omitted," although they dif- 
fer from other institutions in the respect 
that the persons frequenting them are occa- 
sional visitors rather than inmates." The 
total number discovered, 156, is surprisingly 
small, until one realizes that the out-patient 
departments of hospitals are not included 
here, but only such dispensaries as are 
separate institutions. The figures for dis- 
pensaries, therefore, give no idea of the 
amount of medical care given in this way. 
How far short of it they fall is evident 
from the fact that the number of dis- 
pensaries for the state of New York is given 
as forty, while there were eighty-three in 
1903, according to the report of the State 
Board of Charities, if the out-patient de- 
partments be counted in. The expense of 
conducting aji out-patient (department is 
probably included in the financial statement 
for the hospital of which it is a part, but 
the number of patients apparently is not 
given at all. It is difficult to see why it 
would have been "misleading," as Mr. Ko- 
ren thought, to count out-patient depart- 
ments as separate institutions. Doubtless, 
it would in many instances have been impos- 
sible to get satisfactory separate informa- 
tion about them, but if it had been possible 
it would seem to have been desirable, in 
order that a complete view might have been 
presented of the extent to which medical care 
is provided for persons not requiring, oi- 
unwilling to have, hospital treatment. 

Orphanages and children's 
Children's homes form the most import- 
Institutions. ■ .. %, 

ant class, numerically, after 

hospitals. There were 1,075 of these, about 
one-fourth of all the institutions. They are 
an older form of benevolence than hospi- 
tals, 65 per cent of them having been in 
existence in 1890, in comparison with 45 per 
cent of the hospitals. The population had 
increased only 41 per cent, in comparison 
with 218 per cent in that of hospitals. 
Only Arizona, Idaho, and Wyoming are 
without an institution for children. Ne- 



Special Census Reports 



491 



vada's one benevolent institution is in this 
class; Illinois, Indiana, and Massachusetts 
have over fifty each; Pennsylvania, 94; 
Ohio, 105; and New York, 147. Neither the 
number of institutions in a state, nor ihe 
ratio of children cared for to the popula- 
tion of the state is any safe index to the 
proportion of dependent children or to the 
adequacy of the existing provision for them. 
The differences in these respects may indi- 
cate merely differences in methods of care. 
Lack of institutional provision may mean 
that the dependent children are still in the 
almshouses, or it may mean that the 
placing-out system is in favor. About 55 
per cent of all the children were boys, but in 
eighteen states the number of girls was in 
excess, generally because of the existence 
of large institutions solely for girls. The 
low per capita cost of maintaining children's 
homes is due in part to the receipt of many 
donations which materially lessen necessary 
expenditure but whose value cannot even be 
estimated. 

Twenty-two per cent of the cost of main- 
tenance was covered by subsidies, 53.6 per 
cent in California and 51.7 in New York. 
The million and a half provided in this way 
in New York was about 70 per cent of the 
total for the country. Schools for the deaf 
and blind are the only class receiving a 
larger percentage of their running expenses 
in subsidies from the puolic treasury. The 
sum given to hospitals was a little larger, 
but amounted to only 8 per cent of the 
total cost. The income from pay inmates, 
on the other hand, was sufficient to defray 
only about one-tenth of the cost of the chil- 
dren's institutions. It is not known how 
much of this comes from relatives and 
friends of the children, but it seems not 
unlikely that most of it may be from this 
source — from widowers able to pay some- 
thing for the board of their children, and 
from parents who put a child in an institu- 
tion because he is hard to manage, though 
not to the point of delinquency. 

The day nurseries number 166, sixty-two 
of them being in New York, and 113, over 
two-thirds, in Massachusetts, New Jersey, 
New York, and Pennsylvania. They are 
the most recent development of all the kinds 
of institutions considered, as only 39 per 
cent of them were in existence in 1890. They 
are confined almost exclusively to large 
cities and are not found at all in twenty- 
six states. 

Both the permanent homes 
H0 Ad e uits° r and tlie temporary homes, for 

adults, or adults and chil- 
dren, include a wide variety of institutions. 
In the former class are grouped homes for 
the aged who are able to pay an entrance 
fee, up to as much as $1,560; homes for the 
aged who are able to pay nothing; and a 
number of institutions which seem more 
closely allied to hospitals, homes for incur- 
ables, for cancer patients, for advanced 
cases of tuberculosis, and for epilepsy. 



There is reason for including such institu- 
tions in this class, 'since the idea of an 
asylum is more prominent in them than the 
idea of medical treatment, but inasmuch 
as they represent the provision for certain 
kinds of illness they seem to belong more 
naturally with the hospitals and dispensa- 
ries. There were 753 of these permanent 
homes, with a population, at the end of 1904, 
of 80,346 persons, 5,625 of them children. 
The men outnumbered the women by three 
to one, largely because of the Soldiers' 
Homes, but also because old women are 
more apt to be cared for by relatives than 
old men. - 

Some of the 449 temporary homes are 
"mere overnight shelters for wayfarers; 
others are in the nature of general rescue 
homes for all classes of unfortunates; still 
others have as their peculiar mission the 
reclamation of wayward girls and fallen 
women; some are on the border line be- 
tween rescue homes and lodging houses un- 
der benevolent auspices." Here, again, some 
institutions are found which might be looked 
for among hospitals — two or three camps 
for consumptives in the early stages, and 
all of the convalescent homes, and the homes 
for inebriates. 

The inmates on the first and last day of 
the year consisted of about 12,000 women, 
8,000 children, and 5,000 men. In the num- 
ber of admissions during the year, however, 
the men outnumbered the women by six to 
one. This is due to the influence of the 
semi-reformatory institutions for women, on 
the one hand, where the average stay is com- 
paratively long, and the lodging-houses for 
men, on the other, where the entire stay 
is frequently a single night. 

The schools and homes for the deaf and 
blind, the last and smallest class of institu- 
tions, numbered 115, of which 66 are sup- 
ported and managed by thirty-eight states. 
There were 14,731 pupPs in these schools 
at the end of 1904, 1,950 in New York, 1,162 
in Pennsylvania, 836 in Ohio, and 810 in 
Illinois. The relative stability of this pop- 
ulation is shown by the fact that only half 
as many were admitted during the year as 
were remaining in the institutions at the 
end of the year. Sixty-one of the institu- 
tions were for the deaf, thirty-nine for 
the blind, and fifteen for both. Arizona, 
Delaware, Idaho, Nevada, New Hampshire, 
New Mexico, Vermont, and Wyoming had 
no special provision for either class. 

Scope of We end wi t G a sense of dis- 
Government satisfaction, not with the way 
statistics. ^jg re port has been han- 
dled, but with the circumstances which de- 
termined its scope. It seems at least unfor- 
tunate that our statistics about charitable 
agencies are in so rudimentary a state that 
it is necessary to begin with a directory of 
the institutions themselves, resolutely put- 
ting aside all temptation to find out any- 
thing about the inmates, except whether 
they were men, women, or children. But 



492 



Charities and The Commons 



since this is the case we may congratulate 
ourselves that it has been recognized and 
that the fundamental work has been begun. 
It seems worse than unfortunate, in the 
view of social workers, that the collection 
of statistics about the special classes is 
limited by the Census Act to inmates of 
institutions. What we want to have is a 
complete survey of the dependent and de- 
linquent classes, and the ways in which 
they are taken care of, whether by pub- 
lic departments or private organizations, 
whether in institutions, or in their own 
homes, or in foster homes, or "boarded out." 
The number of institutions, and the number 
of children in them, is of little significance 
unless we may know also how many are 
under the charge of placing-out agencies, 
how many are in the almshouses, and even 
how many are kept out of institutions by 
help given to their families in their own 
homes. The extent of hospital provision, 
its cost and its character, is only one part, 
though the most important part, of the in- 
formation we need in order to form a judg- 
ment as to the adequacy of our provision 
for the sick. 

What we should like to know is the total 
number of persons in need of medical care 
which they cannot afford to provide for 
themselves; the kind of care they need, in a 
general way; how far existing provision 
meets these needs; where the worst defi- 
ciencies are; and the relative value of dif- 
ferent ways of meeting the same need. 
Similarly, in regard to children, we need 
information about the total number re- 
quiring to be provided for outside their own 
families, and facts about the various meth- 
ods in vogue that will enable us to judge, 
more definitely than we can now, as to their 
cost and results. Many of these things are 
impossible to find out and others are not 
within the scope of a government inquiry, 
but the fact remains that we should like to 
know them. 

An investigation into the total cost of 
caring for the different classes of depend- 
ents and delinquents, which is believed to 
be within the scope of the census bureau as 
defined by the present law, would be of 
practical value. The amendment that has 
been suggested to the present law (the act 



of March 6, 1902, establishing a permanent 
census bureau) would make possible further 
investigations which are most desirable. 
This amendment provides for a biennial re- 
port dealing with the movement of popula- 
tion in institutions, and it authorizes the 
enumeration, in restricted fireas, of de- 
pendent and delinquent classes outside in- 
stitutions, and inquiries into the work of 
charity organization societies and other 
benevolent associations which function as 
institutions, and of state and municipal de- 
partments which administer out-door relief. 
The former provision would ensure that 
the work done in this report of benevolent 
institutions should not be wasted, and the 
latter would give authority for the supple- 
mentary studies which are needed for their 
own sake and also to bring out the signifi- 
cance of the facts about institutions. It will 
be no easy task, after this amendment has 
been passed, to devise methods for obtain- 
ing the desired information from so hetero- 
geneous a body of organizations. It will be 
difficult, but not impossible, and the first 
step is to secure the necessary authoriza- 
tion to make the attempt 

In the case of these organizations, as in 
the case of the institutions, more can be 
done to improve their records by persistent, 
repeated inquiries for the same information 
from a department of the government than 
in any other way. It has repeatedly been 
demonstrated that a group of organizations 
can be brought to a certain degree of uni- 
formity in their reports by simply keep- 
ing at them, if there is some authority be- 
hind the inquiries. It does not seem unrea- 
sonable to hope that the census bureau, 
with the extensions of authority just indi- 
cated, may be able, in the course of a few 
aeons, to secure records susceptible of com- 
bination and comparison. 

The time will be long, at best, before we 
have the information about social condi- 
tions and social work which is indispensable 
to intelligent action, but it will be shortened 
if we can see clearly what the ideal is and 
can work consciously for it, and it is most 
encouraging that so good a beginning has 
at last been made on the part of the gov- 
ernment. 



THe Social Combat of Disease 

BOOHS BY 

JOHN BESSNER HUBER, M.D. PRINCE A. MORROW, M.D. 

ANTI-TUBERCULOSIS ADDRESSES 



CONSUMPTION AND CIVILIZATION" 

Reviewed by Christopher Easton 



This work, 1 though burdened by a too am- 
bitious title, is really a very valuable com- 
pilation of the facts of the present day anti- 
tuberculosis campaign in this and other 
countries. Indeed, it is a handbook, a some- 
what larger one than that published some 
time ago by the New York Charity Organi- 
zation Society and brought up to date, and 
will doubtless prove indispensable for the 
next five years to all engaged in the admin- 
istrative control of tuberculosis and the 
popular educational movement to combat it. 
The author has shown considerable skill in 
combining a multitude of quotations, para- 
phrases and original accounts of various ex- 
periments, statistical facts, and other data 
in such a way as to make a very readable 
book. The classification is quite an elaborate 
one — 15 parts, 87 chapters, 9 appendices, and 
an index. The order of treatment of the 
subject is the usual one — prevalence, preven- 
tion, cure. The classification is logical and 
detailed — perhaps too much so. It repre- 
sents the form of unity which the author has 
thrown over a mass of unrelated materials. 
In completeness, accuracy and fairness to 
those engaged in the movement this sum- 
mary of existing measures is an admirable 
one. The usefulness of such a compendium 
is, however, naturally limited to a term of 
years, for the anti-tuberculosis campaign is 
continually advancing, making use of new 
methods and better adapting old methods 
to its purposes. 

The personality of the author appears all 
through the book, making it unusually read- 
able for one of its kind. Each division 
and chapter is headed by a quotation from 
some great thinker, and binding, printing 
and illustrations all add to the general ap- 
pearance of the book. 

The preface states that the work is ad- 
dressed both to the physician and the lay- 
man, but we imagine that it will prove more 
valuable to the latter. Matters of a tech- 
nical nature are treated in the appendices. 
There is a medical resume at the close of 
the book, and the author throughout takes 
a very moderate position on disputed med- 
ical and sociological points, such as the 
influence of heredity, marriage of consump- 

Wonsumption ; Its Relation to Man and His Civi- 
lization; Its Prevention and Cure: John Bessner 
Huber. 536 pp. For price, see facing 449. 

493 



tives, infection from milk, use of drugs in 
treatment, the role of the general practi- 
tioner, and the extent of public hospital 
care. We especially recommend to the 
reader his treatment oi (Part 3) predispo- 
sitions to tuberculosis and (Part 5) the 
home. 

If any criticism is called for it is of the 
title. It is doubtful whether the facts as to 
the relation of consumption to human affairs 
through the centuries are sufficiently well 
known to make possible the writing by any- 
one of a treatise on consumption and civili- 
zation. Certainly the author has not done 
it in the two divisions of the book devoted 
to it; namely, Part 1, general consideration, 
and Part 15, sociological resume. The bulk 
of the book between these first and last 
parts is as above stated an account of the 
present anti-tuberculosis movement. In 
Part 1 the author attempts to show the in- 
fluence of the disease on human evolution 
and upon literature, the arts, etc. He is 
more successful in the latter undertaking 
than in the former, his philosophical reason- 
ing being somewhat obscure. In Part 15 
we have his summing up of the social situ- 
ation so far as tuberculosis is concerned. 
He shows an undoubted bias toward an indi- 
vidualistic conception of society. At the 
same time he fairly states that the socio- 
logical conclusions are his own opinions. 
Some of his statements are rather too sweep- 
ing — for example, "It is the Spirit of Christ 
which has been the supremest influence 
in shaping civilization during the twenty 
centuries past, a Spirit which has, on the 
whole, prevailed over all else that has been 
antagonistic to it." Also the following: "I 
discern with gratification that indiscriminate 
charity and other enervating factors have 
not altogether dissipated the integrity of the 
individual — absolutely the one and only 
force upon which civilization can be based. 
If the human unit be deteriorated it were 
vain indeed to expect alleviation of untoward 
conditions." 

His social idealism, which crops out at 
every hand, is clearly that of a by-gone 
stage of American civilization. He charges 
that much that is done for consumptives 
and all sick persons is paternalistic, sub- 
versive of the moral stamina of the indi- 
vidual, etc., etc. But a consideration of the 



494 



Charities and The Commons 



social effects of practical measures to eradi- 
cate tuberculosis must certainly go back to 
the social causes of the disease. We who 
are interested in tuberculosis work are not 
called on to decide whether the great social 
evil known as tuberculosis is one of the 
products of a disintegrating individualism 
or of an approaching paternalism. We know 
the problem is here, immense in its propor- 
tions and ghastly in the amount of suffering 
it entails, and it is our part to seek out 
and apply the best workable remedies. To 
be sure, Dr. Huber does, for the most part, 
seek out and apply the best workable reme- 
dies and support the main features of anti- 
tuberculosis work. His theories have not 
led him to oppose practical measures, and 



indeed he himself has played quite a part 
in active anti-tuberculosis work. Hence the 
lack of consistency between his sociological 
views and his sociological performance need 
not give any concern, and does not limit the 
value of his book. 

His analysis of antagonistic social and 
political factors strikes a truer note. Cor- 
rupt municipal politics, an unrighteous tar- 
iff, industrial monopolies, the lowering of 
business standards, grasping landlordism 
and the other factors bringing about an 
economic condition which he regards as the 
chief underlying cause of the plague — the 
effects of these things are well described 
and given due weight. 



SOCIAL DISEASES AND MARRIAGE' 

Reviewed by L. L. DocK 
Secretary International Council of Nurses 



If prevention is indeed better than cure — 
and if the social forces working for social 
betterment are seeking construction instead 
of reparative activities, then it must soon be 
recognized that the most urgently pressing 
and fundamental of all lines of prevention 
is the study and practice of child culture. 

As the study of the soil is to the culture 
of plants and flowers, so to the culture of 
the child is the study of reproduction in the 
human race. How mad would the agricul- 
turist be considered if he deliberately 
sowed among his young crops the seeds of 
deadly parasitic weeds and insects! How 
insane the rose-grower who introduced 
among his roses their most fatal enemies! 

This is what man does — man, the most in- 
tellectual and the most stupid of all created 
beings — man, the most educated and most 
ignorant product of nature — this is what he 
does to his most valuable crop — this is what 
he does to his children. 

It is high time that a book should have 
appeared, dealing, in plain and explicit 
terms — not too excessively technical for the 
intelligent lay reader and yet clothed in all 
the dignity of a noble science — with this 
most fundamental and most neglected study. 
Such a book is Dr. Morrow's Social Diseases 
and Marriage. 1 Is it not a striking evidence 
of the stupidity of popular ignorance upon 
this grave subject, that Dr. Morrow, before 
proceeding to show the immense and appall- 
ing extent of misery and suffering arising 
from venereal diseases, should say in his 
preface, 'At the pr'esent day an author in 
presenting a new work in any department of 
medicine may find himself embarrassed by 
the fact that the need of it is not apparent, 
in view of existing treatises on the same 

1 Social Diseases and Marriage, by Prince A. 
Morrow, M. D. 390 pp. For price, see facing 
page 449. 



subject. No such embarrassment confronts 
the author of a work on social disease and 
marriage. There is no comprehensive treat- 
ise in one language upon this subject which 
has such important interests from both a 
medical and social point of view." 

Syphilis and gonorrhoea have always been 
known to the medical profession, but within 
the past twenty-five years "there have been 
many important advances made in our 
knowledge of syphilis, especially of the late 
manifestations of hereditary syphilis, and 
the etiological relationship of this disease 
with a vast complexus of morbid conditions 
grouped under the general title of 'para- 
syphilitic' affections, which have served to 
emphasize its significance as a social dan- 
ger. 

"Twenty-five years ago the no less impor- 
tant relations of gonorrhoea with marriage 
were practically ignored. * * * With the 
discovery of the gonococcus and its identi- 
fication as the active pathogenetic agent in a 
large number of local, generalized infections, 
the field of its morbid phenomena has been 
greatly amplified. 

"Within the past two decades no coccus 
has so grown in significance * * * as 
the coccus of Neisser. Of especial interest 
in connection with the objects of this study 
is the important role of the gonococcus in 
determining serious pelvic disease in women. 
Modern science has taught us that in view 
of its extensive prevalence, its conservation 
of virulence, after apparent cure, and its 
tendency to invade the uterus and annexial 
organs, with results often dangerous to life 
and destructive to the reproductive capacity 
of the woman, gonorrhoea overshadows syph- 
ilis in importance as a social peril." 

With this prelude Dr. Morrow introduces 
his study of marriage and venereal diseases, 
in which, with the utmost earnestness, im- 



The National Tuberculosis Movement 



495 



pressive scientific accuracy and high ethical 
purpose, he proceeds to detail with every 
support of contemporary technical study, sta- 
tistical exactitude, and the experience of a 
master, all the phases of social contamina- 
tion from this source, its meaning in the 
study of child culture and the possibilities of 
prophylaxis. 

"It is no exaggeration," he declares, "to 
state that every year in this country thou- 
sands of men carry to the marriage bed the 
germs of disease destined to wreck the 
health and lives of their wives and children. 

"It is not because men are so lacking in 
conscience or sensibility that they perpetrate 
these crimes against the women they have 
vowed to love, cherish and protect; it is 
largely from ignorance, from false and er- 
roneous ideas of the dangerous nature and 
far-reaching consequences of their disease — 
and for which the medical profession is in 
some degree responsible." 

We will not attempt in this brief review 
to summarize the studies of Dr. Morrow in 
his Part I., gonorrhoea and marriage, and 
Part II., syphilis and marriage, for it would 
indeed be impossible to do so; they must 
be read in their entirety, pondered, and so 
converted into impulse to wise and rational 
reformation. His Part III., dealing with so- 
cial prophylaxis, educational measures, ad- 
ministrative measures and sanitary meas- 
ures, is of especial interest to us from our 
concern in the social well-being. 

With the unerring keen edge of the sur- 
geon's knife, Dr. Morrow lays bare the "con- 
spiracy of silence" on the part of the public 
press, the clergy, and public educators in re- 
lation to these diseases — the cowardly and 
supine attitude of parents; the indifference 
of society; the survival of the old conception 
of the moral etiology of disease; the debased 



and hypocritical petition of respectable wo- 
men, who, tacitly upholding the double stan- 
dard of morals, "open the doors to the char- 
tered libertine but bar and bolt them against 
his victim." 

For the correction of this evil, he says, so- 
ciety has at least one powerful weapon — so- 
cial ostracism of the libertine. But his best 
hope is in educational measures, — by hygien- 
ic education, and moral education, fearless- 
ly, openly, candidly, and most seriously car- 
ried on. 

Administrative measures are more indirect 
than direct. The regulation of N vice by the 
state is useless, because it does not segregate 
the male prostitute. The harsh measures 
of older codes are vain — but the state "can 
establish more stringent laws for safeguard- 
ing minors by raising the age of legal con- 
sent. It can, by contributing to the better 
housing of the poor, by preventing promis- 
cuity of occupation of young men and young 
women in factories and workshops, and by 
establishing reformatories and homes for the 
rescue and restoration to honorable life of 
fallen women, accomplish a vast deal * * 
*. It can repress, or rather suppress char- 
latanism, which scatters broadcast its de- 
ceptive literature." 

Dr. Morrow is also of the opinion that the 
state may demand as a preliminary condi- 
tion to granting a marriage license a medi- 
cal certificate that both parties are free from 
any contagious sexual disease, and also that 
it may impose a civil and penal responsibil- 
ity for the transmission of venereal disease 
in marriage. Such a law exists in several 
European countries. He would, moreover, 
greatly extend the present powers and pres- 
ent activities of health boards in relation to 
venereal diseases. 



THE NATIONAL TUBERCULOSIS MOVEMENT 1 



The size of the volume incorporating the 
proceedings of its first annual meeting sug- 
gests that the National Association for the 
Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis was 
not organized prematurely. It required 
eighty-two cubic inches of paper, split up 
into 448 pages, covered with something like 
150,000 words, to record what was ready to 
be given to the public before the Associa- 
tion had been in active operation six months. 
Evidently a very considerable amount of 
study had been going on and would have 
continued to go on if no society had been 
formed for the purpose of stimulating it, 
and the most important function of the Na- 
tional Association, in relation to the first 
object stated in its title, is to act as a me- 
dium through which the results of this 
study may reach a wider audience and may 

transactions of the First Two Annual Meetings 
of the National Association for the Study and 
Prevention of Tuberculosis. 



be more quickly applied to the work of pre- 
vention. The Association will also serve, 
through the opportunities for conference 
which it affords, to influence the direction 
which study will take. 

At first glance it seems that the bulk 
of the volume is taken up with papers of 
a scientific and technical character adapted 
only to the professional medical mind. The 
proceedings of the two general meetings and 
of the sociological section occupy less than 
a quarter of the book, while the papers pre- 
sented at the pathological and bacteriologi- 
cal section fill 122 pages, and those at the 
clinicial and climatological section nearly 
two hundred. The impression given by the 
first glance is, however, corrected by a lit- 
tle further scrutiny. The table of contents 
shows that practically all of the discussion 
in the last-mentioned section is of interest 
to laymen as well as to physicians. A lay- 
man can appreciate the desirability of uni- 



496 



Charities and The Commons 



formity in nomenclature, though he is not 
qualified to advise about it. He feels the 
need for a definition of "incipient" though 
he could not decide where to draw the line. 
He is not competent to decide, unaided, what 
facts should be embodied in an educational 
leaflet, but he may have had experiences 
that would make his help most valuable in 
finding the best way to state the facts fur- 
nished by physicians. The other papers 
in this section deal with experience 
in treatment in various places and un- 
der various circumstances, the influence 
of climate, the effect of tuberculous patients 
on the community to which they go in 
search of health, the necessity for detention 
institutions for certain kinds of patients, 
and similar subjects, all of which are of in- 
terest to the layman, and on which it is 
desirable that he should be more or less in- 
formed. 

The subjects of the papers in the patho- 
logical and bacteriological section, as they 
are stated in the table of contents, are 
somewhat forbidding, but the papers them- 
selves prove to be intelligible to the lay 
mind. The researches for some means of 
producing immunity against tuberculosis are 
perhaps the most attractive to non-profes- 
sionals interested in the work of prevention, 
and the results reported seem to be encour- 
aging. It is easy to believe that there was 
ample justification for the general opinion 
expressed at the time, that the papers in 
this section "established the standing of 
the scientific work which is being done in 
America on this subject." 

A general account of the meeting, the 
happy auspices under which it opened, the 
enthusiasm which attended it, and the pro- 
gram of the sessions in detail was given 
to readers of Charities at the time. Dr. 
Trudeau's presidential address; the plea of 
Mr. Folks, as chairman of the sociological 
section, for adequate expenditures in doing 
what we know ought to be done if we are 
to deal effectively with the tuberculosis 
problem; and the practical working pro- 
gram, outlined by Mr. Devine, for the guid- 
ance of organizations for the prevention of 
tuberculosis appeared in full in the issue of 
June 3, 1905. The other two subjects on 
the program of the sociological section were 
concerned with details of the work of cure 
and of prevention. William H. Baldwin, of 
Washington, .reviewed the progress that 
America has made, especially in the last few 
years, in providing sanatorium care for the 
cure of consumptives; and Dr. Bracken's 
paper, discussed by representatives of the 
Pullman Company and important railroads, 
considered the "real but unnecessary dan- 
ger" of tubercular infection which exists in 
public conveyances. 

The proceedings of the 1906 meeting, held 
in Washington again in the middle of May, 
are almost ready for the public. It seems 



probable, from the six hundred and more 
pages of proof-sheets before us, that this 
volume may exceed the first one in cubic 
contents. It is at least equal in interest. 

At the second meeting two new sections 
were introduced, one on surgery and one on 
tuberculosis in children, and the three 
original ones were continued. The papers 
presented in the Sociological Section have 
been reviewed in Chabities and The Com- 
mons at some length (June 23, 1906). The 
general opening meeting was a joint ses- 
sion of the National Association with the 
Association of American Physicians. The 
papers that evening were a vice-presidential 
address by Dr. Lawrence F. Flick, in the 
absence of the president, Dr. Biggs, and a 
learned discussion, by Dr. Simon Flexner, 
of New York, on immunity in tuberculosis. 
Dr. Flexner reviewed the progress that has 
been made in "knowledge of the principles 
of bacterial immunity," which he ranks with 
"efficient efforts at suppression of the 
causes" of tuberculosis. Dr. Flick outlined 
the work of the National Association dur- 
ing the year, speaking especially of the 
plans that were being made for the meet- 
ing of the International Congress for the 
Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis in 
1908, the inauguration of tuberculosis exhi- 
bitions in the large cities of the country, 
and the creation of an advisory council of 
the association. Through the advisory 
council, which held its first meeting the 
next day, it is hoped to bring into closer 
relations not only societies working for 
prevention, but also hospitals and sanatoria 
and boards of health. From a statement of 
the work which the National Association 
has before it, Dr. Flick turned to the ques- 
tion of how it is "equipped to carry out 
this great program," answering this ques- 
tion by an analysis of the membership roll. 
Sixty-six per cent of the members he found 
to be physicians, five per cent women, two 
per cent college professors, and one per 
cent clergymen. The necessity for enlist- 
ing the interest of the clergy, the lawyers 
and judges, the bankers, merchants and 
manufacturers, and, to put it briefly, of ev- 
ery woman and man of any influence, in the 
work of the Association, was forcefully ex- 
pressed. 

These two volumes are of much value to 
the social worker, for they contain state- 
ments by the highest authorities on many 
phases of the subject. If the promise of 
the first two meetings is fulfilled the 
series of reports of the Association's meet- 
ings will, in the course of a few years, con- 
stitute the standard work of reference in 
regard to what is being done in America 
both in scientific research and in applica- 
tion of our knowledge to social measures 
for diminishing the prevalence of tubercu- 
losis. 



Practical PKilantKropy 



BOOftS BY 



JOHN SPARGO 

RUSSELL H. CHITTENDEN 

HORACE FLETCHER 

E. WADE, COOK 

WASHINGTON GLADDEN 



CHARLES SPRAGUE SMITH 
ELSA G. HERZFELD 
ELLEN H. RICHARDS 
LUCY L. SALMON 
MARY A. CONYNGTON I 



THE BITTER CRY OF THE CHILDREN 

Reviewed by Mary "Willcox Glenn. 

Baltimore 



Of the Bitter Cry of the Children 1 it may 
be said, as was said by Canon Scott Hol- 
land of another book which was born of the 
perplexity of the social problem, that "It 
has been wrung at white heat out of the 
furnace of pity." The intensity of the feel- 
ing that underlies the Bitter Cry of the Chil- 
dren commands our sympathy with the au- 
thor and with the unfortunate little ones 
whom he brings in such appalling array be- 
fore us. It is well that the subject should 
be put before the reading public in its full- 
ness, that the public should be spared no 
detail, that it should be forced to realize 
how through sheer ignorance there is con- 
summated an appalling sacrifice of child 
life. 

But does Mr. Spargo's method of present- 
ing the appalling subject "mark the begin- 
ning of an epoch of deeper study and of 
sounder philanthropy?" Doubtless in a 
later edition Mr. Spargo will drop the final 
chapter, "Blossoms and Babies," which is an 
exotic and, because of its foreigness, cheap- 
ens the book as a whole. The special point 
made in that final chapter, the futility of 
charitable activity based on an ignorance of 
actual conditions, is as timely now as it was 
when many years ago the sanest of philan- 
thropic workers warned against "superficial- 
izing over a whole city." But fine writing 
will not educate the superficial. Literature 
makes strange yoke fellows. The possibil- 
ity of incompatible union is driven home 
in this work by the juxtaposition of meta- 
phor and reference to blue book authorities; 
by statistical deductions based on an elabor- 
ate system of conjecture and on the cita- 
tion of figures taken from governmental 
reports; by "quotations from a newspaper re- 
port of an interview", from Aristotle and 
from C. Hanford Henderson. 

One cannot lay too great emphasis on the 

(*) The Bitter Cry of the Children, by John Spargo; 
with introduction by Robert Hunter. For price, 
see facing, p. 449. 

497 



need of getting at the actual status of the 
children of our country. The regulation 
of mid-wife practice, the causes of infant 
mortality, the regulation of the milk supply 
of cities, the result of allowing mothers to 
be withdrawn from being the home makers 
to become the bread-winners, the actual de- 
gree of failure of our public school system 
to reach the minds because of the ill-nour- 
ished bodies of the children, the waste of 
prospective ability due to immature labor, 
these are burning and compelling questions 
which must be carefully studied so that we 
may have reliable answers. The effort that 
is being made at the instigation of the Na- 
tional Child Labor Committee to have Con- 
gress establish a national children's bu- 
reau should be sustained by every thought- 
ful person who has come to realize through 
practical experience the meagreness of the 
data we hold; but is our sum of knowledge 
enlarged or enriched by such leaps at fig- 
ures as are made in the following quotations? 

"If we make an arbitrary allowance of 20 
per cent, to account for the slight improve- 
ment shown by the death-rates and for other 
differences, and regard 30 per cent of the 
infantile death rate as being due to socially 
preventable causes, instead of 50 per cent, 
as in the case of England, we have an ap- 
palling total of more than 95,000 unnec- 
essary deaths in a single year. And of 
those socially preventable causes there 
can be no doubt that the various phases of 
poverty represent fully 85 per cent, giv- 
ing an annual sacrifice to poverty of prac- 
tically 80,000 baby lives" (p. 13). 

And later (p. 52) : 

"Six physicians of large obstetrical expe- 
rience were asked to estimate what percent- 
age of the still born should ue ascribed to 
the influence of poverty, and the average of 
their replies was 60 per cent. That may be 
an over-estimate, or it may be, and prob- 
ably is, an under-estimate. * * * It means 
that to the 80,000 babies annually devoured 



498 



Charities and The Commons 



by the wolf of poverty must be added 
another 45,000 killed by the same cruel foe 
in the passage of the race from the womb 
of dependence to a separate existence." 

And p. 545: 

"I am convinced that the number of chil- 
dren under fifteen years of age who work is 
much larger than the official figures (1,752,- 
187) give, notwithstanding that these are 
supposed to give the number of all workers 
under sixteen years of age. It would, I 
think, be quite within the mark to say that 
the number of child workers under fifteen 
is at least 2,250,000." 

Mr. Spargo cites frequently the work of 
the British Interdepartmental Committee on 
Physical Deterioration, and it is encourag- 
ing to have our attention called to the fact 
brought out by that committee that poor 
and rich get an equal start in life, that the 
"poorest and most ill-nurtured women bring 
forth as hale and strong-looking babies as 
those in the very best conditions." (*) But 
in citing the evidence of the committee, em- 
phasis is not laid by our author on the fact 
that what is "characteristic of the evidence 
as a whole is that hardly any proposition is 
advanced for which a direct contradiction 
may not be found under the evidence of 
some other witness, often quite as well 
qualified apparently to judge" 2 and that 
the causes assigned by witnesses for the 
unfitness due to physical deterioration in- 
clude such variants as "emigration, compul- 
sory education, overcrowding, substitution 
of Indian for China tea, urbanization, bad 
conditions of life in country, ignorance and 
selfishness of women, drink." A conse- 
quence of the investigation made by the In- 
ter-departmental Committee was to lay spe- 
cial emphasis on the physical needs of 
people to the exclusion of a consideration 
of their moral needs, and a similar dispo- 
sition strikes one forcibly in The Bitter Cry 
of the Children. The Bishop of Ross in 
his testimony before the Inter-departmental 
Committee emphasized one point of view 
when he said, "I attach so much importance 
to the moral features — the character of 
the child — the sense of self-respect, the 
sense of self-reliance, and all those other 
virtues, that I really think I would prefer 
physical hardship and cruelty on the one 
hand by having them hungry, rather than 
demoralizing them on the other. * * * Even 
physical death might be preferable to moral 
degeneracy, at least looking at it from a 
high point of view." 

The question to ask in reading Mr. 
Spargo's list of suggested remedies is, do 
such remedies "shift the centre of interest 
away from the family where alone the child 
has its roots of life and growth, to a parade 
ground where the basis of treatment is the 
physical need?" Is there no other way of 
overcoming the evils of ignorance than by 
shifting upon the municipality the task of 
catering to the needs of the body? Are we 
right in getting away from the benef that 
"systematic provision for" childhood or 

1 Dr. Eichholz. 

2 Mrs. Bernard Bosanquet. 



"age in any land is tantamount to a syste- 
matic hostility against its virtues, both of 
prudence and of natural piety?" x The 
obviously easy way to meet the hard fact of 
children's being under nourished is for the 
public to provide nourishing food, but along 
with evidence favoring such a measure 
comes the testimony of some teachers who 
say, as did some of those in the West Ham 
District before the Inter-departmental Com- 
mittee, "that in some of the schools which 
got relief the parents have never taken so 
much interest in their children since." Can 
we shift from the home the burden of car- 
ing for the children in infancy and child- 
hood, and then expect the adults, reared un- 
der a regime of municipal creches and 
school meals, to feel the responsibility of 
making the family the basis of the nation's 
truest development? 

Social education is our task. How it may, 
in the truest and broadest sense, be achieved, 
is not to our mind contained in the remedies 
suggested. We do not acknowledge that 
there is "no escape from the blight and curse 
of pauperism unless the nation, pursuing a 
policy of enlightened self-interest and pro- 
tection, decides to save the children" by a 
system of municipal maintenance. There 
is naivete in the statement that (p. 249), 

"It is a mocking judgment of our civili- 
zation that such a natural, intelligent solu- 
tion of a pressing problem should be impos- 
sible for our greatest and richest cities, 
though attained by a little Italian city like 
Vercelli." 

No spirit less commands our respect than 
a narrow-minded determination to reject 
any scheme that bears the hall mark for- 
eign, but no policy can be more short-sighted 
than to adopt schemes, which, while prac- 
ticable in another community because of its 
homogeneity, its highly organized bureau- 
cracy, or because of the well-recognized pa- 
ternal attitude of its government, could be 
grafted on our heterogeneous democracy only 
at a great national cost. 

"The offering of state pensions for child- 
hood and youth as well as old age" is no- 
where advanced beyond the period of trial, 
because the period of trial must be long 
enough to determine what is the real ef- 
fect on national character of the systems 
inaugurated. The fact that with apparent 
success schemes have been iaugurated in 
Norway, Denmark, Germany, and other for- 
eign countries is no criterion that they 
would fit our Anglo-Saxon stock with its 
intermixture of other races, nor even that 
ultimately such remedial measures will be 
found to offer the solution of the problem 
in the countries now favored by their use. 

Because we acknowledge the truism that 
the "problem of the child is the problem 
of the race," we would urge that to the 
solution of the problem be brought a method 
of consideration that is not only red hot 
with zeal and tinged with deep sympathy, 
but alive to the fact that thorough scientific 
investigation is the only proper basis for 
framing social theories. 

Thomas Chalmers. 



FOUR BOOI1S ON SOCIAL BETTERMENT' 

Reviewed by "W. B. GxatHrie 
College of the City of New Yorh 



There are certain dominant ideas discov- 
erable in the recent writings 1 on social prob- 
lems not exactly new, but receiving an 
emphasis not before given them. One 
is the idea of careful quarantine against 
both moral, social and physical evil. 
This isolation is urged, but along with 
this is set forth the need there is to isolate 
in such manner as not to desocialize and 
embitter those who are thus treated. An- 
other dominant notion is how to regain best 
the social "wreckage" and turn it again 
into channels of social usefulness. The doc- 
trine of the importance of the child and of 
the growing value of children, in view of 
the changing sources from which our popu- 
lation comes, also receives its due share of 
attention. If "race suicide" is to mark the 
practice of the better situated part of the 
population and the stream of future increase 
is to come from elsewhere, then, surely, re- 
formers must look very thoughtfully at the 
conditions of poverty. 

Fletcher: That Last Waif, by Mr. 

"Social Fletcher, is one of a series 

Quarantine." he nas put Qut ag the A 

B. C. Life Series. In this series ap- 
pears his A. B. C. of Our Own Nu- 
trition, The New Menticulture, etc. The 
writer especially emphasizes the demand 
for a better protection and care of 
childhood. As children become scarcer, and 
as many homes have none, it is incumbent 
that conditions be guarded, lest a lower 
type of child survive. When there is 
in cities such a democracy in child- 
hood, it is to the interest of rich as well as 
poor that the condition of the less- 
advantaged class be improved. The author, 
optimistically, sees in such institutions as 
the day nursery, kindergarten, Salvation 
Army and the like, redemptive forces com- 
petent to reclaim ninety-eight per cent of 
the children apparently doomed to go with 
the "submerged tenth." Into such "wreck- 
age" saving business society can surely en- 
ter more extensively and with great profit. 
The possibilities of social quarantine have 
been much enlarged. 

An interesting chapter has to do with the 
"quarantine against idleness," and there is 
a chapter of suggestions for local quarantine 
organization. The book as a whole is stimu- 
lating. 

*That Last Wolf; or, Social Quarantine: Horace 
Fletcher; 260 pp. 

Betterment, Individual, Social and Industrial; 
E. Wade Cook ; 249 pp. 

Christianity and Socialism; Washington Gladden; 
244 pp. 

Working with the People; Charles Spraerue 
Smith; 161 pp. 
For price, see facing page 449. 

499 



The book on Betterment, by 
"Betterment." Mr. Cook, was, introduced to 
the author, largely inspired by 
the writings of Mr. Fletcher. Industrial facts 
are treated not from the viewpoint of arm- 
chair theorists, but rather from that of prac- 
tical men. The line of thought so much 
emphasized in the book just reviewed is here 
followed. The first part of the oook deals 
with social betterment from the standpoint 
of economy; when altruism can be shown 
to pay, then it will require no preaching. 
Much of the work is devoted to the better- 
ment of the individual; good food in proper 
quantities; thorough mastication and suffi- 
cient exercise. The point is made and sus- 
tained by considerable apparently valid evi- 
dence that people overfeed. The poor might 
be able to live very well on the amount of 
food they have, according to this rather 
naive theory. 

The most interesting chapters deal with 
the attempts large firms have made to im- 
prove the conditions of their employes. Of 
these the one dwelt on is the National Cash 
Register Company at Dayton, Ohio. 

Part III opens with a tribute to Robert 
Owen as the "father of welfare work." 
Emphasis is placed upon the function of 
the forewoman in factories where girls are 
employed. Such persons by kindness and 
tact may do very much to help the girls 
maintain their womanly qualities. 

Smith: As a democratic agency for 

"Working with social improvement and indi- 
the People." v idual culture the People's In- 
stitute of New York is described in an 
interesting little volume, Working with the 
People, by Charles Sprague Smith. Co- 
ordinate with efforts toward a direct better- 
ment of the material conditions come at- 
tempts to raise moral and intellectual stand- 
ards. The Institute is succinctly described 
as follows: "The Institute is to-day a free 
evening school for adults in social science, 
providing also instruction through lectures 
in other departments of knowledge, a forum 
for the discussion and voting upon ques- 
tions of the day, with direct influence upon 
legislation; a people's church; a fosterer 
of people's clubs through alliance with 
another organization; a people's hall of 
music. The very marked interest of work- 
ing people in social problems is pointed out 
as well as the almost uniformly good order 
maintained when even such heated dis- 
cussions as those invoked by socialist ad- 
vocates are indulged. As illustrative of 
the influence of the Institute is described 
the very active part it took in starting and 
helping to carry on that movement which 
in 1899 defeated the plan to have the sub- 
way franchise go into private hands and 



5oo 



Charities and The Commons 



secured it to the city. The book should be 
a stimulus to similar efforts in other large 
centers of population. Especially note- 
worthy are the characteristics pointed out 
as descriptive of progressive democracy. 

Gladden: An inspiring series of lectures 
" Chr and anlty delivered in 1905 by the Rev. 
Socialism." Washington Gladden have 
been published under the title Christianity 
and Socialism. In contrast to books that 
might be cited dealing with this theme, this 
book "has something to say about Socialism 
and much about Christianity." The first lec- 
ture deals with the sermon on the mount as 
the "magna charta of Christianity." In these 
teachings the author sees the basis for social 
reconstruction. They are addressed to indi- 
viduals, but to individuals as members of 
society. The "sermon" is analyzed, and its 
demands on personal culture and character 
are made clear. An optimistic tone per- 
vades these lectures, and the possibility of 
realizing that individual and social perfec- 
tion revealed in the Gospels, is urged. The 
principle of the Fatherhood of God is ad- 



vanced as the foundation of social order and 
harmony. 

In the chapter on socialism, socialism of a 
moderate type is denned as "municipaliza- 
tion of capital." The non-agreement of so- 
cialists as to a method of distribution is 
held up. What Schaffle and others have 
clearly seen and pointed out as the chief 
obstacles to acommunistic form of society, 
are here emphasized. Mr. Gladden assumes 
that there is a "true socialism." The 
feeling of protest shared by socialists 
is, he points out, becoming very general; 
the means of meeting the new problems are 
not so certain. "True socialism" starts out 
from the proposition that all the work we 
do is a social function. The "true socialist" 
is one who never forgets that he is a mem- 
ber of society and has social duties. The 
author makes a vigorous assault upon the 
old classical doctrine of Laissez faire and 
individualism. "It has been the maggot in 
the brain of the last century that has 
wrought the social madness which now dis- 
turbs our peace." "True socialism" teaches 
that it is every man's duty to help improve 
social conditions. 



PHYSICAL ECONOMY IN NUTRITION 



>eviewe 



d by Edward T. D 



evine 



As a result of Professor Chittenden's ex- 
periments we know to a certainty that it is 
possible to live and to do good work on much 
less food than we now consume. United 
States soldiers, college athletes and univer- 
sity instructors shared in the demonstration, 
submitting for protracted periods to a dis- 
cipline of restricted diet while undergoing 
rather more than their accustomed physical 
or mental strain. 

Disregarding minor exceptions and qual- 
ifications, all of which are set forth in the 
volume with candor and apparent accuracy, 
the large fact stands forth that nearly all 
those who tried this experiment of greatly 
reducing their consumption of food became 
physically stronger, improved in health and 
spirits, did more and better work and after 
a brief period for the necessary readjust- 
ment of appetite enjoyed their meals and 
found the quantity sufficient to satisfy hun- 
ger. 

These men did not become vegetarians, or 
fruitarians, or follow any other kind of rig- 
idly prescribed diet. For the most part they 
ate whatever they liked and they liked a 
variety of things. They did not necessarily 
masticate their food excessively, although 
they probably did less bolting than the aver- 
age unregenerate frequenter of the lunch 
counter, and they doubtless rejected some 
kinds of food which have much bulk and 

1 Physical Economy in Nutrition, by Russell H. 
Chittenden. Pp. 612. For price, see facing page 
449. 



little nourishment. Of course other experi- 
ments on a vastly larger scale will be essen- 
tial before the world will be fully convinced. 

It is susceptible of easy demonstration 
aside from experiment, that if the bodily 
waste can be replaced, the loss repaired and 
growth maintained with less food than we 
now eat, it will be to our advantage not to 
put the extra burden upon the digestive and 
assimilative apparatus. Disease and phy- 
sical disorder inevitably result from over- 
crowding the alimentary canal. The extra 
and unnecessary strain on stomach, kidneys 
and other organs is responsible for many a 
breakdown which is mistakenly attributed 
to overwork or to a mysterious visitation 
of providence. 

This reform — a reduction in the quantity 
of food consumed — is one which must begin 
with the well-to-do. Paradoxical as it seems, 
the wage-earners who have least to spare for 
superfluous food can least afford to lower 
their standards in this respect. Any gospel 
of cheaper diet, if carried first to the poor 
man, will encounter hostility and suspicion 
on the ground that it is aimed to lower the 
cost of living and thus make lower wages 
possible. After those whose position is 
more assured have come not only to eat less, 
but to spend less on their food, it may be- 
come possible to advocate with effect among 
wage-earners the reform which will save 
them both needless expenditure and needless 
physical injury. 

In this connection the query naturally 



Family Monographs 



5° i 



arises whether even the "under fed" are as 
badly off as according to our ordinary ideas 
and standards they might be expected to be. 
Starvation, mal-nutrition, and real under- 
feeding are certainly very serious evils, but 
it is by no means certain that their counter- 
parts, over-feeding, stuffing at all hours with 
things unfit for food and the taking of stim- 
ulants and narcotics, are not even in the 
tenements more frequent evils. Of course, 



the one does not counteract the other as 
both are not found in the same individual, 
and to allege the one does not disprove the 
existence of the other. Rational feeding 
is the remedy for both over-feeding and un- 
der-feeding; and this means education and 
in some instances an increase of income. 
The service rendered to mankind by the 
author of this volume cannot yet be calcu- 
lated but it is certainly very great. 



FAMILY MONOGRAPHS " 



The little volume of Family Monographs? 
by Elsa G. Herzfeld, is a contribution 
to sociological literature by a pupil of Mrs. 
Parsons at Barnard College, a pupil who, 
her teacher says, "gave more time and en- 
ergy to her investigations than the aver- 
age student" and "was likewise an excep- 
tionally competent observer and recorder." 

The object of Miss Herzfeld's studies was 
"to throw light on the family of the New 
York tenement-house dweller." The meth- 
od adopted was to get an introduction, as 
a penny provident collector for Hartley 
House, to twenty-four families living in the 
middle west side of the city, and then to 
pursue the acquaintance for several months 
or a year, endeavoring to get a clear and 
accurate conception of the family's domes- 
tic economy, but with a special interest in 
psychological characteristics. 

At the start Miss Herzfeld states that 
"the majority of the families studied are 
fairly typical of the German and Irish, for- 
eign and native-born, tenement-house pop- 
ulation of New York." How she knows 
they are "typical" is not explained. Similar- 
ly, the generalizations in the first fifty 
pages are, to the extent that they are gen- 
eralizations, open to criticism. But taken 
as an assemblage of related incidents, in- 
stead of statements of general truths, they 
are interesting and valuable. 

About two-thirds of the 150 pages is taken 
up with the monographs themselves, rang- 
ing in length from one to eight pages, each 
one giving the main facts in the history and 
all sorts of interesting facts about the fam- 
ily. Apparently no effort was made to dis- 
criminate between characteristics and be- 
liefs peculiar to tenement-house families 
and those that are to be found in all eco- 
nomic grades, between conditions which 
merely impress an observer unaccustomed 
to life among the poor as exceptional to the 
neighborhood and those which really are 
exceptional. Bad taste in furniture, dress, 
reading, and amusements are not confined 

^Family Monographs, by Elsa G. Herzfeld, with 
an introduction by Elsie Clews Parsons. 150 pp. 
For price, see facing page 449. 



to incomes of six hundred dollars a year; 
many of the superstitions and customs 
observed in the tenements may be found 
in private houses; the tenement-house girl 
and boy use one kind of slang, but the col- 
lege girl and boy use another kind. 

On the whole, the account of the district 
may truly be called a "live" one. Many 
such homes are to be seen, just such or- 
naments can be found. The love of music 
is most real. The kindness and generosity 
of the poor could hardly be overestimated. 
Here and there, however, will be seen signs 
of a little better taste, and perhaps a rather 
exaggerated effect is produced on the read- 
er's mind. A visitor of at least equal ex- 
perience and acquaintance with the district 
feels that there are many conclusions from 
which she would have to dissent. The 
budget and the apartment given as examples 
of the conditions in an average home would 
hardly strike all in this light. It was un- 
fortunate, to say the least, to present such 
an untidy home as the type. 

It is well to emphasize the fact that Fam- 
ily 'Monographs relates to a few families 
only, and while one may gain certain gen- 
eral ideas about New York tenement-house 
dwellers, too many large or comprehensive 
deductions may not fairly be drawn. While 
many lives in this great city are just as 
narrow, there is another and a brighter 
side to tenement-house life. Many, indeed, 
are the homes to be found in the cramped 
quarters of our most congested districts, 
where a sane and orderly life exists, where 
true happiness is to be found in the midst 
of a struggle with poverty, and where the 
wife and mother does not regret her mar- 
riage day. 

The monograph method has not, certainly, 
been "fully exploited." It has hardly even 
been tried in America. There can be no 
doubt that if a large number of observers 
as painstaking as Miss Herzfeld would col- 
lect material as she has done, their results 
would constitute a valuable addition to our 
knowledge of social facts. Its practical 
value would depend on how the material is 
used. 



TWO BOOKS ON THE ECONOMY OF THE HOME 



4 An evidence of the interest now cen- 
tering in how we all live and how much it 
costs us to live as we do and whether it 
ought to cost as much as it does and 
whether we live as we ought, and many- 
other related questions, is given by two 
little books that have recently been pub- 
lished. Ellen H. Richards, instructor in 
sanitary chemistry in the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, gives us the third 
edition, enlarged, of her The Cost of Living 
as Modified by Sanitary Science, which first 
appeared about six years ago; and Lucy 
Maynard Salmon, professor of history and 
economics in Vassar College, has assembled 
nine of her articles from the journals in 
which they originally appeared and grouped 
them under the title Progress in the House- 
hold. 

The ideas underlying both these volumes 
are that the standard of living can be raised 
by improvements in methods of consump- 
tion and in organization of the household as 
well as by an increase in income, and that 
woman, as the director of consumption, has 
a heavy responsibility. Mrs. Richards is 
especially interested in the wise appor- 
tioning of the income, and Miss Salmon in 
the principles of operation of the household 
machinery, without reference to cost, or 
rather with a distinct belief that an in- 
creased expenditure for operating expenses 
would result in a diminution of other items 
in both the social and the individual budget. 

Mrs. Richards intends her book "for the 
educated young people of the land who hon- 
estly desire to live in conformity with the 
laws of health and human efficiency" and 
especially to such among these as are about 
to begin life on an annual income of from 
fifteen hundred to three thousand dollars. 
For this class of persons the book contains 
much sound advice for determining a "wise 
expenditure of money, time and energy in 
daily living." It is more applicable, as far 
as the figures go, to the households of so- 
cial workers than it is to those of depend- 
ent families, but the principles for which 
it seeks to gain adherents — the application 
of sanitary knowledge to household prob- 
lems and the presentation of ideals for 
home life — are a sound basis for any 
household. 

There are many sentences that are pe- 
culiarly "quotable," if a word may be coined 
after the analogy of the "sketchable" which 
one hears used of bits of landscape by a 
certain type of artist. Here are a few of 
them: 

"It is most difficult to draw the line be- 
tween those comforts in daily life which in- 
crease the uplifting tendencies of civiliza- 

x The Cost of Living as Modified by Sanitary 
Science, by Ellen H. Richards. Pp. 156. 

Progress in the Household, by Lucy M. Salmon. 
Pp. 198. 

For price, see facing page 449. 

502 



tion and those luxuries, those forms of in- 
dulgence, which degrade the soul and de- 
bilitate mind and body. 

"The home has ceased to be the glowing 
center of production from which radiate all 
desirable goods, and has become but a pool 
toward which products made in other 
places flow — a place of consumption, not of 
production." 

"The need in household organization is for 
a complete readjustment in accordance with 
modern conditions." 

"Give women a chance to spend as wisely 
and economically as men have learned to 
manufacture and produce." 

The practical value of Mrs. Richards's fig- 
ures is affected by her disregard of the 
question "Where?" There is the usual ten- 
dency to generalize or use an average, 
though in these matters an average for the 
country is not true for any one place. The 
statement is made, for example, that "in 
America the typical family of the econo- 
mist, of father, mother, and three chil- 
dren under the earning age, can live very 
comfortably on ten dollars a week or five 
hundred dollars a year for the necessities of 
material existence." And again: "The us- 
ual price asked by washerwomen is fifty 
cents a dozen." A most interesting table 
is given showing the expenses of a family 
for twenty years. Changes in manner of 
living are noted, and the items are so class- 
ified as to enable one to form a picture of 
the family history. During the two decades 
the family income had increased from $1,- 
307 to $3,187, and many conditions had 
changed. It is rather surprising, therefore, 
to find in the last column average percent- 
ages for each item for the twenty years. 
Throughout the book the analysis of the va- 
rious considerations which are significant, 
the distinction between real and false 
values, is worth more than the figures of 
cost, because the principles are of general 
applicability, while the figures may or may 
not be true in any given place. The as- 
sumption encountered in several places that 
our physical condition has deteriorated, 
that in New England fifty years ago there 
was "on the whole less sickness," is, for- 
tunately for our faith in progress, not con- 
firmed by any facts that we have. But this 
inaccuracy does not vitiate the conclusions 
Mrs. Richards comes to, which are: 

"The twentieth-century household demands 
of its managers, first of all, a scientific un- 
derstanding of the sanitary requirements of 
a human habitation; second, a knowledge of 
the values, absolute and relative, of the 
various articles which are used in the house, 
including food; third, a system of account- 
keeping that shall make possible a close 
watch upon expenses; fourth, an ability to 
secure from others the best they have to 
give, and to maintain a high standard of 
honest work." 



How to Help 



503 



Miss Salmon's book amounts to a supple- 
ment to her larger and more serious work 
treating of domestic service. Her demands 
for scientific investigation in the realm of 
household economy, for the application of 



the higher education .of women to the so- 
lution of household problems, for the "ele- 
vation" of domestic service and the rational- 
izing of the kitchen, are put in an entertain- 
ing way that goes far to win disciples. 



HOW TO HELP'' 



In writing her manual of practical char- 
ity. How to Help} Miss Mary Conyngton 
had a definite audience in mind — the non- 
professional workers among the poor, or, 
as the author herself expresses it, — "The 
book is especially commended to the large 
class who must either fit their charitable 
work in the chinks and crannies of an al- 
ready well-filled life, or leave it undone al- 
together. To the busy man or woman, the 
charitable work of any large city is apt 
to present a puzzling aspect. He is aware 
that a multiplicity of institutions and so- 
cieties exist. What are their different 
functions? How are they correlated? 
Which should be called upon in a given case 
of need?" 

It will be seen, then, that it was no part 
of the author's purpose to undertake a 
pretentious discussion of underlying social 
philosophy, or a final analysis of disputed 
points in the treatment of cases. She is 
interpreting modern charitable work to the 
outsider who is accosted in the street by a 
beggar, whose washwoman brings family 
problems along with her basket of clothes, 
who is a member of a church relief society 
or the board of a children's home; who, as 
a business man or resident in a smaller 
community, is brought in touch on occa- 
sions with instances of distress; whose im- 
pulse it is to help, but who recognizes that 
the chances are against his doing it in the 
right way. To these she gives a rather 
stirring picture of the development of phil- 
anthropic work during the past thirty 
years, and a fund of suggestions, applicable 
in the average city, as to what the first 
step should be. In other words, she de- 
fines charity and helpfulness in terms of 
the ordinary American citizen and brings 
to him some of the spirit and sanity which 
have come to those who have found a 
profession in this field. 

In one of the first pages, Miss Conyngton 
gives her view of the progress of the char- 
ity organization movement: 

"In looking over the development of 
charitable work within the last thirty years, 
it becomes evident that one and the same 
idea has been its underlying principle, but 
that there has been, so to speak, a shifting 
of the emphasis. The fundamental purpose 
has always been to remove the poor from 
dependency and to restore them to the 

Wow to Help; a Manual of Practical Charity: 
Mary Conyngtou. Pp. 371. For price, see facing 
449. 



ranks of the self-supporting. At first, 
stress was laid on restoring them in the 
shortest possible time to independence, and 
on running the least possible risk vf injur- 
ing their moral fibre by the administration 
of material relief. In the next stage, the 
ideal held up was to restore them to self- 
support in such a way that this should be- 
come their permanent condition, and that 
in doing it no injury should be wrought, 
either to society as a whole, or to the in- 
dividual members of the group under con- 
sideration. In the third stage, while the 
second ideal still prevails for the person 
or family who has xallen into want, it has 
been supplemented by a vigorous effort to 
remove the social causes which may have 
contributed to this fall, and to keep others 
from suffering through these same condi- 
tions." 

Miss Conyngton writes simply, clearly, 
and with imagination which sees in graphic 
pictures a way to lay hold of the interest of 
that special audience to whom she is ad- 
dressing herself. Thus, she tells the story 
of the family who lived by the successive 
baptisms of an infant; of the 1 itfall the 
mission worker fell into who never gave un- 
til a man prayed with him; of the shiftless 
woman who was rescued economically 
through a home for wayward women — ad- 
mitted to it on the ground that laziness was 
a moral defect within the wording of their 
constitution; of the shoestring seller of whom 
Miss Witherspoon tells, who, by the gift 
of tools, carved himself a pair of artificial 
limbs and regained his place in the com- 
munity; of the over-cautious churchman 
who gave a pint of milk a day to a woman 
with a family of ten — and so on. 

Besides this readiness to avail herself 
of the picturesque in making plain the 
practical, Miss Conyngton's book has two 
distinct advantages — one is that it has made 
available in compact form much of what 
has been gathered by investigation and ex- 
periment during the past five years; and 
the other, that she approaches the subject 
from the point of view of a smaller city 
where agencies have not become so multi- 
plied and where their spheres of work are 
not so crystallized. The book has been is- 
sued so short atime that perhaps it is too 
early to judge of how well it will lay hold 
of the special audience to whom it is ad- 
dressed. But to a professional worker it 
would seem well adapted to that end. 



Immigration 

BOORS BY 

PRESCOTT F. HALL 

JAMES DAVENPORT WHELPLEY EDWARD A. STEINER 

REPORTS BY U. S. CONSULS 



IMMIGRATION AND ITS EFFECT UPON THE UNITED STATES 

Reviewed by John R. Commons 
University of "Wisconsin 



I have looked over several of the criti- 
cisms which have been published respecting 
Mr. Hall's book, on Immigration and Its Ef- 
fect upon the United States, 1 and those that 
are unfavorable contain but one point that 
is entitled to consideration. This is the 
plea that the book is written from the stand- 
point of one who has made up his mind 
to favor the restriction of immigration and 
is therefore not a scholarly or impartial 
statement of the facts. But when I look for 
the evidence advanced by these critics to 
show that the facts are distorted, I have 
found in the main only a distortion of the 
author's position. Quotations selected here 
and there and taken out of their context 
appear in quite a different light in the hands 
of the critic from what they were intended 
in the hands of the author. And why should 
we expect that the only scholarly and impar- 
tial statement of facts is that which comes 
from a man who has reached no conclusions? 
May it not be that he made up his mind af- 
ter studying the facts? I cannot find that 
Mr. Hall has inaccurately or carelessly stated 
or omitted any of the essential facts, though 
he has not failed to indicate the conclusions 

immigration and Its Effects Upon the United 
States : Prescott F. Hall. 393 pp. For price, see 
facing page 449. 



he draws from them. Only a few minor er- 
rors can be noted, and they proceed from the 
mistakes of others upon non-essential points, 
or from the imperfections of government sta- 
tistics, whose weaknesses Mr. Hall points 
out. In covering a field so fundamental and 
touching every point of our social structure, 
the author necessarily relies on the work of 
others, and it is a signal service which he 
has done in bringing together for one use 
the results of so many scattering reports, in- 
vestigations and special studies. 

Naturally, however, the distinguishing 
value of the work is in the parts dealing 
with those aspects of the question with 
which Mr. Hall has himself been for many 
years directly concerned. These are found 
in the second half of the book, covering the 
history, effects and reform of immigration 
legislation. Only a short chapter is given 
to the history of Chinese immigration laws, 
since these were fully presented in Mayo- 
Smith's book. But for European immigra- 
tion, the legislation and the administration 
of the laws and the defects that need rem- 
edying are set forth with a complete knowl- 
edge of the subject. Altogether the book 
stands out as the most important contribu- 
tion that has been made to the study of this 
most important American problem. 



OPINIONS OF U. 



S. CONSULS ON 

Robert De C. "Ward 



IMMIGRATION 



A government publication which has re- 
ceived practically no notice at all at the 
hands of the press, and has therefore been 
almost altogether buried, is Vol. XXX. 
Special Consular Reports, Emigration to the 
United States (Department of Commerce 
and Labor, Bureau of Statistics). Steam- 
ship agents, railroad officials and other 
"interested" parties, whose opinions on the 
immigration question are altogether warped 
by the fact that their financial returns 
depend upon having as large an immigra- 
tion as possible, are so assiduous in pre- 

5°4 



senting their own arguments to the public 
that we often fail to realize that such "in- 
terested" testimony is of little or no ac- 
count, and that the real truth can often 
be found only in official government pub- 
lications. For this reason, this volume of 
consular reports is of special value. It 
contains the replies of our consuls in Europe 
and elsewhere to a circular letter sent out 
by the Department of Commerce and Labor 
in order to obtain definite first-hand inform- 
ation regarding the present character and 
conditions of immigration. These replies 



Immigration 



505 



were carefully considered, and come in 
many cases from consuls of long experi- 
ence. Among the most note-worthy points 
in these replies we may call attention to 
the following: (1) There is practically 
unanimous opinion that emigration from 
Europe will increase, and that there will be 
a deterioration rather than an improve- 
ment in its character. (2) The amount of 
money sent home by aliens in this country 
is very large, especially by Austro-Hun- 
garians and Italians. In the case of the 
latter it is estimated at $30,000,000 an- 
nually. This money is often loaned out by 
the European banks to the peasants and 
acts as an encouragement to them to emi- 
grate. The money thus sent home is the 
financial salvation of many European com- 
munities. (3) Aliens refused at one em- 
barkation port, where the steamship officials 
have some slight regard for our laws, in- 
variably secure passage to the United States 
by going to some other port. (4) There is 
abundant stimulation of emigration at the 
hands of the Jewish colonization societies. 
(5) Emphasis is laid on the fact that of 
the persons who emigrate for their native 
country's good, the United States receive 
nearly all. (6) The encouragement of 
many undesirable Syrians and Armenians 
to leave their native land and come to the 
United States is laid at the door of Amer- 
ican missionaries. This fact has been ap- 
parent to observing persons for some years. 
It is now established on the authority of 
one of our consuls. Most of these immi- 
grants stick to the church to which they 
are accredited by these missionaries as long 
as they can get anything out of the church, 
and no longer. (7) There is added em- 
phasis on the fact that among our present 
immigrants there are fewer and fewer of 
the pioneer class, who come because of their 
love of freedom, because of the sturdy in- 
dependence of their nature, and because of 
their ambition to seek a new home in a 
land whose public institutions they know 
something of, and admire, and wish to sup- 
port. The majority of our aliens are no 
longer the "pick." Weaklings are no longer 
afraid to undertake the journey, which is 
now so easy and so cheap. (8) The activity 
of the inland steamship agents, sub-agents 
and brokers is condemned. These people 
work on a commission basis, and with them 
it is "more emigrants, more dollars." The 



low rates of passage have also greatly stim- 
ulated emigration. Our consul at Naples 
points out that in order to accommodate 
the increasing steerage traffic, the number 
of steamship lines between that port and 
the United States has been increased from 
four in 1897 to ten in 1904. (9) The opin- 
ion which many worthy people in this coun- 
try hold, that althougn we receive a good 
many aliens whom we do not desire, still 
by so doing we are helping those who stay 
in Europe, receives, as it should, a rude 
shock in the statement: "The greater the 
emigration, the worse the condition of those 
remaining behind." Anyone who has studied 
conditions in the centres of emigration in 
Europe knows this to be a fact. (10) The 
departure of the Jews from Russia to the 
United States is regarded by the Russian 
government with distinct satisfaction. (11) 
From 30 to 40 per cent of our present im- 
migration is "assisted," i. e., did not have 
the money to pay its own passage. (12) 
Perhaps the most interesting statement in 
the whole volume is the following: "It is 
difficult for a consular officer, necessarily 
cognizant of some emigration anomalies, to 
express, without some measure of bluntness, 
his opinion of the lack of practical regula- 
tions in the United States to exclude un- 
desirable immigrants. That the present sys- 
tem, or lack of system, is the wonder of 
every European critic is not too strong a 
statement." And again: "The whole sys- 
tem, at present existing, is arranged for the 
accommodation of the ship-owners." This 
recalls to mind the statement made by Gen- 
eral Shattuc, Member of Congress from Ohio, 
when the present immigration act (of March 
3, 1903) was under discussion in the Senate 
Committee on Immigration. General Shat- 
tuc was chairman of the House Committee 
on Immigration, and was present at a hear- 
ing before the senate committee. The ques- 
tion came up of certain suggestions which 
were to be made by Mr. A. S. Anderson, 
passenger manager, American Line, Interna- 
tional Navigation Co. The comment made 
by Representative Shattuc was: "He (i. e., 
Mr. Anderson) wrote most of the bill. He 
ought to be satisfied with it." This was said 
by the chairman of the House Committee 
on Immigration, of a prominent steamship 
official. Anyone who is interested will find 
these words on page 28, Senate Report No. 
2119, 57th Congress, 1st Session. 



INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS OF IMMIGRATION 

Two boohs 1 reviewed by ArtHur B. Reeve 



Out of the East, since the days when our 
own Aryan ancestors began to make history, 
have come immense hordes of peoples, sweep- 
ing westward, sometimes peacefully, more 
often with war and violence. To-day the 
world is face to face with the same situation. 
The steamship, the railroad, the telegraph 
and the newspaper have made it a peaceful 
invasion; otherwise it is merely the twen- 
tieth century edition of historic and pre- 
historic race movements driven by tension 
at home along the line of least resistance. 

One Side "Like a mighty stream, its 
of the sources in a hundred rivu- 

Question. lets," it sweeps forward, says 
James Davenport Whelpley, catching some- 
thing of the imperial spirit and importance 
of the movement in his work The Problem of 
the Immigrant. 1 A vast polyglot procession 
from every clime, old and young, male and 
female, gaining in volume and momentum 
every year, regardless of laws of supply and 
demand — such is the picture as he sees it. 
"There is no hope of an exhaustion of sup- 
ply, for the most prolific races are now con- 
tributing their millions and yet increasing 
the population of their own countries. There 
is no hope of an improvement in quality, for 
the best come first and the dregs follow. Re- 
gardless of consequences to themselves or 
others, this irresponsible horde dumps itself 
or is dumped into communities already 
strained to maintain a high level of individ- 
ual life for the native born. The labor 
market is glutted, and the shrewd and 
avaricious make possible a form of slavery 
worse than that from which the Negro was 
freed at cost of great wars." 

Cities divide into colonies of aliens of dif- 
ferent races, the demands on charity and 
police are increased and there is added the 
danger to health. One danger is from tra- 
choma, "that dread and disabling disease of 
the eyes," Egyptian ophthalmia is another, 
tuberculosis and the plagues of Eastern na- 
tions are still others. 

The immigration movement of one coun- 
try is the emigration movement of another. 
Four causes Mr. Whelpley assigns for the 
present large emigration which includes 
from two to three million people a year: 
natural, economic, political and artificial. 
"The natural emigration arises from the rest- 
less ambition of youth and middle age and 
this class of immigrants are acceptable ad- 
ditions to any country." Economic wrongs 
are causing the exodus from Italy and in a 
less degree from Austria-Hungary, and from 
some Italian villages over eighty per cent 
of the people have gone to the United States. 

*The Problem of the Immigrant. By James Dav- 
enport Whelpley. Pp. 295. For price, see facing 
page 449. 

Wn the Trail of the Immigrant. By Edward A. 
Steiner. Pp. 375. 

506 



"The political cause is best illustrated in 
the case of Hebrews of Russia. Forced to 
live in the towns, deprived of nearly all op- 
portunity for making a living, they are flee- 
ing to other lands, seeking employment, edu- 
cation for their children and freedom from 
persecution. The artificial cause is the ab- 
normal activity of the transportation com- 
panies. Mr. Whelpley calculates that to 
them the present immigration movement rep- 
resents a gross annual income of $50,000,000, 
and "many immigrant authorities hold them 
responsible for instigating possibly fifty 
per cent of the departures." 

The problem of immigration and emigra- 
tion, urges Mr. Whelpley, is an international 
one. Therefore, "to police the world for 
the purpose of putting a restraint on it is 
a power, a duty of the greater nations. To 
accomplish this purpose he urges an inter- 
national agreement whose purposes, briefly 
sketched, should be: to encourage a high 
moral, physical, political and educational 
standard of admission for immigrants; and 
to these might well be added a financial or 
self-supporting qualification of sufficient 
scope to prevent the possibility of immedi- 
ate dependence on charity; to guard against 
the spread of disease from one country to 
another; to check undue activity on the 
part of transportation agents; to main- 
tain a world-wide system of police identifi- 
cation and restraint of criminals; to per- 
suade each nation to live up to its full re- 
sponsibilities in the care of its own defic- 
ients; to induce the amelioration of politi- 
cal or economic wrongs in given areas where 
such influences are driving people from one 
country to another to the discomfort of the 
latter." 

At an international conference of the pow- 
ers for reaching an agreement on these ques- 
tions, Mr. Whelpley believes that though 
there would be wide disagreement as to 
methods of attaining certain ends, there 
would be practical agreement on the desir- 
ability of many of the ends. No country 
desires to lose its useful citizens. To mini- 
mize this evil, a general agreement could be 
reached to enact laws forbidding undue ef- 
fort on the part of those interested to se- 
cure passenger business. "To secure har- 
mony in establishing a standard of admis- 
sion would be more difficult, but the United 
States and the great nations of Western Eu- 
rope would probably agree, except in minor 
matters." 

An international agreement to guard 
against the spread of disease could meet with 
no serious objection. The extension of the 
efficiency of the present unsystematic inter- 
change of police information could be se- 
cured. The free movement of deficient 
persons having been checked, each country 
will be forced to assume its full responsibil- 



Immigration 



507 



ity in the care of its own. Greater than all 
else, Mr. Whelpley believes, would be the 
moral effect for good of the nations forming 
such a league on the oppressor nations. 

Mr. Whelpley's conclusions are forcefully 
stated even though it is impossible to follow 
him in all of them. Four-fifths of his book 
is devoted to a summary of conditions, laws 
and regulations governing the movement of 
population to and from the British Empire, 
the United States, France, Belgium, Switzer- 
land, Germany, Italy, Austria-Hungary, 
Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, Denmark, 
Scandinavia and Russia. The book was 
written before the British Aliens Act brought 
the United Kingdom into line with the 
United States and Austria lined up with 
Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and Germany. 
This digest of international legislation on 
immigration is, however, of distinct practi- 
cal value. 

The lmmi= Like Mr. Whelpley, Dr. 
ciiff*!!!?'*!— Steiner endeavors to trace 

bide of the ,, . , , . , . 

Question. the immigrant back to his 
home; unlike Mr. Whelpley's is the spirit in 
which the trail is followed. From first to 
last Dr. Steiner's is a sympathetic appeal to 
the heart of a free people to confer freedom 
on the oppressed thousands knocking at 
their gates. The dangers of immigration he 
believes are not so great, the diseases not so 
serious as many would have us believe. 
For one thing, he says, the menace of tra- 
choma is not so great as it is pictured — "its 
prevalence is greater in the imagination of 
some statisticians than it is on board immi- 
grant vessels." 

Taken altogether, Dr. Steiner's is an opti- 
mistic picture of the situation. From the 
little villages of Northern, Eastern or South- 
ern Europe, he takes the reader traveling 
third-class and steerage with those who have 
just learned to conjure with the magic word 
"America." The intimate knowledge of the 
newcomers imparted by this reading journey 
is not only intensely entertaining but val- 
uable. 

The fears and hardships of the ocean pas- 
sage in the crowded steerage, where no bar- 
riers exist and all nations meet in good fel- 
lowship, are described. Then come the or- 
deals at Ellis Island— for once described 
sympathetically to both the immigrant and 
to the commissioner, Robert Watchorn. 
"Work of this kind can not be done without 
friction, for intense suffering follows many 
of his decisions," says the author of the 
commissioner. "Yet I have found no one 
closely acquainted with the affairs of the 
island, who does not regard the 'man at the 



gate' as the right man in the right place." 

Finally, the author follows the immigrant 
westward, eastward, or to New York city, 
describing where he is most likely to go and 
what he finds; describing also the little 
groups of what might be called nationalities 
within our nationality scattered over the 
country. Dr. Steiner seems to have caught 
the social and political romance of the great 
movement; Mr. Whelpley, the historical. 

But what of the lessons of Dr. Steiner's 
ten or a dozen trips in the steerage? "Stand 
pat," is his judgment evidently on most of 
the so-called "problems." "The hardships 
that attend the examination and deportation 
of immigrants seem unavoidable and would 
not be materially reduced if any other method 
were devised." 

To examine them at the centers of immi- 
gration he holds a rather vague and not 
feasible plan. The immigrant can more 
easily render himself fit to pass an examina- 
tion there than after a voyage that makes 
artificial cleansing of diseased eyelids and 
the hiding of physical defects impossible. 
Graft would flourish so far away from home, 
nor would foreign nations welcome alien 
officials to select their best and leave the 
worst. More than all else, such an examina- 
tion would work against America as a politi- 
cal asylum for the persecuted and oppressed. 

Most important of Dr. Steiner's sugges- 
tions for regulating the flow of newcomers 
is to abolish the steerage. "The steerage 
ought to be and could be abolished by law. 
It is true the Italian and Polish peasant may 
not be accustomed to better things at home 
and might not be happier in better surround- 
ings nor know how to use them; but it is a 
bad introduction to our life to treat him like 
an animal when he is coming to us. He 
ought to be made to feel immediately that 
the standard of living in America is higher 
than it is abroad. Every cabin passenger 
who has seen and smelt the steerage from 
afar, knows that it is often indecent and in- 
human; and I, who have lived in it, know 
that it is both of these and cruel besides." 

Much greater responsibility should be put 
on the steamship companies in the carrying 
of their most profitable passengers. "The 
price they pay for their passage is large 
enough to entitle them to better treatment, 
and if it is not, then the price should be 
raised to such a figure as to permit it. The 
steerage is responsible for not a little im- 
ported anarchy and the sooner it is abolished 
the better. The more humanely the immi- 
grant is treated at Ellis Island, the more hu- 
manely he will deal with us when he be- 
comes the master of our national destiny. 



Practical Civics 



BOOHS BY 



CHARLES ZUEBLIN 

CHARLES MULFORD ROBINSON 



DELOS F. WILCOX 
FREDERIC C. HOWE 



Reviewed by Lewis E. Palmer 



The past ten years have seen the remark- 
able development of a force working for so- 
cial betterment. This force was engendered 
in the cities and in the cities it has grown, 
until to-day under a thousand different 
names — in civic leagues and federations, in 
art commissions and park commissions, in 
schools and kindergartens — it is working for 
the city's redemption. 

This dynamic force — it might be called 
aroused civic pride, is new to this country. 
People, as a general rule, have moved to the 
cities because there was a better chance to 
make more money. The idea of planning for 
the future growth of the city except along 
industrial and business lines was little 
thought of. What did it matter if the rail- 
road did cross the principal thoroughfare 
or if the shops took up the only available 
site for a city park? The railroad and the 
shop were bringing more money to town and 
more money meant more prosperity. The 
party boss came into power; politics became 
a game for politicians only and the average 
citizen kept out of it as much as possible. 
The boss ruled, the franchises went at his 
dictation and the city suffered. Reform was 
scoffed at and a change was ridiculed. But a 
change was to come and a change did come. 
With the growth of the idea that the city was 
something more than a collection of streets and 
houses and railroads, and that franchises were 
not gifts of a boss or a party, there came a more 
united effort for reform, civic pride was arous- 
ed and the city found itself. 

Municipal reform movements have by no 
means been uniformly successful, but the in- 
terest that has been shown in the new move- 
ment and the success have been achieved in 
many cities, as set forth in a group of vol- 
umes descriptive of municipal advance, is a 
matter for encouragement. Among the im- 
portant books a few have been chosen for 
review as perhaps distinctive of this new 
movement for civic betterment. 



l A Decade of Civic Development: by Charles Zueblin. 
Pp. 1880. 

^Modern Civic Art : by Charles Mulford Robin- 
son. Pp. 375. 

s The American City ; A Problem in Democracy : by 
Delos P. Wilcox. Pp. 416. 

*The City the Hope of Democracy : by Frederic 
C. Howe. Pp. 313. 



Zueblln's: That the new spirit of the 

" A c1vk? e ° f city nas taken nold ' is snown 
Development." in Mr. Zueblin's little volume, 
A Decade of Civic Development. 1 As Mr. Zue- 
blin says in his preface: "It is too early to 
measure the full meaning of the new civic 
spirit and its accomplishments, but to sum 
up a few of the spectacular evidences of civic 
progress may serve to interpret a movement 
already as broad as the continent." 

In the opening chapter, the author em- 
phasizes the importance of the element of 
timeliness in a reform movement of any kind. 
The logical steps in civic progress, he says, 
are prosperity, leisure and culture. Pros- 
perity provides a leisure which makes pos- 
sible a culture unknown to the pioneers in 
industrial expansion. And so the growing 
prosperity, leisure and culture of the early 
eighties prepared the soil for the new seeds 
of social service which were imported from 
England in such movements as university 
extension and settlements. And thus, he 
writes: "A new social spirit is expressed 
and denned. Participation in the life of 
the masses of the people, rather than vain- 
glorious attainment of the evanescent honor 
of conventional society, becomes the am- 
bition of a portion of the new generation. 
To the multitude are carried some of the 
fruits of prosperity, leisure and culture; 
from them are gained democracy, fratern- 
ity, freedom of social expression, with them 
is developed a new dynamic force capable 
of re-making the American community by 
inspiring the American citizens with the new 
civic spirit." 

The three R's became entirely inadequate 
for the new citizenship. Fresh demands 
were made upon our educational system — 
demands which have been met in part and 
more and more are being realized. The 
progress of education has given a three-fold 
educational ideal: education for occupation, 
for citizenship and for manhood. The au- 
thor writes: 

"May we not unite this ideal with the dem- 
ocratic trinity, and demand as a rational 
goal, liberty for the worker, equality for the 
citizen and fraternity for man?" The new 
liberty is to be obtained by fitting the work- 
er for competition in the industrial field 
through manual training and technical 
schools; the kindergarten, the vacation 
schools and the self government clubs of the 
public schools — all these make for equality 



508 



Practical Civics 



509 



in the new citizenship; and the education 
for manhood and womanhood, "the educa- 
cation for fraternity," as Mr. Zueblin puts 
it, is to be realized in the numerous new de- 
partments in our educational system such 
as. free lectures, public recreation parks and 
playgrounds, library commissions, public 
assembly rooms — all looking towards fra- 
ternity of men and women in association. 

But the new civic spirit has found expres- 
sion not only in the training of the citizen, 
but also in city making. The chapter on 
The Making of the City reviews briefly the 
progress that has been made in comprehen- 
sive city planning and city building. 

The remarkable changes that have been 
wrought out in so many of our cities within 
a ten-year period — the improvement of wa- 
terways and harbors, the increase in the 
area of paved streets, the growth of the aes- 
thetic sense shown in the planning of 
municipal buildings and the improvements in 
architectural style, the opening of parks and 
playgrounds, the increased care for public 
health, indicate that the progress toward the 
ideal city is by no means visionary. And 
as the author says, "Almost every city is in- 
fected with the new ideals." 

This art of city making is new to the 
United States. As Mr. Zueblin says in his 
preface, "it is too early to measure the full 
meaning of the new civic spirit." With 
this thought in view he has sketched the 
progress that has been made in Boston, New 
York, Harrisburg and Washington, and from 
these rather spectacular evidences the read- 
er may judge of the real growth of the move- 
ment as a whole. 

The organization of a metropolitan park 
commission and a metropolitan sewerage 
commission, the betterment of transit facili- 
ties, the growth of small parks and the 
foundation of a great municipal library in 
Boston; the struggling progress that Greater 
New York is making for civic betterment; the 
battle for the redemption of the city that 
Harrisburg fought and won and the magnifi- 
cent plan for the new Washington, "the 
one peerless example of the realization 
through the new civic spirit of an original, 
scientific and artistic plan" — all of these go 
to show that the city is awakening and that 
the new spirit is at work. And as Mr. Zue- 
blin says, "The comprehensive city plan is 
the ripest expression of the new civic spirit." 

To speak of Charles Mulford 

R ??n n c?vic Ar°t d= Robinson ' s book on Modern 
Civic Art 2 as a manual 
for the city builder might lead one to 
believe that it was a compendium of dry 
facts concerning municipal architecture, 
street planning and paving, park develop- 
ment, etc. The book is a manual, in a way, 
a working guide that will be of as much use 
for the practical reconstruction of a portion 
of a great city as it will be for the smaller 
towns that are more fortunate in being able 
to look ahead and start to build aright. Mr. 
Robinson has written in so charming a man- 
ner, however, that the book becomes of in- 



terest to the everyday citizen. Interwoven 
with the suggestions for the American city 
of to-day is a vast store of information con- 
cerning the cities of Europe that were 
built not merely for the needs of a day but 
for a future that the city builders of this 
country have so often been unable to foresee. 

Mr. Robinson has had experience as a prac- 
tical adviser of city councils contemplating 
more comprehensive city planning and has 
met with success in his work. Civic art is new 
to this country. The practical American is 
not inclined to be aesthetic. Too often he 
looks upon any measure for city adornment 
as a fad or as graft for the promoters: In 
his opening chapter the author says: 

"This art which is so utilitarian in its 
purposes as to be civic first and art after- 
wards, may be defined then, as the taking 
in just the right way of those steps neces- 
sary or proper for the comfort of the citizens 
— as the doing of the necessary or proper 
thing in the right wav. * * * It is not 
merely a bit of aestheticism. There is noth- 
ing effeminate and sentimental about it, — 
like tying tidies on telegraph poles and put- 
ting doilies on the crosswalks — it is vigor- 
ous, virile, sane." And as American citizens 
are made to realize that civic art is vigorous, 
virile and sane in so much greater degree 
will they lend their support to the move- 
ment. 

In considering practical plans for beautify- 
ing the city the author has divided his book 
into four logical sections — the city's focal 
points, the business districts, the residential 
sections, and the city at large. 

Looking at the city from its entry ways, 
by land or by water, he emphasizes the im- 
portance of the aesthetic development of 
waterfronts and land approaches. Here are 
two focal points practically undeveloped in 
American cities. The water's edge has been 
almost completely usurped by mile upon 
mile of docks and flimsy pier sheds and too 
often the stretches of unkempt railroad prop- 
erty terminate in a structure built merely 
for the facilitation and convenience of traf- 
fic. Where beauty might have been com- 
bined with utility, utility alone is seen. 
Modern civic art according to Mr. Robinson 
should give the water front primary con- 
sideration. "It would consider first the far- 
off picture of the town as a whole; then the 
nearer view, when we seek for definitiveness 
of character, and look along the shore for 
something to indicate the portal of the city; 
then the detail when, drawing yet nearer, 
we estimate the city's importance and wealth 
and genius by the way it is built to the 
water's edge, and if there be bridges, by the 
beauty of these." 

The problem of the land entrance to the 
city broadens into problems of approach as 
well as of terminal. And "if in the com- 
munity's growth the water entrance be de- 
veloped by the municipality, is there less 
reason that it should provide for the busy 
inland entrance, approaches that shall be 
dignified, worthy and convenient?" 



5io 



Charities and The Commons 



In American cities changes of the char- 
acter Mr. Robinson suggests must come slow. 
He does not ask for the aesthetic without the 
utilitarian, but the utilitarian has become so 
fixed in the very life of the community,- the 
water front has so long been given over to 
commerce and the approach to the railroad 
terminals have so long been lined with in- 
dustrial establishments that popular educa- 
tion is indeed needed before the changes can 
come. 

The last of the "focal points" which Mr. 
Robinson considers is the administrative 
center — the grouping of government build- 
ings. Plans now being carrried out in Chi- 
cago, Springfield, Mass., and Cleveland, Ohio, 
show the feasibility of this suggestion. 

One of the chief elements of value in 
Mr. Robinson's book lies in the repeated 
references to the part that civic art has 
played in the development of European 
cities. In considering the street plan, the 
architecture, the furnishings of the street 
and its adornment with fountains and sculp- 
ture, Mr. Robinson has measurably in- 
creased the value of his work by these 
references. In plotting the streets of the 
business districts Mr. Robinson contends 
that the first essential is to build up a 
framework or skeleton of arterial thorough- 
fares with certain focal points for bases. 
"Our framework of raaial arterial thorough- 
fares is substantially, if indirectly, a system 
of safety-valves to meet increasing pressure 
in the commercial district. We have now 
adopted that hint for a city plan which, as 
Colonel Waring pointed out, is contained 
in the spider's web. In this the quickest 
way of reaching the center from any given 
point is clearly obtained; and in the plot 
of the residential section of the town we 
have to remember, not as a pleasant but as a 
primary fact, that time is money." 

The close union between the social prob- 
lems of the day and true civic progress 
is shown in the chapter on the tenements: 
"Give the boy and girl a chance; make it 
possible for them to work off sheer animal 
energy in harmless amusements; render 
homes pleasant, and satisfy the craving of 
men for brightness, entertainment and fel- 
lowship without throwing them into temp- 
tation; let an abundance of fresh air into 
living and sleeping room and the slum will 
be ancient history and many of sociology's 
hardest problems will be solved. * * * 
Modern civic art may not have solved the 
problem, but it nas a dream of doing so. It 
has dared to acknowledge the existence of 
and then has had the courage to try to 
remedy, that evil which the civic art of 
other times did not admit. Until the munic- 
ipality is beautiful in every portion; until 
there is complete adaptation to purposes and 
functions; until its citizens, the lowly as 
well as the rich, are rendered as comfortable 
as municipal science and humanity can make 
them, modern civic art will scorn to call its 
conquest complete." 

The final section of the book on the city 



at large is divided into a series of chapters 
on comprehensive planning, open spaces, the 
development of parks and parkways and the 
problems of occasional and temporary deco- 
ration. 

Wilcox: Tn e city problem has not yet 

"The Ameri= become the national problem, 

lean City." but the rem arkable growth 
of cities in population and wealth, the drift 
of the immigrant population to the cities, 
the increased opportunities for gathering 
great fortunes, and the added temptation for 
the misuse and squandering of public funds 
all tend to make the municipality of increas- 
ing importance in our national life. In his 
book an The American City: 3 A Problem in 
Democracy, Dr. Wilcox discusses in a vigor- 
ous fashion the "fundamental principles of 
the problem and endeavors to point out its 
real relations to the great question of human 
freedom as it is being worked out in Ameri- 
can political institutions." 

"In its broadest terms," he writes, "the 
city problem presents the simple questions: 
Shall the city be permitted to destroy dem- 
ocracy and thereby undermine our national 
institutions? Shall the city be permitted 
to absorb the brains and the wealth of the 
nation and consume them wastefully? * * 
* What must the citizen of the city set out 
to do? Or, in other words, what is the 
function of municipal government, the in- 
stitution through which the citizens of a city 
combine to carry out their ideas of what 
their city should be made to be?" 

From rather an advanced position of mu- 
nicipal ownership and municipal socialism, 
Dr. Wilcox treats this problem. Taking the 
street as the "most significant symbol of 
a free city," he argues, that "the desideratum 
of municipal well-being as far as this great 
question is concerned is for the city to re- 
gain speedily and forever maintain its gov- 
ernmental control over all its thoroughfares." 
Complete municipal ownership is his theory 
of the solution of the whole question — a 
question which he acknowledges, however, 
"is complicated by the insufficiency of pub- 
lic intelligence and the inertness of the 
civic conscience." 

In a later chapter on civic co-operation 
(which on another page he terms municipal 
socialism), Dr. Wilcox argues that "in gen- 
eral it is to be expected that civic co-opera- 
tion will be called upon to solve all those 
special problems of universal interest to ur- 
ban dwellers which arise out of the peculiar 
conditions of city life. 

"City government is the most emphatic 
protest of local interests against the organi- 
zation of society without reference to place. 
Upon the effectiveness of this protest the 
life of democracy depends." 

His classification of services which should 
be controlled by "civic co-operation" is a 
broad one. Under this classification come 
waterworks and sewers, street railways and 
telephone systems, gas and electric light 
plants for light, heat and power. Co-opera- 



Practical Civics 



5i 



tion should not stop here however. He ad- 
vocates municipal technical schools for 
some manufacturing cities and says that 
"the distribution and possibly the production 
of the milk supply may in time become a 
necessary public function. On a previous 
page he writes that what is true of the milk 
supply is also true to a less extent, of other 
food supplies, especially meat. * * * 

"In other words, necessity points toward 
an extended field of civic co-operation. The 
difficulties in the way must not be accept- 
ed as permanent, but must be overcome by 
the development of civic conscience and ad- 
ministrative reform." 

Turning to the problem of civic education 
which Dr. Wilcox speaks of as "the funda- 
mental social problems of the city," the 
author emphasizes four factors that must be 
taken into account in the training of the 
new citizen. His classification includes: 

(1) Proper provisions for good housing. 

(2) An endeavor to make the municipal 
government a worthy example of true civic 
patriotism rather than a school for graft 
and false ideals. (3) A broadening of the 
ordinary functions of the public schools in 
the fields of self-government and social co- 
operation and (4) the direct participation 
of the children in civic functions. 

In a chapter on The Control of Leisure Mr. 
Wilcox suggests a clear working platform 
for the checking of certain forms of vice 
that are in a large sense peculiar to the 
city, viz., prostitution, gambling and drunk- 
enness. Among his suggestions are: 

(1) All kinds of helpful activity that will 
tend to increase the usefulness of the school 
as a social center. 

(2) The supply of safe drinking water 
and toilet conveniences. 

(3) The provision of accessible public 
parks, athletic fields, gymnasia, public baths, 
etc. 

(4) The active cultivation of municipal 
art. 

(5) The encouragement of civic devotion. 

(6) The cultivation by all possible means 
of the ideal of civic righteousness as the only 
safe basis of freedom and the only legitimate 
source of civic pride. 

"While advocating a change in the laws 
where experience and common sense show 
them to be generally unenforceable," he 
writes, "I do not acknowledge the right of vice 
to exist and prey upon society. I merely ad- 
vocate the use of other and more effective 
weapons of warfare upon the enemies of 
democracy than are found in laws not sup- 
ported by public opinion, and above all the 
calling off of the mock battle that is the 
outgrowth of municipal hypocrisy and the 
cause of the carnival of police corruption 
and political blackmail which has brought 
disgrace upon democracy in the great Amer- 
ican cities." 

The last chapters of the book are devoted 
to suggestions for city administration — sug- 
gestions that ten or fifteen years ago might 
have been considered visionary, but more 



and more are becoming of practical import- 
ance in the awakened city of to-day. Direct 
legislation that will truly reflect the people's 
will, the localizing of official responsibility, 
complete separation of municipal from na- 
tional and state elections, the initiative, the 
referendum and the recall, he considers 
necessities of democracy if the people's de- 
liberate judgment shall be fully expressed 
and honestly carried out. 

The problem resolves itself again into a 
question of public education and a work- 
ing plan for civic training such as Dr. Wil- 
cox suggests — a plan that is being carried 
out in many of our large cities — will go a 
long way towards its soluton. 

Howe: In the preface to The City 

Th <Th HoDe ty of t1ve H °P e °f Democracy,* the 
Democracy." author, Frederic C. Howe, 
confesses a complete reversal of thought 
from what he terms the "orthodox" method 
of dealing with municipal reform. At the 
outset he writes: "Instead of the city being 
controlled by the charter, the suffrage, or 
by purely political institutions, I have be- 
come convinced that it is the economic en- 
vironment which creates and controls man's 
activities as well as his attitude of mind. * 
* * This explains contemporary politics. 
It alone explains conditions in Philadelphia, 
New York, St. Louis, Cincinnati. In all our 
large cities it accounts for the Crokers, the 
Coxes, the Butlers. * * * I have been 
forced by experience to a changed point- of 
view, to a belief that democracy has not 
failed by its own inherent weakness." 

The evil and the remedy are clear to Mr. 
Howe's mind; the evil, the control of public 
franchises by private corporations; ano the 
remedy, the destruction of "the system" and 
municipal ownership of public utilities. 

"Everywhere the cause is the same. It 
is privilege not wealth; franchises, not 
business; the few, not the many, that have 
overthrown our cities within the past few 
years. There is scarcely a large city in the 
country in which the public service corpora- 
tions do not control or constantly seek to 
control the government." 

But "the system" has gone farther than 
this. From the city boss it has reached out 
until it has controlled state legislatures, 
from state legislatures it has grown until 
it reached Washington and included the 
United States Senate in its grasp and "the 
state boss is graduating into the senate as 
the major-domo of old ultimately assumed 
the kingship. Here he performs the dual 
role of representing the commonwealth 
which elected him, and of disposing of priv- 
ileges and franchises, in city, county, and 
state to the interests which he represents." 
"And this system is co-extensive with the na- 
tion; it controls states and territories and 
ramifies down to city, county and township. 
It now prevails alongside of the paper gov- 
ernment it controls." 

As already indicated, Mr. Howe believes 
that the way out of this net that the system 



BUSTER BROWN; HIS SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY 1 




resolved 
this World is jujt aBig 

VAUDEVILLE vSHoW. JOME JIT 
IN THE BoXES AND <50ME JIT 
IN THE GALLERY Bl/rTHERES 
A HEAP OT PEOPLE ON THE StAGl 
AND DONT K NOW IT. 

if Docs Pont Go to 

HEAVEN TH)5 WORLD HAS 
HEAVEN BEATEN A MILE. 



THERE ARE Lots WORE 
looking glasses jbld 
than Book Cases. 



most people thinkthe y 
want only the best, but 

fOLLOW THEM AROUND f\ 
LITTLE WHILE. AND SZt 
WHAT THEY PICK OUT 

BU5TER BROWN. 




has spread lies is municipal ownership. 
The line of demarcation which he draws be- 
tween the functions which should be per- 
formed by the city and those which should 
be left to the state is this: "Whatever is 
of necessity a monopoly should be a public 
monopoly, especially where it offers a ser- 
vice of universal use. So long as the ser- 
vice is subject to the regulative power of 
competition it should be left to private con- 
trol. For monopoly and liberty cannot live 
together." 

It is difficult, however, to lay the fault for 
all our municipal doings at the door of one 
evil — the franchise. The "orthodox" evils 
which Mr. Howe speaks of in his preface 
must come in for their share. In presenting 
the claims of municipal ownership, the au- 
thor recognizes the dangers and treats them 
frankly, with the belief, however, that the 
benefits far outweigh risks of loss. 

The latter portion of the volume is given 
over to discussions of the needs of the new 
citizenship and the new city. Mr. Howe's 
whole plea is for more democracy; his creed 
is that "the cure for democracy is more 
democracy." Home rule, a system of .cen- 
tralized responsibility in the municipal gov- 
ernment, more stringent building laws, 
greater exercise of care over the youth, the 
vagrant and the poor, a withdrawal of that 
policy wherein we "canonize success and pen- 
alize failure," opening the door of indus- 
trial opportunity and providing for an in- 
creased civic pride through civic improve- 
ment — these are some of the suggestions that 
he makes for the city's redemption. 



RESOLVED 

— That the trouble with this world is all 
in the mind of the one who doesn't like it. 
The world is beautiful and it is full of sweet 
people. The lark doesn't complain; the 
roses don't kick. 



RESOLVED 

— Birthdays remind us of the flight of 
time. What are we doing with our time? 
Grieving about the past? I hope not. Liv- 
ing in the future that may never come? I 
hope not. There's no time but now. Boys, 
don't waste it by hating someone or grumb- 
ling at fate. Get busy and be kind. The 
lunatic asylums and hospitals are full of 
those whose minds and bodies have been 
poisoned by hate or malice or booze. Sweeten 
up, boys, don't let us grow old before our 
time. 



RESOLVED 

— That if you want to cultivate a sweet 
and kind disposition commence to-morrow 
morning when the coffee is awful, and noth- 
ing is fit to eat, the car won't stop for you 
and you have picked out a handkerchief that 
is full of holes. 



RESOLVED 

— That I have named my boat Advice, so 
no one would take it. There have been so 
many boats missing around here lately. But 
nobody will take advice. The only man 
who will take advice is the man who doesn't 
need it. You can get tons of advice when 
you don't need it but directly you need it 
you must pay well for it. 



RESOLVED 

— The kicker is a selfish chap. He is 
more; he is an ignorant and egotistical hog. 
To him there's no one on earth but himself. 
He is a mule. He will tell you that he gets 
what he wants by kicking. Oh! But who 
wants the scowls and curses he gets with it? 
Who wants the sour disposition he has? 
Some day it will make him sick. He may 
kick at and scold a poor, tired waiter, but 
he doesn't know that that waiter gets even 
by expectorating in his soup. Oh, boys, let's 
be kind. 



RESOLVED 

— That if dogs don't go to heaven this 
world has heaven beaten a mile. 



RESOLVED 

— That there are lots more looking glasses 
sold than bookcases. 

Buster Brown. 

111 My Resolutions; Buster Brown." For price, 
see facing 479. 



512 



some: social SENSE BY MR. DOOLEYi 



That's my policy, Hinnissy, an' it's been the 
policy of all other gr'reat statesmen. Niver 
start a riv'lution without a gun. Niver ask 
a man f r annything unless ye can make him 
think ye're li'ble to take it, annyhow. My 
wrongs ar're my wrongs, an' it's little ye 
mind thim until they begin to hurt ye. If 
I'm sick in me room upstairs ye don't care, 
but whin I begin hollerin' an' jumpin' on th' 
flure an' knockin' th' plastherin' down on 
ye'er head ye'll sind f'r th' doctor. 



Dock Grogan, who's an ol' Pagan, don't 
agree with Father Kelly on more thin two 
things, though they're th' friendliest of ini- 
mies; an' wan iv thim is Lent. Father 
Kelly says 'tis good f'r th' soul, an' Dock 
Grogan he says 'tis good f'r the body. It 
comes at th' r-right time iv th' year, he 
says, whin ivrybody has had a winther iv 
stuffin' thimsilves an' floodin' their inteer- 
yors an' settin' up late at night. It's a kind 
iv a stand off f'r th' Christmas holidays. We 
quit atin' meat because 'tis Lent — an' we've 
had too much meat. We quit smokin' be- 
cause 'tis Lent — an' we have a smokers' 
heart. We quit dhrink because it's Lent — 
an' we want to see if th' brakes ar-re wur- 
rukin'. 



Ivry year, whin the public conscience is 
aroused as it niver was befure, they calls 
f'r business men to swab out our governmint 
with business methods. Down with the pool- 
rooms, says I. But how, says you. Be 
ilictin' a business man mayor, says I. Oh, 
f'r a Moses to lead us out of th' wilderness 
an' clane th' Augeeyan stables and steer us 
between Silly an' What's-it's-name an' hoist 
th' snow-white banner iv civic purity an' 
break the feathers that bind a free people, 
an' seize the helium of state from th' pi- 
ratical crew an' restore th' heritage of our 
fathers an' cleanse th' stain from th' fair 
name iv our gr-reat city an' cure th' evils of 
th' body pollytick an' cry havic an let loose 
th' dogs iv war an' captain th' uprisin' iv 
honest manhood again the cohorts iv cor- 



ruption an' shake off the collar riveted on 
our necks be tyrranical bosses an' prim'ry 
rayform? Where is Moses? Where is this 
all-around Moses, soldier, sailor, locksmith, 
doctor, stable-boy, polisman, an' disinfec- 
tant? 



Th' Lord knows I'd rejoice to see th' day 
whin Hinnissy wud .be shakin' a throwel 
fr'm th' top iv a wall an' yellin' "Mort" at 
Andrew Carnaygie scramblin' barelegged up 
a ladder, or mesilf lyin' back on a lounge 
afther a hard day's wurruk writin' pothry 
f'r th' governmint, ordherin' th' K.ng iv Eng- 
land to bring me a poached egg an' a cup 

^Dissertations by Mr. Dooley : By Peter Finley 
Dunne. Harper and Brothers, New York. $1.50. 

5*3 




MR. DOOLEY. 

Copyright, 1906, 
The New York Times 

iv tay, an' be quick about it, darn ye. But 
I'm afraid it won't happen in our day. That 
alone wud make me a Socialist. I'h sthrong 
f'r anny rivolution that ain't goin' to hap- 
pen in me day. But th' thruth is, me boy, 
that nawthin' happens, annyhow. I see 
gr'reat changes takin' place ivry day, but 
no change at all ivry fifty years. What we 
call this here counthry iv ours pretinds to 
want to thry new experiments, but a sudden 
change gives it a chill. It's been to th' cir- 
cus and bought railroad tickets in a hurry 
so often that it thinks quick change is short 
change. Whin I take me mornin' walk an' 
see little boys an' girls with their dinner 
pails on their arms goin' down to th' yards 
I'm th' hottest Socialist ye iver see. I'd be 
annything to it. I'd be a Raypublican, even. 
But whin I think how long this foolish old 
buildin' has stood, an' how manny a good 
head has busted again' it, I begin to won- 
dher whether 'tis anny use f'r ye or me to 
thry to bump it off the map. Larkin here 
says th' capitalist system is made up iv th' 
bones iv billions iv people, like wan iv thim 
coral reefs that I used to think was pethri- 
fied sponge. If that is so, maybe th' on'y 
thing I can do about it is to plant a few 
geeranyums, injye thim while I live, an' thin 
conthribute me own busted shoulder-blades 
f'r another Rockyfellar to walk on. 

"ASSEMBLY ROOMS TO RENT 

Rooms, accommodating 160. to rent for meetings 
or classes. Facilities for tea or collations can 
be arranged. Exceptionally low terms for 
classes. For further particulars, apply to 
Miss Prances H. Puller, Ass't Sec'y, 19 E. 26th St., N. Y. 



HOUSES SUPPLYING 
CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS 

To secure a place in this Directory th« name of 
a Supply House must be submitted by an Institu- 
tion purchasing from it, and known to the pub- 
lishers of CHARITIES and THE COMMONS. 

Published every Saturday. 

Awnings. 

JOHN T. VAUSE & SON, 
218 Bowery, New York. 

Booksellers and Stationers. 
SCRANTON, WETMORE & CO., 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Carpets. 
WM. SLOANE & CO., 

Broadway and Twentieth street, New York. 

China and Olass. 

JAMES M. SHAW & CO., 

25 Duane street, New York. 

Clothing. 

ROGERS, PEET & CO., 

258, 842, 1260 Broadway, New York. 

Coffee, Tea and Spices. 
B. FISCHER & CO., 

393 Greenwich street, New York. 
GILLIES COFFEE CO., 

233 Washington street. New York. 

Disinfectants and Disinfecting Appliances. 
WEST DISINFECTING CO. (INC.), 

11 East Fifty-ninth street, New York. 

Drugs. 

EIMER & AMEND, 

205 Third Avenue, New York. 
Dry Goods. 
ABRAHAM & STRAUS, 

420 Fulton street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
FREDERICK LOESER & CO., 

484 Fulton street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
A. D. MATTHEWS SONS, 

398 Fulton street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
SIEGEL-COOPER CO., 

Sixth avenue and Eighteenth street, New York. 

Dry Goods — Wholesale. 

THE H. B. CLAFLIN CO., 
New York. 

Fire Apparatus and Supplies. 

S. F. HAYWARD & CO., 

New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburg. 

Plre Hose. 
EUREKA FIRE HOSE CO., 

13 Barclay street, New York. 
Pish. 
THE JOHN B. IHL COMPANY, 
155 West street, New York. 

Fruits and Vegetables. 
JOHN A. HENRY, 

329 Washington street, New York. 

Fish, Salt and Provisions. 

CHAS. F. MATTLAGE & SONS, 

335 Greenwich street, New York. 

Furniture and Bedding. 

SIEGEL-COOPER CO., 

Sixth avenue and Eighteenth street, New York. 
Groceries. 

AUSTIN, NICHOLS & CO., 

61 Hudson street, New York. 
L. DE GROFF & SON, 

Beach and Washington streets, New York. 
ALFRED LOWRY & BRO., 

32 South Front street, Philadelphia, Pa. 
FRANKLIN MacVEAGH & CO., 

Chicago, 111. 
SEEMAN BROS., 

Hudson and North Moore streets, New York. 
SIEGEL-COOPER CO., 

Sixth avenue and Eighteenth street, New York. 
JOHN S. SILLS & SONS, 

North River and 37th street, New York. 
R. C. WILLIAMS & CO., 

56 Hudson street, New York. 



Hardware, Tools and Supplies. 
HAMMACHER, SCHLEMMER & CO., 

Fourth avenue, Thirteenth street, New York. 
HULL. GRIPPEN & CO., 

3l0 Third avenue, New York. 
Heating, Plumbing, Electrical Supplies and 
Construction. 

EDWARD JOY, 

125 Market street, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Hospital Supplies. 

THE H. B. CLAFLIN CO., 

New York. 

House Furnishing Goods. 
C. H. & E. S. GOLDBERG, 

West Broadway and Hudson street, New York. 
LEWIS & CONGER, 

130 West Forty-second street, New York. 
SIEGEL-COOPER CO., 

Sixth avenue and Eighteenth street, New York. 
Kitchen Equipment. 
BRAMHALL, DEANE CO., 

264 Water street, New York. 
DUPARQUET, HUOT & MONEUSE CO., 

43 Wooster street, New York. 
LEWIS & CONGER, 

130 West Forty-second street, New York. 
MORANDI-PROCTOR COMPANY, 

48-50 Union street, Boston, Mass. 

Laundry Supplies. 
AMERICAN LAUNDRY MACHINE CO., 

132 West Twenty-seventh street, New York 
Leather and Shoemaking Supplies. 
BOSLER BROTHERS, 
Louisville, Kentucky. 

Linens. 
SIEGEL-COOPER CO., 

Sixth avenue and Eighteenth street, New York. 
Meats and Provisions. 
BATCHELDER & SNYDER COMPANY, 

55-63 Blackstone street, Boston, Mass. 
CONRON BROTHERS COMPANY, 

10th Avenue — 13th-14th streets, New York. 

Office Files and Furniture. 

CLARKE & BAKER CO., 

258 Canal street, New York. 
Paints and Glass. . 

THOMAS C. DUNHAM, 

68 Murray street, New York. 
THOMAS C. EDMONDS & CO., 

1826-28 Park avenue, New York. 

Paper. 
THE JEROME PAPER COMPANY, 
570 Seventh avenue, New York. 
Printers and Publishers. 

BENJ. H. TYRREL, 

206-208 Fulton street, New York. 

DEWITT C. GARDNER, 

182 Fulton Street, New York. 
Sheets and Pillow Cases. 
THE H. B. CLAFLIN CO., 
New York. 

Shoes. 
BAY STATE SHOE & LEATHER CO., 

40 Hudson street, New York. 
MERRITT ELLIOTT & CO., 

130-132 Duane street, New York. 

Soap. 
ENOCH MORGAN'S SONS CO., 
439 West street, New York. 

Sterilizing Apparatus. 

BRAMHALL, DEANE CO., 

264 Water street, New York. 
Tea. 
WISSOTZKY'S RUSSIAN TEA, 

155 East Broadway, New York City. 

A. Lubarskt. Manager 

Typewriters. 
REMINGTON TYPEWRITER CO., 
327 Broadway, New York. 
Wood. 

CLARK & WILKINS, _^ 

Eleventh ave., cor. Twenty-fourth it., H. I. 



Charities 

and The Commons 



Edward T. Devine. Editor 
Gn ham Taylor, associate 
Lee K. Frankel, Associate for 
Jewish Charity 



THe Common Welfare 



Paragraphs in PHilantHropy and Social Advance 



„ - , Students of child labor in- 

Handbook , . , . , 

of child Labor terested in legislation, state 

Legislation. ^ federal> nQW turn for 

the latest authoritative data to the Hand- 
book of Child Labor Legislation, issued 
annually by the National Consumers' 
League. 1 This year the fifth annual issue 
appears as the January supplement to the 
Annals of the American Academy of Po- 
litical and Social Science, the handbook 
having gradually expanded from a four- 
page leaflet in 1902 to a sixty- four-page 
pamphlet in 1907. 

While the legislative gains of the year 

1905 were less than those of 1904 by rea- 
son of the smaller number of legislatures 
in session, the vitality of the anti-child 
labor movement is indicated by the in- 
troduction during December, of the Bev- 
eridge and Lodge child labor bills in the 
United States Senate, and the fact that 
there are now pending before Congress 
the bill for investigation of the labor of 
women and children, the District of Col- 
umbia child labor bill, and the bill for 
a children's bureau in the federal gov- 
ernment. For the first time in the his- 
tory of the republic, Congress is engaged 
in an attempt to legislate on behalf of the 
children of the nation. 

During 1905 the compulsory education 
bill for the district became a law and is 
now in force, and seven states improved 
their child labor laws, — Georgia, Iowa, 
Louisiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Massa- 
chusetts and New York. Great interest 
attaches to the new law enacted during 

1906 in Georgia because it registers the 
acceptance by that state of the principle 
that child labor must be restricted. 
Otherwise, the statute is of slight value, 

JThe handbook can be obtained from the National 
Consumers' League, 105 E. 22d Street, New York City. 

659 



since it permits children to work at the 
age of ten years if they are orphans or 
children of widowed mothers or of dis- 
abled or aged fathers. At the age of 
twelve years, all children may work by 
day, and after the fourteenth birthday all 
may work at night. There is no factory 
inspection, no compulsory school attend- 
ance, no restriction of dangerous occupa- 
tions. 

An important backward step was taken 
in Pennsylvania in 1906 when the judges 
of two courts held unconstitutional the 
new provision in the mining law and the 
child labor law which provided for docu- 
mentary evidence of the age of the chil- 
dren in addition to the affidavit of the 
parent or guardian. 

In consequence of these decisions chil- 
dren in Pennsylvania are again free to 
work in all occupations at any age under 
the perjured affidavits of unscrupulous 
parents or guardians stating that the chil- 
dren are fourteen years of age. 

Although the list of states fixing four- 
teen years as the legal age for work slow- 
ly lengthens, there are still great num- 
bers of exceptions. The legal age for 
beginning to work remains at ten years 
in Nebraska (in vacation), and in Ala- 
bama and Arkansas at all times for chil- 
dren of widows and disabled fathers. 

Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont 
are the only remaining northern states 
which permit factory work at the age of 
twelve years. Although this is nominally 
limited to the vacation, the return of chil- 
dren to school in the fall is difficult, if 
not impossible of enforcement. The im- 
portance of the twelve years' age limit 
in these states lies in the fact that all 
three have cotton mills employing chil- 
dren. 



66o 



Charities and The Commons 



Of the glass-manufacturing states, 
Maryland and West Virginia still let 
children begin work at twelve years of 
age. Of the mining states, eight let chil- 
dren work in mines at twelve years. 
These are Iowa, Missouri, North Caro- 
lina, North Dakota, Pennsylvania (in 
bituminous mines), South Carolina, Vir- 
ginia and West Virginia. 

Indeed, judged by these schedules, this 
country is still far from having adopted 
fourteen years as the universal age for 
beginning to work. 

One of the great gains in recent years 
is the establishment of an early closing 
hour, — six or seven p. m. — for children 
under the age of sixteen years in six 
states, Michigan, Oregon, Illinois, Ken- 
tucky, New York and Ohio. The latest 
addition to this list is New York, where 
7 p. m. became the legal closing hour 
for stores and factories alike on October 
ist, 1906. Under these humane statutes, 
the Christmas season has been freed 
from the greatest cruelties which for- 
merly surrounded it in New York, Chi- 
cago and Cleveland. 

The restriction of the hours of labor 
proceeds, however, scarcely more rapidly 
than the adoption of fourteen years as the 
legal age for beginning to work. 

Illinois led the states in establishing in 
1903 the working day of eight hours for 
all children under sixteen years of age 
employed in manufacture and commerce. 

Ohio continues to enforce the closing 
hour, 7 p. m. for girls under eighteen 
years, in all gainful occupations, the pro- 
posed amendment having fortunately 
failed of enactment which threatened to 
abolish this most valuable protection for 
the workers. 

The District of Columbia, twenty-two 
states and seven territories have no es- 
tablished legal closing hour for the work- 
ing day of children. These include such 
important industrial states as Connecticut, 
Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, New 
Jersey, South Carolina and Tennessee. 

For the first time, those states are 
listed separately which restrict the em- 
ployment of messenger boys. Their age 
limit is fourteen years in California, Illi- 
nois, Kentucky, (except in vacation), 
Michigan, New York, Ohio, Oregon. 



Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin (12 years 
in vacation). In Maryland boys may be 
messengers at twelve years, in Vermont 
at twelve years in vacation and at fifteen 
in school hours. From every point of 
view this is one of the worst occupations 
for children, yet great numbers of boys 
are employed in it, the telegraph com- 
panies being the largest employers of 
children in the country. 

It is for the protection of these young 
boys, otherwise so generally devoid of 
protection, that the statute known as the 
"adult delinquent law" is particularly val- 
uable because it enables the courts to hold 
responsible all parents and employers who 
send messenger and telegraph boys to 
objectionable places, and all proprietors 
who permit young boys to enter. For 
this reason, the text of the "adult delin- 
quent" law is this year incorporated in 
the Handbook of Child Labor Legisla- 
tion. 

Since laws are not secure until their 
constitutionality is upheld by the courts, 
much importance attaches to two supreme 
court decisions of the past year. The 
texts of these decisions are given in the 
handbook. The supreme courts of Cali- 
fornia and Oregon have upheld the child 
labor laws enacted in 1905 in those states. 
An appeal has been taken from the Ore- 
gon decision to the Supreme Court at 
Washington. 

For Re*u= The appointment _ of the 
lating Jewish geographical commission of 

Emigration. the j^ the j nternational 

organization of Jewish territorialists, was 
announced in Charities and The Com- 
mons for November 10. This commission 
consisting of five members of which Sec- 
retary Straus is one, was to have laid 
before it reports on the selection of sites 
suitable for Jewish colonization purposes. 
In the meantime the Ito has created 
a new and supplementary department for 
the regulation of emigration. This de- 
partment is financially independent and 
Leopold de Rothschild is its treas- 
urer. The London house of Rothschild 
has contributed £10,000 and the Paris 
firm a similar amount. This new de- 
partment will intervene wherever it can- 
be of use politically. The first project 



Additional Hospital Facilities for Washington 



66 1 



to which the department will give its at- 
tention will be the regulation of the 
emigration to America. In accordance 
with the spirit of the suggestions made by 
President Roosevelt to turn the stream of 
emigration gradually in the direction of 
Galveston instead of New York, a Jew- 
ish Immigrants' Information Bureau is to 
be established in the latter city for the 
guidance of the emigrants. 

Jacob H. Schiff has contributed half 
a million dollars toward this project. 
The American end of the work of the 
department will be under the direction 
of Cyrus L. Sultzberger. 

Additional The campaign for social 
Facnities a, for legislation at the national 
Washington. ca pital includes this year an 
effort to secure the erection of a hos- 
pital for chronic cases and convalescents. 
The Board of Public Charities has asked 
Congress to appropriate $100,000 for the 
erection of hospital wards on the muni- 
cipal ground where wards for indigent 
consumptives are now being constructed. 
The Associated Charities at its December 
meeting organized a special committee 
to co-operate with the Board of Public 
Charities in developing public opinion 
and securing congressional approval for 
the plan. No existing institution pro- 
vides for chronics or convalescents and 
it is evident that they may properly be 
cared for in an institution which need not 
be so expensive as a hospital for acute 
cases. The need is great. Existing 
hospitals cannot retain the indigent sick 
beyond the time of their recovery from 
acute diseases, consequently many con- 
valescents, who are not yet able to re- 
turn to work, are sent back into needy 
homes where lack of care or food and in- 
sanitary surroundings often cause a re- 
lapse which results sometimes in per- 
manent impairment. Typhoid cases, for 
example, after four or five weeks in a 
hospital are sent back to the alleys and 
hovels of Washington, where they find 
it difficult to gain strength sufficient to 
enable them to resume work. Such 
cases could be cared for economically at 
the institution proposed by the Board of 
Public Charities. 

The agents of the Associated Charities 
and other workers who are in touch with 



needy families, find a great many old or 
ailing people, who require some care but 
are not appropriate cases for an ordinary 
hospital. These sufferers are often un- 
willing to go to the Washington Asylum 
Hospital because its close connection 
with the work-house and district jail in- 
volves a stigma upon the poor people who 
are sent there. Many prefer to suffer 
in their neglected homes. Even if* they 
are willing to go to the Washington 
asylum the existing accommodations are 
not sufficiently ample or of satisfactory 
character for all this class of cases. The 
Washington Asylum Hospital occupies 
some wooden buildings on the grounds 
where the jail and workhouse are locat- 
ed. The hospital wards have to care 
for a good many work-house prisoners. 
While the buildings have been some- 
what improved through the efforts of the 
Board of Public Charities it is evident 
that chronic cases and convalescents of 
the National Capital cannot be properly 
provided for until Congress is persuaded 
to develop special wards on the appropri- 
ate hospital site already owned by the city, 
removed from the penal institutions and 
selected for the development of special 
wards for consumptives. 

Like many other cities the 
inebriated national capital provides no 

intelligent treatment for 
drunkards, but simply arrests them as 
criminals, sends them to the work-house 
for fifteen to ninety days, clothes them 
in stripes and turns them out after their 
term of punishment, weakened rather 
than strengthened. A special committee 
has recently been organized by the Asso- 
ciated Charities to co-operate with the 
public authorities in promoting the pas-- 
sage of proper legislation and the de- 
velopment of appropriate institutional 
care for the treatment of men and women 
who are the victims of alcoholism. Judge 
William H. DeLacy, the judge of the 
new juvenile court, Justice David J. 
Brewer, president of the Associated 
Charities, and Miss Helen Nicolay have 
been selected to represent the board of 
managers of the Associated Charities on 
this special committee with power to se- 
lect other members from organizations 
like the W. C. T. U., the Anti-Saloon 



662 



Charities and The Commons 



League, and other societies interested in 
temperance work. Inquiries are being 
made as to legislative methods which 
other communities have developed for 
dealing with inebriates. The movement 
is opportune because some good buildings 
have been vacated by the removal of 
the almshouse of the home for the aged 
from the site of the Washington Asylum 
Hospital to a new place in the country. 
The Board of Public Charities are asking 
Congress for $3,000 with which to pre- 
pare one of the substantial almshouse 
buildings so that inebriates may be cared 
for in one of the wings, and in the other, 
patients who are held for examination as 
to their suspected insanity. No little 
public opinion has been aroused on the 
subject of Washington's treatment of 
drunkards for there has been a striking 
instance recently where a drunken man 
was arrested, locked up without medical 
care, and left to die in the police station 
cell. The agents of the Associated Chari- 
ties have also complained that they have 
no means of securing treatment for in- 
ebriates who are willing to commit them- 
selves voluntarily for institutional care. 
For the other large class of drunkards 
who ought to be sentenced by a court to 
receive medical treatment, appropriate 
exercise, and systematic upbuilding there 
is also an entire lack of any provision at 
present. 

While Congress has not yet 

Subsidies , » ., /.. 

to Private consented to provide public 
charities. treatment f or indigent con- 
valescents, chronic cases and inebriates 
for whom there is absolutely no provision 
at present, it is being urged to continue 
its system of public subsidies to private 
hospitals and other charities. For ex- 
ample the Columbia Hospital for Women 
is asking an appropriation of $300,000 
for the erection of a new building to 
serve as a lying-in asylum which is ex- 
pected to accommodate about 100 charity 
cases and fifty paid cases. It is proposed 
that this new building shall occupy a 
valuable government site worth $500,000 
so that the cost of the institution will be 
$800,000. The Board of Public Charities 
is vigorously opposing the proposed ap- 
propriation for the following reasons. 



The daily average number of patients at 
this hospital last year was seventy-two, of 
whom nineteen were private paid pati- 
ents and fifty-three charity patients. Of 
the fifty-three about fourteen were in- 
fants and about thirty-nine adults. There 
is now ample accommodations for paid 
patients in other hospitals where they are 
greatly desired, and there is surely no 
reason why the government should now 
provide for persons who are able to pay. 
The charity patients are also being gladly 
received at other institutions, as addi- 
tional patients lower the per diem cost of 
maintenance. Lying-in patients are re- 
ceived in not less than six existing hos- 
pitals and there is ample provision for 
both white and colored patients of this 
class. On this point the report of the 
Board of Public Charities says : 

In view of this fact, and because of even 
more ample provision for gynecological 
cases, the board cannot recommend the con- 
tinuance of an institution which, apart from 
occupying a government site estimated to be 
worth $500,000, involves an outlay of more 
than $300,000 for new buildings. The in- 
terest on the gross investment alone would 
be sufficient to care for almost double the 
number of indigent patients now treated 
at Columbia Hospital. * * * After pro- 
visions shall have been made for the more 
urgent needs of the indigent poor it is the 
intention of the board to recommend the 
erection of a maternity hospital on a less 
expensive site already owned by the district 
government, at a cost not to exceed $150,- 
000 with accommodations for about 150 indi- 
gent patients. 

Within the last five years Congress 
has appropriated practically three-quar- 
ters of a million dollars for hospital fa- 
cilities in Washington, and it is evident 
that before general hospital accommoda- 
tions are unnecessarily extended and du- 
plicated, provision should be made, as 
the Board of Public Charities recom- 
mends : 

for general chronic cases and convalescent 
patients, also for the temporary detention 
of insane persons and of cases of alcoholism 
who may be arrested or who are in the cus- 
tody of the police to be detained pending 
their examination and legal disposition. 

To a large extent the present struggle 
over congressional appropriations for 
hospital service is a contest between 



The School as a Social Center 



663 



well-known and highly esteemed citizens 
who are interested in some particular in- 
stitution, on the one hand, and the Board 
of Public Charities, comprising equally 
public spirited citizens who are trying, 
as they say, 

to view the needs of the district as a whole 
and to secure a more uniform and more har- 
monious co-ordination of the entire char- 
itable work of the district and to provide 
adequate care and treatment for all classes 
of our indigent fellow citizens with the least 
outlay to the community as a whole. 

Need for It is suggested by some 
Methods of members of the committee 
Employment. on t h e Improvement of 
Housing Conditions of the Associated 
Charities that there is need for the 
application of civil service methods 
by law to the selection of the 
4,200 employes for the local municipal 
service in Washington, D. C. In the 
very seat and stronghold of civil ser- 
vice, where some 23,000 local employes 
of the national government are selected 
by these methods, no law has been en- 
acted or order promulgated including 
under civil service the 4,200 municipal 
government employes. The district 
commissioners have usually voluntarily 
asked the United States Civil Service 
Commission to hold examinations for the 
selection of firemen and policemen, and 
occasionally for other classes. The dis- 
trict authorities say that they endeavor 
to secure the best worker obtainable for 
each position but there is no law gov- 
erning the matter. It has been brought 
up that the local health department is 
weakened by the engagement and reten- 
tion of employes over whose employment 
and discharge the health officer, who is 
responsible for the department, has no 
control. 

No good reason has been given for the 
failure to establish by law the merit sys- 



tem of making all appointments to the 
district service. A Washington man sums 
up the situation as follows : 

A situation of some difficulty exists, how- 
ever, with respect to the employes now in 
the service. No one whose work brings him 
into contact with the several inspectors hav- 
ing supervision in their respective lines over 
different sections of the district can fail to 
observe the wide variation in the quantity 
and quality of the work done. What is true 
with reference to such inspectors is presum- 
ably true With respect to other employes. 
Either it must be frankly admitted that 
some of these men are incompetent, their 
retention in the service justified, and a de- 
mand made for an increase in the working 
force to make up for their deficiencies; or 
the incompetents must be separated from 
the service. If neither course be pursued 
public interests must suffer. 



The school Philadelphia is about to try 

as a Social a very interesting experi- 
ment in the way of using 
the school as a club house. If it is suc- 
cessful, it will doubtless be incorporated 
into the whole public school system of 
the city. 

The plan briefly, is this : A school 
house in the crowded district of the city 
has been selected. In the course of a few 
weeks, the Board of Public Education is 
to fit out in it, a reading room, a play 
and game room, and a place for informal 
illustrated talks on popular subjects. 
Provision will also be made for manual 
training. Clubs will then be organized 
among the school boys and girls of the 
neighborhood. 

The entire expense will be borne by 
the city, no fees or dues to be collected. 
The building will be open two evenings 
a week, from 7 to 9 p. m. The attend- 
ance will be entirely voluntary. The 
plan has the hearty support of Dr. Brum- 
baugh, superintendent of schools, and 
great things are expected of it, — as this 
is the first organized attempt to keep the 
children from the street. 



Notes 



Par k Gift to New York State. — William 
Pryor Letchworth, a former commissioner 
of the New York State Board of Charities, 
and an active philanthropic worker, has of- 
fered as a gift to the state about 1,000 acres 
of wooded park land at Portage, N. Y. Mr. 
Letchworth reserves the right to retain the 
use and tenancy of the property until his 
death. 

The estate lies on both sides of the canon 
of the upper Genessee river, for a distance of 
three miles north of Portage bridge and 
embraces the three famous portage falls. 

The American Scenic and Historical Pres- 
ervation Society will have the control of 
the estate after Mr. Letchworth's death. The 
committee of this society which put the 
proposal before Governor Hughes is com- 
posed of Dr. Kunz, acting president; Prof. 
L. H. Bailey of Cornell, Charles M. Dow of 
Jamestown, Francis Whiting Halsey of New 
York, Dr. Henry M. Leipziger of the Board 
of Education, New York, Deputy Comptroller 
N. Taylor Phillips, Col. Henry W. Sackett 
and E. H. Hall of New York. 

A more extended description of the estate 
will appear in Charities and The Commons 
for February 2. 

Tuberculosis Exhibition in Mexico. — The 
Tuberculosis Exhibition of the National As- 
sociation for the Study and Prevention of 
Tuberculosis has recently been shown in 
Mexico at the time of the annual meeting of 
the American Public Health Association in 
that city. It was open from December 4 to 
11 and was visited not only by those in at- 
tendance at the convention, but by large 
numbers of the citizens. 

Conferences and lectures were given each 
day both in English and Spanish and the 
public health authorities of Mexico report a 
marked awakening of interest in the tuber- 
culosis campaign in their city. 

It would seem as if the National Associa- 
tion were becoming international in its 
scope since not only Mexico but Canada is 
now taking up the work of organizing ex- 
hibitions and associations along the lines 
advocated by the association. 

At present the exhibition is in San An- 
tonio. From there it will go to Minneapolis 
and St. Paul and in March it is expected in 
Providence. Definite plans beyond that 
point are not made. 

The Education of Defectives. — New York 
University announces among its new courses 
given in the school of pedagogy, a special 
course on the education of defectives. It 
is the aim of the course to meet the need 
for professional training of teachers, by 
offering those who are already engaged in 

664 



this kind of work and those who wish to 
fit themselves for it, an exceptional oppor- 
tunity for studying the problems involved. 
The lectures will treat the subject in a 
practical manner, and will avoid the discus- 
sion of the purely scientific and medical as- 
pects of it. There are 51 students en- 
rolled in this class, consisting of teachers 
of defective children in public and private 
schools, principals and superintendents. 

For a Juvenile Court in St. Joseph. — 
Raobi Louis Bernstein of St. Joseph, Mis- 
souri, is at the head of a movement which 
has for its object the extension of the ju- 
venile court system so as to include the 
city of St. Joseph. 

The statutes of the state of Missouri now 
provide such courts in Kansas City and St. 
Louis so that an amendment to the exist- 
ing law will be all that is necessary in 
order to cover St. Joseph. State-Senator- 
elect Charles H. Mayer has volunteered to 
introduce such an amendment at the next 
session of the legislature. 

Proposed "International Juvenile Court So- 
ciety" — Judge Ben B. Lindsey took advant- 
age of the fact that the Truancy Conference 
attracted to Chicago last month many people 
interested in the movement to federate the 
various juvenile improvement agencies, al- 
lied to the juvenile court. A meeting was 
held on December 9 of the committee ap- 
pointed by him last June when it was decid- 
ed to form an association of such agencies. 
The meeting drew up a report to be sub- 
mitted to a later meeting which will be 
called by Judge Lindsey, proposing that the 
new organization be named the "Interna- 
tional Juvenile Court Society," and that it 
be incorporated in Illinois. The plan pro- 
vides for a permanent secretary, and it is 
expected that the main purpose of the or- 
ganization will be to serve as a clearing 
house of information, to which all inquiries 
may be addressed or referred. 

Annual Meeting Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan 
Asylum. — The Brooklyn Hebrew Orphan 
Asylum has the distinction of not having 
had one death among its 313 inmates during 
the year ending December 16. Moses May, 
who has been president of the institution 
for fourteen years, in reading the annual 
report called particular attention to the 
manner in which the institution is over- 
taxed in meeting the demands for accommo- 
dations. 

The estimated cost of a proposed extension 
(plans for which have already been pre- 
pared) is $250,000, of which some $30,000 
has been subscribed. 

The superintendent reported that the 
membership of the society had now reached 
1,445, nearly 500 members having been en- 



Notes 



665 



rolled during the past year. 

Moses May and Abraham Abraham were 
re-elected president and vice-president, re- 
spectively; Moses J. Harris was elected 
treasurer in place of Herman Newman, re- 
signed. 

The following were named trustees: Max 
Reiss for one year, William Meruk for two 
years, and Joseph J. Grossman, Samuel 
Klein, Nathaniel H. Levi, Emil Lewis Meyer, 
Leopold Micher, Simon S. Rothschild, Meier 
Steinbrink and Julius Straus for three 
years. 

Charity Organization in Englewood. — 
Mrs. Frederick S. Bennett of Englewood, N. 
J., is at the head of a movement to establish 
a charity organization society in that city. 
Mrs. Bennett is president of the Civic 
League, which will co-operate with the new 
society. The following are among those 
who are inaugurating the work: Mrs. Rob- 
ert C. Hill, Mrs. James Barber, Mrs. F. M. 
Olyphant, Mrs. E. M. Bulkley, Mrs. C. P. 
Coleman, Mrs. A. J. Ditman, Mrs. J. A. Bo- 
gert, Mrs. Charles E. Finlay, Mrs. J. Milton 
Elmore, Mrs. D. E. Pomeroy, Mrs. Clinton 
H. Beake, Mrs. Thomas Lamont, Mrs. George 
A. Graham, Mrs. W. L. Pierce, Mrs. James 
H. Coe, Mrs. Louis H. Burr, Mrs. J. Hugh 
Peters, Mrs. Caroline Chapin, Miss Alice 
Gorham, Miss Jennie Vermilye, Dr. Carrie 
H. Van Home, Miss Anna Clark, Miss Glass- 
ford, Mayor Donald Mackay, Frederick S. 
Bennett, E. A. Brinckerhoff, E. M. Bulkley, 
R. P. Wortendyke and Frederick B. Schenck. 

Annual Meeting of Beth-Israel Hospital. — 
Beth-Israel Hospital at Monroe, Jefferson 
and Cherry streets, New York, held its six- 
teenth annual meeting on December 26. The 
report of the president, Joseph H. Cohen, 
stated that although 93.47 per cent, of the 
patients at the hospital during the year 
just past had received free treatment, al- 
most one thousand more applicants had to 
be turned away on account of lack of room. 

The treasurer of the new building com- 
mittee announced that about $25,000 had 
already been secured for the new building 
to be erected on a plot adjoining the pres- 
ent building. 

Donations of $5,000 each were received 
from Adolph Lewisohn, Samuel J. Silber- 
man, Jacob H,. Schiff, S. Bachrach, and 
Uriah Herrmann. 

The Garden Cities Association. — The offi- 
cers of the newly organized Garden Cities 
Associations of America, whose work was 
described in the issues of Charities and the 
Commons for November 17, are announced as 
follows: 

President, John Lewis Childs; vice-presi- 
dent, Ralph Peters; vice-president, Levi C. 
Weir; treasurer, R. W. Jones, Jr.; secretary, 
W. D. P. Bliss; auditor, P. H. Woodward. 

The offices are located in the Metropolitan 
Building, Fourth avenue and 23rd street, 



New York City. At present the asso- 
ciation is especially desirous of secur- 
ing correspondence with manufacturing con- 
cerns which might consider moving into the 
country. 

Compulsory Tuberculosis Registration in 
Pittsburg. — In his report for the months of 
October and November, Dr. J. F. Edwards 
of the Pittsburg Bureau of Health, an- 
nounces that hereafter city physicians will 
be required to report to the bureau .every 
case of tuberculosis that they are called upon 
to attend. There is a state law in Pennsyl- 
vania requiring registration but it has been 
practically ignored. The records of the tu- 
berculosis patients will be kept for the ex- 
clusive use of the bureau. 

Circulars will be sent to the physicians 
of the city directing them to report all cases 
and where the patients are unable to secure 
proper medical attention the city will make 
provision for their care through dispensaries 
or in sanatoria. 

Hebrew Sheltering Home, Philadelphia. — 
The creation of a more thorough system, 
and a greater ease of administration have 
been the governing motives in equipping the 
new quarters of the Hebrew Sheltering 
Home and Day Nursery for children in 
Philadelphia. This home gives temporary 
shelter to children whose mothers are sep- 
arated from them through illness requiring 
hospital treatment. It is also unique in that 
it gives extended care to the children and 
their families who may seek their regular 
assistance. 

For the Prevention of Social Disease. — 
The Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention 
of Social Disease has announced for its cam- 
paign of 1907: (1) To instruct every adult 
in the state of Pennsylvania with regard to 
the prevalence and means of prevention of 
venereal disease, and (2) to secure the will- 
ing treatment of venereal disease by every 
hospital management throughout the state. 
The officers of the society are: Abra- 
ham M. Beitler, president; Dr. W. W. Keen, 
Charles C. Harrison, Col. R. Dale Benson, 
vice presidents; Dr. Robert N. Willson, sec- 
retary; Dr. Jay F. Schamberg, treasurer. 

Time Schedule of New York C. O. S. Li- 
brary. — The public sociological library of the 
New York Charity Organization Society, 105 
East 22d street, is now open under the fol- 
lowing recently adopted time schedule: 

Monday-Friday, 8:45 A. M. to 5:45 P. M. 

Saturday, 8:45 A. M. to 1 P. M. 

Monday, Wednesday and Friday evenings, 
7:30 to 10.00 P. M. (Sept. to July). 

The general magazines and papers, as well 
as all special sociological publications, home 
and foreign, may be consulted in the library, 
which has also a separate clipping service, 
aiming to keep on file those clippings which 
are of pertinent or permanent value to the 
various philanthropic interests of the day. 



666 



Charities and The Commons 



Immigrant Trades on New York's East 
Side. — The University Settlement Quarterly, 
Vol. II, No. 3, is made up mainly of studies 
of the immigration problem. An interesting 
paper is contributed by A. M. Sakelski on 
the smaller industries of the lower East 
Side. The article points out that while the 
needle trades still predominate, the notion 
that they are the exclusive occupation of 
the immigrant resident of the neighborhood 
is erroneous. The existence of such pecu- 
liar industries in nourishing condition, as 
wig-making, trunk-making, brush-making 
and brass and copper manufacture, offer dis- 
tinct evidence that these immigrants have 
individual occupations and handicrafts of 
their own. The needle and cigar-making 
trades are being more and more used as make- 
shifts until the immigrant can find an open- 
ing in the work he has made his own before 
coming here. The writer is borne out in 
his statement that mechanics and building 
laborers are increasingly demanded from 
the East Side, by statements of builders who 
say that the Jewish workman is gradually 
taking the place of the Irish laborer just as 
the place of the Jew is being filled in the 
sweat shop by the Italian. 

Grand View Institution Rebuilt. — The 
Grand View Institution, for the care and 
treatment of tuberculosis, at Oil City, Pa., 
which was destroyed by first last August, 
has been rebuilt and is now caring for 
twenty-one patients. The directors of the 
institution are: 

S. Y. Ramage, president; L. L. Graham, 
vice-president; P. S. Bates, treasurer; J. M. 
Reed, Fred Rich, Dr. Frank McCarthy, Mrs. 
B. F. Brundred, Mrs. G. Delleker, Dr. H. E. 
Kirschner, medical director. 

Earthquakes and Juvenile Offenders. — It is 
interesting to note that in spite of the un- 
toward and demoralizing events that oc- 
curred in California last year, there has 
been a decrease in the number of juvenile 
offenders committed to reformatories. 

New York German Hospital Acquires 
Property. — Following resolutions adopted at 
a recent meeting of the Commissioners of 
the Sinking Fund of New York city, the 
municipality authorized the sale of a piece 
of land valued at $400,000 to the German 
Hospital and Dispensary for the nominal 
sum of $5,000. The lot was leased to the 
hospital by the city in 1884. It extends 
153 feet in Park avenue, 102 feet in Lex- 
ington avenue and 205 feet in East 77th 
street. 

The resolution adopted by the commis- 
sioners called for the conveyance of all the 
rights, title and interest of the city in the 
land to the hospital. This action is the re- 
sult of a law passed by the Legislature of 
1903, providing for the sale of the land to 
the hospital for a nominal sum. 



The German Hospital is now building a 
new dispensary on its property, which will 
be opened, it is expected, in the early part 
of the year. The money for the erection 
and maintenance of the new annex was 
provided by Mrs. Anna Woerishoffer and 
the late Edward Uhl. It will be named 
the Anna Ottendorfer Dispensary, in mem- 
ory of their mother. 

Harlem Federation House Dedicated. — 
Harlem Federation House at 240 East 105th 
street was dedicated on Sunday, December 
23. The speakers were the president of 
the federation, Rev. Dr. Maurice PI. Harris, 
Jacob H. Schiff, Michael M. Davis, Jr., and 
Rev. Dr. M. H. Grossman. 

The newly appointed headworker is Miss 
Eugenia Schlom of Baltimore., who was 
in charge of the work of the Maccabean 
House in that city during the past summer. 

Baltimore Secretaries. — In the recent re- 
port of the anniversary meeting of the 
Charity Organization Society of Baltimore, 
an error was made as to the first general sec- 
retary. William C. Kloman was the first 
general secretary, appointed in 1885. Amos 
G. Warner succeeded him in March, 1887. 
He was succeeded by Charles Lee Smith in 
March, 1899. Miss Richmond was appoint- 
ed general secretary in the spring of 1891. 

Child Labor Laws Ignored in West Oak- 
land. — "Twenty-one nationalities are repre- 
sented," writes a San Francisco settlement 
worker of a poor neighborhood in West Oak- 
land. "We find the child labor law utterly 
ignored, the cotton mills, pickle works and 
fruit canneries employing hundreds of chil- 
dren under the legal age." 

Superintendent of Hebrew Relief Asso- 
ciation, Kansas City. — Jacob Billikopf, su- 
perintendent of the Hebrew Relief Asso- 
ciation of Milwaukee, has resigned to ac- 
cept a similar position in Kansas City, Mis- 
souri. Mr. Billikopf held a scholarship of 
the National Conference of Jewish Charities 
and studied at the University of Chicago, 
Columbia University and the New York 
School of Philanthropy. 

In the Interests of the Blind. — The New 
York Association for the Blind will hold its 
second public meeting January 15 at the 
Waldorf. Bishop Greer will preside and 
Miss Helen Keller will speak. Some of the 
blind co-operators of the association will tell 
in five-minute talks, illustrated by stereopti- 
con views, of the work which has been done 
the past nine months; and in an adjoining 
room blind workers — typewriters, telephone 
switchboard operators, basket, broom and 
mattress makers, machine and hand sewers, 
toy makers, carpenters, etc. — will be seen at 
their various occupations. 



TKe Midwives of New YorK 



F. Elisabeth Crowell 

[TKis investigation into the conditions of midwifery practice in 
New Yorh city was made underthe auspices of the Public Health 
Committee of the Association of Neighborhood Worhers. The re- 
port was submitted on December 20, 1906, at a special meeting 
of the Committee held at the New Yorh Academy of Medicine, 
at which were present representatives of the New YorK County 
Medical Society, the Fling's County Medical Society, the Academy 
of Medicine, the Board of Health and the New YorK Obstetrical 
Society. Miss Crowell is a graduate nurse and was for several 
years the superintendent of St. Anthony's Hospital in Pensacola, 
Florida. She is at present assistant secretary of the New YorK 
state branch of the Public Health Defense League.] 



To the physician in his daily battle with 
disease and suffering, to the lawyer with 
his wide experience of crime and crimi- 
nals, to the city official in his endeavor to 
record carefully and accurately the vital 
statistics of a great city, to the social 
worker in his or her intimate daily contact 
with the great masses of humanity who 
are living on the verge of dependence, 
the problem of the midwife and her prac- 
tice has presented itself in varying aspects 
— professional, criminal or social — but al- 
ways as a problem of grave importance. 
It was for the purpose of obtaining that 
knowledge of conditions and facts in- 
dispensable to the solution of any problem 
that this investigation of midwifery prac- 
tice both abroad and in this country, but 
more especially here in New York, was 
undertaken last February at the instance 
of the representative body of men and 
women interested in social work in New 
York city, the Association of Neighbor- 
hood Workers. 

Before going into the details of the 
methods of the investigation and the re- 
sults thereof, it may not be amiss to give 
just a word relating to the world-old 
custom of employing midwives. History 
and tradition are at one as to its antiquity. 
In fact, the history of midwifery is the 
history of the human race. From the 
earliest ages mothers of all races, Jew- 
ish, Egyptian, Greek, Roman, down to 
the modern European, have called upon 
the midwife for assistance in child-birth. 
During thousands of years the care of 
parturient women was practically entirely 
in the hands of these midwives. If an 
unusual or dangerous complication arose, 
a physician was called upon to assist in 
the delivery, but the process of labor was 

667 



considered a natural, normal occurrence, 
requiring ordinarily no interference or aid 
outside of that to be obtained irom 
women experienced in this form of serv- 
ice. 

At the end of the fifteenth - \tury the 
impetus which the invention ■ >i printing 
had given to all branches of human 
knowledge was felt in the science of medi- 
cine; its branches began to pulse with 
new life and vigor, and midwifery, which 
had heretofore been regarded as an art, 
now began to develop as a science. Here 
was the physician's opportunity. His 
development kept pace with the increas- 
ing intelligence of the community, while 
the midwife, when she did not actually 
retrograde, at least stood still. Uni- 
versities that were open to physicians 
were closed to her, opportunities for ad- 
vancement, for improvement, were de- 
nied her; the profession of midwife 
ceased to be regarded as a profession. 
The result was inevitable, — a gradual 
lowering of the standards that had hither- 
to prevailed among women who devoted 
themselves to this calling. During the 
seventeenth century we find the man-mid- 
wife, as he was then contemptuously 
styled, claiming and obtaining his share 
of obstetrical work. In France fashion 
set the stamp of her approval upon him, 
and a few decades later the general in- 
troduction of the use of forceps in ob- 
stetrical practice entrenched him upon 
an impregnable point of vantage. But 
a custom which had been sanctioned by 
the usage of thousands of years and 
which was in complete accord with the 
deepest, most sensitive prejudices of 
womankind, was not to be lightly set 
aside. The battle was on. For three 



668 



Charities and The Commons 



hundred years it has waged. Through it 
all the women of the masses, in their hour 
of travail, have demanded aid from their 
sister women, and received it; and this 
demand, rooted in popular prejudice, 
nourished by the economic conditions 
under which these masses struggle for a 
bare existence, has kept alive the call- 
ing of midwife until to-day. 

In the beginning of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, Europe generally seems to have ac- 
cepted the fact that midwives as an in- 
stitution were an inherent part of the ex- 
isting social order, a force to be guided 
and controlled rather than ignored or 
opposed. Consequently we find many 
European states at this time providing 
for their efficient instruction, examining 
them and licensing their practice. Eng- 
land alone refused to enact legislation 
affecting the midwife and her practice 
until 1902. 

To-day the training and duties of mid- 
wives are practically the same in all 
parts of Europe. They are admitted to 
lying-in asylums supported by the gov- 
ernment for poor women, and for the 
training of midwives, where they are 
taught cleanliness and the physiology of 
labor theoretically as well as practically. 
They are under the immediate supervis- 
ion of trained instructors, and in fact, the 
European midwife remains under super- 
vision during her entire life time. Her 
equipment is inspected; she is prosecuted 
in case of neglect, and for such neglect 
her license may at any time be revoked. 

From this brief reference to condi- 
tions controlling the practice of mid- 
wifery abroad it is possible that we may 
come to a keener realization of our own 
sins of omission in this regard. I know 
that many hold the view that such omis- 
sion is not a sin but a virtue; that any 
legislative restriction involves a corres- 
ponding recognition; and that any such 
legal recognition is to be regarded as an 
unmixed evil. Medical men are prone 
to anticipate any fancied invasion of their 
own special domain. They argue that 
any legal recognition of the midwife will 
create a new order of medical practi- 
tioners who, with little skill and less 
learning, will not hesitate to assume the 
gravest responsibilities of life and death 



in connection with the treatment of many 
ills. Advocates for the special training 
and education of nurses had to meet and 
live down opposition upon this same point 
in the early days of the development of 
nursing as a profession — the fear of 
medical men that the nurse would usurp 
the functions of the physician. To-day 
the physician is the first to recognize and 
acknowledge that a large measure of his 
success depends upon the efficient co- 
operation of well educated, thoroughly 
trained nurses, whose very training and 
education make for a surer recognition 
of their own limitations. Again, there 
is urged the impossibility of attracting 
the better class of women to the profes- 
sion of midwifery. I admit the diffi- 
culty, not the impossibility. That there 
is a certain stigma attached to the title 
"midwife," must be granted. The rea- 
son can easily be seen when we consider 
the usual type of woman who follows the 
calling of midwife in this country. 
Coming in with the ever increasing tide 
of immigration, the majority of these so- 
called midwives are foreigners of a low 
grade — ignorant, untrained women who 
find in the natural needs and life-long 
prejudices of the parturient women of 
their race a lucrative means of livelihood. 
With no required standard to meet and 
no legal regulation of their practice, they 
are allowed to go on unmolested as long 
as they are not caught in open violation 
of the law. 

Last year the demand for a midwife's 
attendance was voiced by 43,834 mothers 
in greater New York. In other words, 
forty-two per cent of the total number of 
births reported for 1905 were attended 
by midwives. To meet this demand there 
are in the Borough of Manhattan alone 
between nine hundred and one thousand 
practicing midwives. I have seen and 
interviewed five hundred of them and I 
give here a few significant facts re- 
garding them, their professional equip- 
ment or lack of equipment; and their 
methods of practice. 

I must first explain how I obtained this 
information. For the purposes of investi- 
gation, or for that matter for any other 
purpose, the register of midwives kept 
by the Board of Health is utterly inade- 



The Midwives of New York 



669 



Table II. 
500 midwives of New "Y"orK City: facts about tHeir practice. 







Length of 
practice 


Methods of Practice 


Criminal 




OB 

© 


H 

>> 

9 
3 

7 
3 
1 

23 


00 

I 

^2 
>» 

-s 

PA 
O 

45 
57 
31 
18 
12 
5 
1 
.... 

.... 

1 

.... 

173 


i 

OS 

I 

O 

14 

42 
40 
22 
8 
2 
2 
1 

"2 

1 
1 

"i 

1 

167 


u 

% 



OB 

40 
24 
33 
27 
2 
5 

2 
137 


At- 
tend 
norm- 
al cas- 
es 
only? 


Use 
anti- 
sep- 
tics? 


Equipment 
& cleanli- 
ness of bagi 


Care 
of in- 
fant 
(eyes 

& 
cord) 


Bathes 

mother, 

makes 

bed? 





g 

c 


1 

13 
10 

2 
1 
1 


P& 

p P © 

Ill 

p<^ 

sl& 

<loo 


00 

O 

"S 

QQ 



*© 

M 

£a 
S © 
©•43 


Nativity 


© 

69 
52 
23 

32 
6 
2 

"l 

"i 

"l 

1 
1 
1 

190 




K 

69 
74 
86 

38 
17 
10 
4 
3 
1 
2 
2 
1 

"l 
310 


© 

138 

123 

109 

69 

23 

11 

4 

3 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

492 


c 

-3 

2 
1 

"i 
"i 

8 


w 
as 
3a 

OS 

9 
9 
7 
4 
1 

'l 

2 

1 
34 


1 

-75 
O 
<M 

90 

64 

56 

37 

10 

3 

1 

1 

1 

"l 

"l 

1 
1 
1 

"l 

269 


OB 
X 

a 
© 
Id 

10 
20 

8 
10 

3 
51 


s 

« 

93 

I 

16 
9 
25 
15 
4 
3 
1 

i 

74 


© 




K 

^3 

24 
15 
4 
8 
3 
1 

2 

1 

'l 
72 




O 

128 

106 

91 

63 

23 

9 

4 

3 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

438 


d 
PQ 

10 
20 
20 

7 

"3 
"i 

62 


09 

© 

134 

78 

103 

68 

20 

10 

3 

3 

1 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

431 




4 
48 
8 
2 
3 
2 
1 

"i 




138 

126 

111 

70 

23 

12 

4 

3 

2 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

500 


" 6 

17 
2 
2 


22 

32 

32 

9 

10 

1 

3 

1 

1 

2 

2 


1 

3 

19 

"4 

"*2 

.... 


Italy 


Russia 

United States 


Ireland 


Sweden 

Switzerland 




1 
1 


Scotland 


Syria 

Turkey 


Denmark 

Belgium 








1 

1 


1 


Holland 


Argentine Republic 

England 








1 
1 






69 


28 








Total 


29 


119 


31 



1 Bag was marked " 1st class " when fully equipped and clean ; " 2nd class" when equipment was incomplete, 
untidy, dirty ; " 3rd class " when hag and contents were filthy. 



quate. Midwives are registered there 
who have been dead these many years. 
Again, one midwife is frequently regis- 
tered under two or three different ad- 
dresses. And finally, a number of mid- 
wives are not registered at all. Out of 
500, 249 were incorrectly registered and 
there were thirty-seven whose names 
did not appear on the register. 

In order to get a fairly complete list 
of practicing midwives, together with the 
correct names and addresses, I examined 
nearly 10,000 birth certificates returned 
for April and May, 1906, taking for 
granted that a midwife who did not re- 
turn a birth certificate within two months 
either had very little practice and was 
scarcely worth considering, or else did 
not report her births. Even with the ad- 
dresses thus obtained, I found that with- 
in two or three months a midwife had 
frequently changed her address and had 
to be traced through information given 
by a friendly housekeeper at the old ad- 
dress, or had moved to another borough, 



or, in some instances, to another city. Of 
the 500 visited, about 225 lived on the 
middle and upper east side, which in- 
cludes Little Italy ; 200 on the lower east 
side south of Houston street, and seventy- 
five on the west side from the river up 
through the Tenderloin district. 

The usual method of attack was to ask 
to see the diploma, stating that I was 
visiting all the midwives in New York 
for that purpose. In the majority of 
cases I was taken for an official inspector 
from the Board of Health. Where my 
right to see the diploma was questioned, 
the production of a letter from the Health 
Commissioner, stating that I was a rep- 
resentative of the Association of Neigh- 
borhood Workers and requesting that in- 
formation be given to me, was most ef- 
fectual. Details of age, civil condition, 
education, professional and general, 
length of residence in the United States 
and length of practice were easily ob- 
tainable. The bag containing instru- 
ments, dressings, etc., was seen in the ma- 



670 



Charities and The Commons 



Table I. 
.500 mid-wives of New YorK City: personal statistics. 



Nativity 



Austria-Hungary 

Italy 

Germany 

Russia 

United States 

Irelaud 

France 

Sweden 

Switzerland 

Scotland 

Syria 

Turkey 

Denmark 

Belgium 

Holland 

Argentine Republic, 

England 

West Indies 



Total 



Length of 

residence in 

U.S. 



68 



173 



Age 



1 113 



134 



Education 



General Professional 



Aide 

to 
read 

and 
write 



© o 

127 11 
103 23 
109 2 



60 



449 



Able 

to 
speak 
Eng- 
lish 



IN & 



351 



149 






2? 



211 



Registra 

tion at Board 

of Health 



214 249 37 



•5, 



Depend 
en f upon 
practice 



175 



::-:-■ 



Condi- 
tion of 
home & 
person 



;!'!( 



jority of cases; seventy-two stated that 
they had no bag; seventy-four that the 
bag had been left at the home of a pa- 
tient, or some excuse for not showing it 
was offered. While looking over the 
contents of the bag, it was an easy matter 
to extract information as to the midwife's 
methods of practice. The condition of 
the home and the personal cleanliness or 
uncleanliness of the midwife were also 
noted. 

Classifying according to nationality, I 
found that out of the 500 midwives twen- 
ty-seven per cent were Austro-Hungari- 
ans, Bohemians, Austrian-Poles; twenty- 
five per cent Italians ; twenty-two per cent 
Germans; fourteen per cent Russians; 
that four per cent were born in the United 
States ; two per cent in Ireland, and the 
remaining six per cent were made up of 
natives from France, Sweden, Switzer- 
land, England, Scotland, Syria, Turkey, 
Holland, Belgium, Denmark, Buenos 
Ayres, and one West Indian negress. 
While considering the nationality of the 
midwives it may be interesting to note the 
result of an analysis of the births reported 
for the month of April, 1906, according 
to the nativity of the mothers. The per- 



centage of births reported by midwives for 
the year, forty-two per cent, held good for 
the month as well. Of the total number 
of births amongst mothers born in the 
United States, Canada, England, Scot- 
land and Wales, one-sixth were reported 
by midwives; amongst Germans, thirty- 
one per cent; amongst Russians, thirty- 
one per cent; amongst Austro-Hungari- 
ans and Bohemians, sixty per cent, or 
nearly two-thirds, were reported by mid- 
wives; and amongst the Italians, — and 
this is by far the most significant figure 
of all — out of 1,029 births, sixty-seven 
were reported by physicians and the re- 
maining 962, or ninety-three per cent, 
were reported by midwives. 

To return to the midwife. I found 
that twenty-four had resided in this coun- 
try one year or less, 135 from one to nine 
years; 168 from ten to nineteen years, 
and 173 twenty years or over. About 
one-half were between thirty-five and fifty 
years of age; one-fourth under thirty- 
five and one-fourth over fifty years of 
age. As to their educational qualifica- 
tions, I was surprised to find the percent- 
age of illiteracy as low as it is. Out of 
the 500 but fifty-one were unable to read 



The Midwives of New York 



671 



and write, the percentage being highest 
amongst the Italians and Russians. 
Thirty per cent were unable to speak 
English, and here again the Italians were 
to be found in the lead. 

Coming to the question of their pro- 
fessional education, I found 201 holding 
foreign diplomas. This means that forty 
per cent of the total number had been 
properly trained, and had given evidence 
of having attained a certain required 
standard of proficiency before such di- 
plomas were granted to them. Forty- 
three per cent held diplomas from so- 
called schools of midwifery in this coun- 
try — with two exceptions, schools con- 
ducted here in New York city — or certi- 
ficates from physicians who, for considera- 
tions best known to themselves, have in 
many instances seen fit to certify to the 
proficiency of ignorant, incompetent 
women desiring to practice midwifery. 
In many instances I am convinced that 
this collusion between the physician and 
midwife points to an agreement that he 
is to be called upon for assistance in all 
difficult cases, the combination or partner- 
ship thus proving a source of revenue for 
the physician and protection for the mid- 
wife. The diplomas of these New York 
schools are utterly worthless as evidence 
of training or efficiency on the part of 
the midwife holding them. In some 
cases I found that they had been grant- 
ed to women who were unable to read or 
write, but who had had the price — $66. 
There are four such schools in this city. 
Theoretical knowledge is imparted by the 
physician in charge three hours each 
week; practical experience is obtained in 
the homes of the poor who may have ap- 
plied to the school for the attendance of 
a midwife during the expected confine- 
ment. Midwives holding such diplomas 
have told me of being sent to their first 
cases with no supervision of either a phy- 
sician or an experienced midwife, of hav- 
ing to conduct the entire labor as best 
they could, of their fear of finding the 
patient dead upon their return visit as a 
result of their ignorance and want of skill. 
Three of these schools I feel very certain 
are being conducted solely for the benefit 
of the physician in charge — for revenue 
only. The fourth, for the instruction 



of the Italian midwives, I am inclined to 
believe is on a slightly higher plane and 
is really aiming, however ineffectually, at 
raising the standard of midwifery prac- 
tice amongst this nationality. It is not 
to be counted against a woman that she 
holds a certificate from one of these di- 
ploma mills, but certainly it is a strong 
indictment against these schools to see the 
kind of "graduate" they turn out in' ever 
increasing numbers. As a matter of fact 
I consider the eighty-eight midwives I 
saw who held no diploma quite as effi- 
cient and capable as the 209 who held 
these worthless New York diplomas. 

About three-fifths of the total number 
visited had been engaged in practice 
over ten years, while twenty-three had 
begun to practice within the past year. 
In the majority of cases the women had 
taken up the practice of midwifery to 
eke out the family income, the husband 
or grown children contributing largely 
to the actual support of the family; 175, 
however, were entirely dependent upon 
their own exertions for their livelihood. 
The husbands' occupations give some 
indication of the economic status of the 
family. They were carpenters, street 
cleaners, stone-masons, tailors, peddlers, 
machinists, laborers, bartenders, cooks, 
waiters, painters and drivers. Among 
the Italians were found several musi- 
cians, an artist, and an architect; among 
the Hebrews, several real estate agents 
and one politician. The husband of one 
American-born midwife was a policeman. 
A number of the women have educated 
their sons as physicians or lawyers. 

The homes of these midwives are to be 
compared with the homes of the women 
upon whom they attend, the average 
three-room tenement — clean or dirty, ac- 
cording to the personal habits of the wo- 
man who occupies it. Of the midwives' 
homes 106 were absolutely filthy, as was 
the clothing and the person of the mid- 
wife herself. Of the remaining 394, I 
should say one-third might be designated 
as excellent, the other two-thirds fair. 

To the medical man the facts con- 
cerned with the methods of practice of 
these women will undoubtedly appeal 
with greatest force. Three-fifths of the 
total number visited stated frankly that 



672 



Charities and The Commons 



they would undertake the care and treat- 
ment of abnormal cases. Many did not 
hesitate at the removal of an adherent 
placenta, others will perform version, and 
all of them will treat a post partum 
hemorrhage, calling in a physician only 
when they find themselves entirely unable 
to cope with the situation at hand. Prac- 
tically all of them claimed that they used 
antiseptics, which meant very little if the 
midwife was dirty, her bag filthy, and if 
she appeared generally ignorant and in- 
competent. There is a chance that anti- 
septics in the hands of such women may 
work an infinite deal of harm, for we 
have no guarantee that they will be prop- 
erly used. 

As for the bags and their equipment, 
from a professional standpoint by far 
the greater number would make fit deco- 
rations for a chamber of horrors. Rusty 
scissors, dirty string, a bit of cotton, a few 
corrosive sublimate tablets, old rags and 
papers, some ergot and vaseline, a gum 
catheter, wired, were the usual contents. 
Out of 303 bags inspected, thirty-four 
only were marked as first-class — that is, 
they were clean and their equipment was 
complete and sterile. 

I was visiting one Italian midwife 
whose home was of the dirtiest, the con- 
dition of whose hands was indescribable, 
whose clothing was filthy, the condition 
of whose bag beggars description, when 
a call came for her to go at once to a 
confinement. Not wishing the woman to 
lose a case because of my being there, I 
told her to make her necessary prepara- 
tions while I talked. "Oh," she replied, 
"I am ready," and throwing a shawl over 
her head and seizing the bag, she was off 
— to take the life, the future health and 
well-being of a mother and child into her 
keeping. 

Again, foreign trained midwives who 
brought out the usual dirty bag for in- 
spection would have, stowed away on 
top of a wardrobe, behind the stove, or 
under the bed, a most complete, compact, 
convenient portable sterilizer, which they 
had purchased at home and which the law 
there had compelled them to use. When 
asked the reason for not using it here 
the invariable reply was, "It is not neces- 
sary, nobody cares what we use ; the bag 



is handier and everyone uses it here.'* 
Of those midwives who had no bags, 
with the few exceptions where the mid- 
wife had her clientele amongst people of 
the better class, who themselves provided 
everything beforehand, the usual reply 
was, "I go as I am," and they would 
show me a bit of string in the pocket and 
a pair of scissors fastened to the belt ; or 
they would depend upon whatever they 
chanced to find at the patient's home. 

Inquiring as to the after care of the 
mother and child, I found that the usual 
length of attendance was for nine days — 
longer when necessary. Two visits a day 
are generally made for the first two or 
three days. The baby was bathed, the 
cord dressed with powder, and the mother 
received the necessary attention, in many 
cases unnecessary attention as well, in 
the form of douches, the practice of 
douching being followed by over one- 
half of the midwives as a regular method 
of procedure independently of any indi- 
cation of infection. The mother is also 
bathed and the bed made. An exception 
to this last statement should be made in 
case of the Italian midwives, over one- 
third of whom leave this work for the 
family to do, not considering it a part of 
their duties as midwives. 

In regard to the care of the child's eyes, 
— the majority of midwives stated that 
they used borax or boric acid to bathe 
the eyes and some few use the nitrate 
of silver solution prescribed by the 
Board of Health. With regard to the 
prevalence of opthalmia neonatorum 
there are no available statistics for New 
York city. The provision of the sanitary 
code regarding the reporting of conta- 
gious diseases to the Board of Health 
within twenty-four hours is practically a 
dead letter in connection with this par- 
ticular disease. In October, 1905, the 
Board of Health made an effort to secure 
reliable information upon this point by 
sending out circular letters to all regis- 
tered physicians and midwives in the city, 
calling their attention to their duty in the 
matter of reporting all such cases. The 
co-operation of the various opthalmic hos- 
pitals and dispensaries was also secured. 
As a result of this movement, about 
twenty-four cases were reported by the 



The Midwives of New York 



673 



hospitals and dispensaries (but one of 
which had been attended by a physician 
at birth) and six cases were reported 
directly by midwives. For the past two 
months and a half not a single case has 
been reported, indicating that those most 
concerned are relapsing into their former 
disregard of this particular law. 

In this connection I attempted to in- 
vestigate the cases of opthalmia neo- 
natorum applying for treatment to the 
various opthalmic hospitals and dis- 
pensaries of the city during the past year, 
but with very unsatisfactory results. In 
all I secured the names and addresses of 
some 150 cases. Many had moved from 
the address given and it was impossible 
to find any trace of them. Of those seen 
I found that the numbers attended at birth 
by physicians equalled, in fact exceeded 
by one, the number attended by midwives. 

I have purposely omitted all reference 
to the competent, well-trained, reliable 
midwife. Unfortunately, so far as num- 
bers go she is a negligible quantity. Out 
of the 500 midwives visited, less than ten 
per cent could be qualified as capable, re- 
liable midwives. That there were even 
that many is a hopeful indication and an 
earnest of the class of women we might 
have in this profession if we took the 
proper method of raising the standard of 
midwifery practice. I have in mind one 
woman in particular, a Russian, well edu- 
cated, whose home showed every evidence 
of refinement, whose husband and son 
were both physicians. In the course of 
many years' practice she had delivered 
between four and five thousand cases. 
Speaking of her son's obstetrical practice 
she said, "That little tad, I taught him all 
he knows," and nodding to her husband 
she added, "and I taught him all he 
knows." The husband smilingly con- 
firmed his wife's statement. 

We come now to what is by far the 
darkest chapter in the history of mid- 
wifery practice here in New York city. 
I refer to their criminal work. We can- 
not limit the question of the midwife and 
her profession solely to its professional 
aspect. Considered broadly, it has a 
deep social significance as well. In real- 
ity, the science of midwifery deals with 
the perpetuation of the human race. As 



regards the voluntary restriction of the 
increase in population, the state recognizes 
the right of the unborn child to live and 
endeavors to safe-guard that right by 
making criminal abortion a felony, but 
any medical jurist will admit the enor- 
mous difficulties to be encountered in any 
attempt to obtain sufficient evidence to 
secure a conviction upon this change. 
Would it not be the better part of wis- 
dom to adopt a wise policy of prevention 
by effectually closing the profession of 
midwifery to illiterate, ignorant, un- 
trained women of doubtful morality, 
licensing such women only as can meet a 
high standard of education, training, ex- 
perience and morals, rather than to pur- 
sue the present laissez-faire policy of al- 
lowing practically any woman to follow 
this calling undisturbed, except in the few 
rare cases where evidence of malpractice 
be adduced against her? Ignorance and 
cupidity are ever the faithful hand-maid- 
ens of crime. Such midwives, possessing 
that little knowledge which is a dangerous 
thing, restrained by no sense of moral 
responsibility, tempted by the pecuniary 
reward offered, furnish willing recruits 
to the ranks of professional abortionists. 

To show that the machinery of the 
criminal law is utterly ineffectual to ac- 
complish the punishment of such women, 
I need only cite the facts that the records 
of the coroner's office show an average 
of three deaths in a month due to criminal 
abortion, while from the records of the 
district attorney's office we learn that in 
the past six years there were but twenty- 
four prosecutions for criminal abortion. 
Of these, ten were dismissed by the grand 
jury, six were discharged at trial, five 
were acquitted, and three were convicted. 

The New York County Medical So- 
ciety, through its counsel, Champe S. 
Andrews, has attempted to overcome the 
difficulty of prosecuting supposed offend- 
ers under the existing law, by instituting 
proceedings against such women (in cases 
where complaints have been made) in 
the Court of Special Sessions upon a 
charge of practicing medicine illegally. 
In the past five years there have been 
seventy-one convictions of midwives upon 
this charge. Of the 500 midwives that 
I visited I have classified 176 as criminal. 



674 



Charities and The Commons 



Against twenty-eight I had a record of 
conviction; against twenty-nine a record 
of investigation, that is, special detectives 
had been sent to these midwives and 
they had agreed to perform a criminal 
operation upon the detective; 119 I classi- 
fied as suspicious. In some few in- 
stances I had received complaints against 
them from other midwives. I have had 
women tell me of midwives who had 
operated upon them or their friends. But 
by far the larger number themselves fur- 
nished all the evidence necessary when 
they exhibited their bags, containing large 
gum catheters wired, uterine sounds, di- 
lators, curettes and pessaries, in addition 
to the customary scissors and string and 
— dirt. I found thirty-one midwives who 
received and cared for patients in their 
own home. Such women are making 
money and their homes, generally an en- 
tire house, are nicely kept, frequently 
expensively furnished. Several of these 
women allowed me to inspect the entire 
house. One notorious woman, against 
whom there is a record of several con- 
victions, stated at the time of the inter- 
view that business was slack, she had 
only three patients — one a miscarriage, 
recovered, and about to be discharged, 
and two expecting to be confined. In the 
latter cases the child would be boarded 
out until such time as a home could be 
found for it by advertising. The custom- 
ary charges are $5.00 a week for board 
and washing and $25.00 for the confine- 
ment. 

Last March a successful crusade was 
made against those institutions which 
were using the daily papers as an adver- 
tising medium to make known to the pub- 
lic their willingness to undertake criminal 
operations. As a result some thirty mid- 
wives were forbidden the use of the 
United States mails. In July I found 
some of these same women advertising 
in a German paper. The advertisements 
were immediately ordered out, but in No- 
vember the same women under different 
names were to be found again advertis- 
ing in another German paper. Such ad- 
vertisements may also be found in the 
French and Bohemian papers. There is 
a "Midwives* Protective Association" in 
the city which exists ostensibly to furnish 



legal assistance to members for the col- 
lection of bad accounts, but in reality 
the reason for its existence is to render 
advice and aid in case of prosecution for 
violation of the law. 

How widespread this evil of abortion 
is becoming, we can but form the vaguest 
conception. An official whose position 
affords every opportunity for his judg- 
ment to be reinforced by a wide experi- 
ence, stated recently that in his opinion 
not less than 100,000 abortions were com- 
mitted annually in New York city. 
Others to whom I have repeated this 
statement have assured me that it was a 
most conservative estimate. The con- 
sensus of opinion seems to be that mid- 
wives are the chief agents in procuring 
these abortions. Indeed, some go so far 
as to say that the two terms "midwife" 
and "abortionist" are synonymous here 
in New York. Nor in the consideration 
of the moral question involved must we 
lose sight of the physical ills resulting 
from these criminal operations. Not 
only is the life of the unborn child de- 
stroyed but the life of the mother is 
seriously jeopardized. Statistics have 
been compiled showing that one-third of 
known criminal abortions result in the 
death of the mother as well. During the 
same period, 1895 to 1900, inclusive, there 
were reported at the Board of Health 389 
deaths from abortion, not classified as 
criminal, and 359 deaths from uterine 
haemorrhage. While it is impossible to 
make any definite statement as to the 
number of such deaths that should be at- 
tributed to midwives who, through con- 
tributory negligence or direct unlawful 
interference with the progress of preg- 
nancy, were directly or indirectly re- 
sponsible for these conditions which ul- 
timately resulted in the death of 748 
women in six years, we may safely as- 
sume that criminal malpractice should be 
regarded as the remote cause of death in 
at least two-thirds of all such cases. 

Nor do midwives of this class confine 
their unlawful practice solely to produc- 
ing abortions. Having unlimited confi- 
dence in their own powers and trading 
upon the credulity of the ignorant women 
who consult them, they do not hesitate 
to administer drugs, to undertake the cure 



The Midwives of New York 



6/5 



of sterility (frequently with the most dis- 
astrous results), and to give advice as to 
the treatment of many minor ills, retard- 
ing the patient's recovery by preventing 
her from obtaining necessary treatment 
from a reputable physician. It is un- 
doubtedly true that many a better trained 
foreign midwife who continues to prac- 
tice midwifery here is equally guilty on 
these several counts. Accustomed to 
practising her profession under the strict- 
est medical and governmental supervision 
in her own country, her first thought upon 
resuming her calling here is that she is 
in a free country, where she is at liberty 
to follow her own way without let or 
hindrance. Unlawful demands are made 
upon her services, she sees others reaping 
the pecuniary rewards for rendering such 
services, and it is only a question of time 
until she too falls into line and stands 
ready to do whatever may be required 
of her — for a consideration. 

One of the world's great social econ- 
omists, John Ruskin, has laid down the 
axiom that "every child has a right to 
be well-born." If accepted, this should 
involve not only the preservation of the 
standard of health, morals and intelli- 
gence by the rigid regulation of the con- 
ditions of marriage, but also adequate 
provision for a child's safe entry into 
the world at birth, through the mainten- 
ance of a supply of skilled attendants for 
women in labor. Such a supply can be 
secured only through the operation of 
some method or law restricting the prac- 
tice of such attendants to those who 
have attained a minimum required stand- 
ard of efficiency. In the case of phy- 
sicians a recognized standard generally 
prevails. Should not the midwife also 
be obliged to conform to a certain stand- 
ard of skill and experience if she is to be 
allowed to take into her own keeping the 
lives of hundreds of mothers and babes? 
No child is "well-born" who starts life 
handicapped with a crippled limb, an 
accident of birth, or who must live out 
his days in blindness or with impaired 
vision, the result of neglect in infancy. 
No mother has received proper attention 
who must endure months, frequently 
years of suffering, caused by the sequelae 
of child-birth. Doubtless the ideal con- 
dition would be to have the entire ob- 



stetrical practice of the community in the 
hands of physicians. But we are face 
to face with a practical need and it must 
be met in a practical way. It is a con- 
dition that confronts us, not a theory. 

I think we may safely assume that mid- 
wives have a right to exist so long as 
they are required and, right or no right, 
they will continue to exist so lor/5 as 
women demand their services, and wo- 
men will demand their services just so 
long as the economic condition of the 
masses remains as it is. Shall we have 
an efficient, well-trained, well-supervised 
body of women to meet this demand or 
shall we allow the present condition of 
chaos to go on indefinitely? The law 
protects the poor against improper hous- 
ing conditions, against unsanitary sur- 
roundings, against unwholesome food 
supplies ; but it makes no attempt to pro- 
tect over 40,000 mothers who are an- 
nually exposed to the known dangers of 
incompetent, ignorant, unclean midwives 
who attend them during confinement. 
The theory that the present policy of 
non-recognition will eventually result in 
the gradual disappearance of the mid- 
wife, or else in a law restricting the prac- 
tice of obstetrics to the medical profes- 
sion, is not tenable in the face of the 
enormous and ever increasing foreign 
population with which we have to deal. 
Within fourteen years the number of 
births reported by midwives has nearly 
doubled (1891, 22,770; 1905, 43,830). 
This increase is of course comparable 
with the increase in population from nat- 
ural causes, from immigration, and from 
the extension of the confines of New 
York city, so that the percentage of the 
total number reported remains practically 
the same. 

The midwives practicing in the city 
of New York have absolutely no recog- 
nized legal status under the laws of the 
state of New York. A provision of the 
sanitary code requires them to register 
at the Board of Health, but such regis- 
tration, which should at least be evidence 
that the midwife is properly qualified to 
fulfil the duties of her calling, in reality 
does not guarantee that the midwife so 
registered is in the possession of even 
a modicum of intelligence, let alone any 
fitness, professional or otherwise, beyond 



676 



Chanties and The Commons 



what is shown by the recommendation 
of two physicians or a certificate from a 
school of midwifery. I have already 
commented upon the value of both these 
requirements. 

The greatest dangers in the practice 
of the ignorant midwife lie in her wil- 
lingness to interfere with the natural 
progress of labor, under the impression 
that she is thereby rendering assistance 
to the mother; in her inability to recog- 
nize conditions that make for future dis- 
ease, disability or suffering; in her un- 
dertaking to conduct abnormal or diffi- 
cult labors; and in her total disregard 
of the first principles of cleanliness. It is 
worthy of note that within the past five 
years (1901-1906) comparing the num- 
ber of deaths from puerperal fevers and 
puerperal haemorrhage with the number 
of deaths of women of child-bearing age, 
the percentage has increased from 3.39 
per cent in 1901 to 4.12 per cent in 1905. 
I am not prepared to say upon whose 
shoulders the responsibility for this in- 
crease should rest, but at least it in- 
dicates the necessity for the stricter en- 
forcement of antiseptic precautions in 
the care of parturient women. Another 
argument frequently advanced as proof 
of the incompetency of the practising 
midwife is the high still-birth rate that 
prevails here in New York. An exam- 
ination of 3,635 still-birth certificates re- 
turned for the year 1905, in Manhattan, 
showed that approximately twenty-four 
per cent were signed by midwives. Some 
of these certificates were signed with the 
attending midwife's mark, she being evi- 
dently unable to write her name. Had 
these midwives been intelligent, properly 
trained women, quick to recognize an 
emergency and prompt to summon medi- 
cal aid, is it not reasonable to suppose 
that this percentage would have been ma- 
terially reduced? On the other hand, 
the right to sign such certificates af- 
fords a cloak to the criminal midwife 
under which she may continue her ne- 
farious trade. It is impossible to esti- 
mate how many of these still-births are 
the result of accident or disease and how 
many the result of criminal interference 
with pregnancy. 

This is the problem. Are we prepared 



to solve it with restrictive legislation? 
It is by this means that the question has 
been met and successfully answered 
abroad, and it is by this same means that 
several of our states and localities have 
attempted to answer the question in this 
country. The weak point in all our 
American legislation on this subject lies 
in the lack of any provision looking to the 
enforcement of the limitations of such 
laws, by adequate supervision and in- 
spection of the woman who is licensed 
to practice midwifery. We have seen 
how necessary such supervision is re- 
garded abroad. It is rendered equally 
necessary by the conditions our large 
foreign population have created in certain 
parts of the city. A Bohemian midwife 
who had been in this country a year and 
a half said, when I called and inquired 
for her diploma, "I have been waiting 
eighteen months for you to come." Let 
it be clearly understood that the function 
of the midwife is to attend natural labor 
only and to know when it is her duty to 
send for medical assistance. A law 
specifically defining the province and 
duties of the midwife and providing 
ample punishment for any violation of the 
limitations prescribed by such law, and re- 
quiring absolute evidence of her profes- 
sional fitness as a condition of licensing 
her practice, would operate as a safeguard 
against the usurpation of the function of 
the physician by the competent midwife 
as well as a bar to the practice of the 
ignorant, untrained, inefficient midwife. 

In this state there is special legislation 
to regulate the practice of midwifery 
applying to Monroe county, Erie county, 
Niagara county and Chautauqua county. 
During the past week I visited Rochester, 
Buffalo, Lockport, Dunkirk and Syra- 
cuse for two purposes : first, to find 
out the practical workings of the special 
legislation applying to these localities; 
second, to secure their co-operation in 
getting a state law through the legis- 
lature, in case that should be attempted. 
Everywhere I was received with the most 
cordial interest, and promises of hearty 
co-operation. The prevailing sentiment 
seems to be that while the law in force 
at present has operated toward raising 
the standard of efficiency amongst mid- 



Clean Milk for New York City 



677 



wives and has successfully eliminated the 
ignorant and incompetent midwife, the 
enforcement of the limitations under 
which the licenses are granted is entirely 
neglected. In proof of the truth of this 
statement, I can recite the result of per- 
sonal interviews with five midwives in 
Buffalo, intelligent and well-trained wo- 
men. Three stated that they undertook 
the conduct of abnormal labors; two ex- 
hibited bags for inspection quite as dirty 
as the average bag shown by the New 
York midwife ; and in one bag I found 
the usual instrument for criminal opera- 
tions, the wired gum catheter. The phy- 
sicians of these cities whom I interviewed 
are enthusiastic at the idea of a state law 
which will provide a uniform standard 
applying to all parts of the state. 1 

In closing I desire to express my sin- 
cerest gratitude to the counsel of the 
County Medical Society, whose advice 



and assistance have been at my command 
throughout the entire course of this in- 
vestigation, and without whose hearty co- 
operation much of the knowledge that 
I have been able to obtain upon the crim- 
inal side of the question of midwifery 
practice would have remained a sealed 
book to me; also I wish to thank the 
officials of the Board of Health for, the 
courtesies they have extended to me in 
granting access to their records, and for 
valuable introductions to the heads of 
the various institutions ; also the physi- 
cians in charge of these institutions, and 
the other physicians who have so willingly 
and readily given me of their time and 
interest. 

1 Witli this report was submitted a proposed law, 
drawn up by the counsel of the New York Medical 
Society, which included what are considered the best 
features of the state laws regulating the practice of 
midwifery by midwives. This bill, together with other 
suggested measures, is now under consideration by 
the various medical societies. 



Clean MilK for New YorK City 

John E.. Sayles 
• Secretary of the New YorK MilK Conference 



The appointment of a large milk com- 
mittee of earnest and influential citizens 
by the New York Association for Im- 
proving the Condition of the Poor in ac- 
cordance with the request of the recent 
milk conference, marks the beginning 
of what is intended to be a sustained 
movement towards securing for the 
greatest city on this continent a clean 
milk supply. This is a task of great diffi- 
culty and complexity owing first, to the 
fact that more than 1,600,000 quarts of 
milk must be brought by railroad, in ice- 
cooled cars from 600 creameries or receiv- 
ing stations for 30,000 farms or dairies, 
forty to 400 miles distant, and must of 
necessity be (one-half of it at least) 
twenty-four and the other half thirty-six 
hours old when it enters the city; sec- 
ond, to the enormous number of those 
who must be supplied, — nearly 4,000,000 
people to whom it is delivered by 2,000 
wagons, or taken by the people them- 
selves from 10,000 stores and shops, 
scattered over an area of more than 100 
square miles, throughout the whole suc- 
ceeding day, during all of which time it 
must be kept constantly refrigerated at 
or below fifty degrees Fahrenheit. Es- 



pecially do the conditions under which 
the great mass of the people live com- 
plicate the problem. A very large pro- 
portion living in tenements have no 
means of keeping milk cold in warm 
weather and they must procure it in small 
quantities from nearby sources for im- 
mediate consumption. For many reas- 
ons it is impracticable that they be served 
otherwise than from cans into their own 
receptacles. 

These are the conditions presented to 
the conference and which must be faced 
by the city. Increasing population con- 
stantly requires an extension of the area 
of supply and furnishes more families 
to be served, with only slowly improv- 
ing conditions of housing and living. 
Those who know how the people of the 
tenements live will understand the com- 
plexity and difficulty of the problem. 

Milk is at once the most important 
single article of food and the most diffi- 
cult to protect against contamination. 
Other foods will bear to wait without 
suffering special deterioration while be- 
ing examined, and the responsibility for 
their spoiling in the hands of the pur- 
chaser within a few hours after sale can 



678 



Charities and The Commons 



be brought home to the seller. Milk, on 
the contrary, comes to the city in the 
middle of the night and must be rushed 
in the early morning, with the greatest 
expedition, to the places of delivery. 
Tests as to richness or acidity, the least 
dangerous quality, can be made here and 
there in comparatively few isolated cases, 
but before the results of the tests as to dan- 
gerous conditions can be worked out the 
milk must be used. The circumstances 
are such that the people are wholly 
powerless to protect themselves in ad- 
vance, are unable to distinguish at time 
of purchase and are without remedy as to 
loss or injury. There is no substitute. It 
is absolutely necessary food for children. 
They must take it as it comes. Clearly, 
therefore, it is the duty of the city to 
take efficient steps to see to it that only 
pure milk enters its gates, especially as 
those most endangered are the helpless 
babies of the poor. 

The importance of all this has been to 
some degree long understood as in- 
creasingly pressing upon the attention of 
physicians, health officers and philan- 
thropists but no adequate action has so 
far been taken. Realizing the need for 
such action a conference was called by the 
New York Association for Improving 
the Condition of the Poor, with the co- 
operation of Health Commissioner Dar- 
lington and Drs. Rowland G. Freeman 
and Joseph H. Raymond, representative 
physicians of New York and Brooklyn. 
It included twenty eminent New York 
physicians especially experienced and re- 
lated to the subject through private prac- 
tice and connection with hospitals for 
children and infant asylums ; fifteen city 
and state health officers and bacteri- 
ologists of New York and five adjacent 
states, and the acting chief of the dairy- 
ing division of the national Department 
of Agriculture. 

The program of the conference, which 
was generally thought to have contribut- 
ed materially to its success and was plan- 
ned for the purpose of avoiding the loss 
of time so commonly caused by discuss- 
ing matters which should be known and 
accepted in advance, began with a state- 
ment of "essential facts," some of which 
have been mentioned above, and of 



"points of agreement." This part of the 
program is quoted here bodily : 

ESSENTIAL FACTS AS TO NEW YORK 
CITY. 

Manhattan's Infant Mortality (under 5 yrs.) 
June to September, 1904, 4,428. 
June to September, 1905, 4,687. 
June to September, 1906, 4,428. 

Daily Consumption of Milk. 
1,600,000 qts. 
14 in qt. bottles, 
% in 40-qt. cans. 
"Certified," 10,000 qts. 
"Inspected," 3,000 qts. 
24 to 48 hours old on arrival. 

Comes from 
30,000 dairies, 40 to 400 miles distant. 
600 creameries — 105 proprietors. 
10 city railroad depots. 

Sold in 

12,000 places, mostly from cans. 
Sale of skim-milk prohibited. 

Milk Law Violations, 1905. 
Destroyed, 39,618 qts. 
Arrests, 806. 
Fines, $16,435. 

New York City Inspectors. 
14 in country since July; might make 
rounds not oftener than once a year. 
(For 3 yrs. before, only 2; previously 
none.) 
16 in City, might make rounds in 30 to 40 
days. 
(Before July, 14.) 

POINTS OF AGREEMENT. 

Cleanliness is the supreme requisite, from 

cow to consumer. 

Cows must be healthy, persons free from 
contagious diseases, premises clean, 
water pure, utensils clean, cans and 
bottles sterile, shops sanitary. 

Temperature is second essential. 
50° F. or lower at dairy. 
45° F. at creamery. 
45° F. or less during transportation. 
Not above 50° when sold to the consumer. 

As to Pasteurization. 
Not necessary for absolutely clean milk. 
Destroys benign as well as harmful germs. 
Disease germs develop more rapidly than 

in pure raw milk. 
True, 155° for 30 minutes to 167° for 20 

minutes. 
Cost per qt., estimated, ^4 to % ct. 
Commercial, 165° for 15 seconds. 
Cost per qt, negligible. 

As to Inspection. 

Some inspection needed within the city. 
Some inspection needed of dairy and 
creamery. 



Clean Milk for New York City 



679 



what the Standing upon this com- 
conference mon g roun d t h e conference 
out to Do. was called to order by 
R. Fulton Cutting, president of the Asso- 
ciation for Improving the Condition of 
the Poor, in a few words alluding briefly 
to the vital importance of the question 
and the difficulty of arousing public in- 
terest in it, which he thought due to lack 
of information. Mr. Cutting referred to 
the long history of the Association's in- 
terest and activity in the matter of New 
York's milk supply, dating back sixty 
years, and to its "having now awakened 
to a renewed sense of responsibility." 
The brevity and terseness of this open- 
ing address was the keynote of the 
method of conducting the conference. 

George W. Wickersham, one of the 
vice-presidents of the association, was 
chosen permanent chairman. Dr. Ernest 
J. Lederle, former health commissioner, 
introduced the first subject on the pro- 
gram — "skim milk." Dr. Lederle first 
paid a deserved tribute to the efficiency 
of the present health department, saying 
that the milk supply of New York was 
never before in such good condition as at 
present, and there had never before been 
such effective co-operation by the milk 
dealers. "While there is still room for im- 
provement," he said, "intelligent sugges- 
tions for such improvement can only be 
made on the basis of accurate informa- 
tion as to existing conditions." 

"New York city is the only 
Skim Milk, part of the world," said 

Dr. Lederle, "where it is 
a crime to sell skim milk even when prop- 
erly labeled." With varying regulations 
as to character and color of package, 
size and distinctness of lettering, its sale 
is elsewhere permitted with penalties for 
fraud and substitution. The existing 
legislation was passed at a time when 
cream was removed by skimming and the 
milk left was necessarily old, stale and 
unfit to transport and sell. The intro- 
duction of separators has made it possible 
to send skim milk to market as fresh as 
whole milk, thus removing the only pos- 
sible valid objection to it. Its complete 
exclusion from the New York market, 
has resulted in the development of a large 



industry, the preparation of casein, used 
as a glue substitute in the manufacture 
and coating of paper, cold-water paints, 
etc. In this way 80,000,000 quarts an- 
nually, or 222,000 quarts per day, equal 
in quantity to one-eighth of our entire 
milk supply, are consumed, for which 
the farmer receives about one-third of a 
cent per quart. If the market of Greater 
New York were open to skim milk the 
farmer could receive a much higher price 
for it and after adding cost of transporta- 
tion and refrigeration, which would be 
practically the same as with whole milk, it 
could be profitably sold at three cents 
per quart or two quarts for five cents. 
Its food value was given, two and one- 
half quarts furnishing the same amount 
of protein and half the same fuel as a 
pound of round steak, the steak selling 
at sixteen cents, while the equivalent skim 
milk could be sold at seven and a half 
cents or less. Dr. Lederle advocated 
the admission of skim milk for manu- 
facturing purposes, all kinds of baking 
uses and gradually as food for adults. 
As to the effect upon the price of whole 
milk, while difficult to predict with cer- 
tainty, those most competent to give 
opinions believed the tendency would be 
to meet the advance threatened by in- 
crease in cost of transportation, the 
more liberal use of ice required and the 
greater expenditures necessitated by the 
enforcement of more stringent regula- 
tions on the farms, at the creameries, 
during transportation and in retail stores. 

In the discussion which followed Health 
Commissioner Darlington, while admit- 
ting the value of skim milk as food and 
that its tendency in the market would 
be to reduce the price of whole milk, 
thought it a serious question both on ac- 
count of its dangerous effects upon in- 
fants and the need of increased inspec- 
tion. He said that what the people need 
is a better and higher standard of milk. 

Dr. Freeman could see no possible 
objection to the introduction of skim milk 
and thought the prohibition an injustice 
to both producer and consumer. It should 
not any more than any other food be 
prohibited from being sold provided it 
is labeled. The nutritive value re- 
mains in the skim milk. He said that 



68o 



Charities and The Commons 



"the real value is in the proteid of milk. 
Although we feed milk with a higher per- 
centage of fat than is present in cows' 
milk, still it is not the fat we rely upon 
to keep the child alive. As to the use 
of skim milk instead of whole milk — 
well, many of the poor use tea. I think 
the cheap skim milk would be much more 
valuable than the tea." 

Dr. Fulton, secretary of the Maryland 
State Board of Health, thought New 
York had possibly lost an important 
article of food especially for its tenement 
house population. It may be undesirable 
to feed babies, but arranging for its sale 
for other purposes is an administrative 
problem and should be readily solved. 
It is largely used in Baltimore, especially 
by the foreign-born population. The 
Jews and Lithuanians make fine hand 
cheese from it, a food capable of being 
preserved for months. 

After considerable further discussion 
it was resolved that the sale of skim milk 
should be permitted but not for consump- 
tion by infants and not in retail stores 
where whole milk is sold. 

No subject before the con- 
Pasteurization. ference aroused greater in- 
terest than pasteurization. 
Only a brief outline of the discussion can 
be given here. The official report will 
be found interesting to those who care 
for fuller information. 

In recognition of the philanthropic 
work done by him in this field for the 
past few years, Nathan Straus was in- 
vited to introduce the subject. He was 
unable to attend, but a paper prepared 
by him was read by Dr. Green, superin- 
tendent of the Straus laboratory. 
Mr. Straus expressed the earnest belief 
that in the present condition of our milk 
supply, especially in view of the preva- 
lence of tuberculosis among cattle, pas- 
teurization is necessary. He said that 
if it were possible to secure pure, fresh 
milk direct from healthy cows, in any 
large city, there would be no cause for 
pasteurization. This, however, he be- 
lieved impossible of attainment. 

Opposition to general pasteurization 
was expressed by Dr. Darlington on the 
ground that it is a species of cooking 



which cannot as a matter of constitu- 
tional right be forced upon the people 
against their will, any more than a 
similar treatment of other foods. 

Rochester's experience with pasteuriz- 
ation was stated by Dr. Goler, who said 
that after several years' trial it had been 
abandoned. He thought no one who 
would look into dairies from which the 
companies draw milk for commercial 
pasteurization would be willing to have 
that method introduced, and among other 
expressions of strong conviction, said he 
"preferred to have dirt and milk cooked 
separately." 

The difference in value between true 
and commercial pasteurization was stated 
by Dr. Freeman, who thought the latter 
not only ought not to be made compul- 
sory or general but regarded it as a 
means of marketing dirty milk which 
should be condemned from every point 
of view. There was little said in de- 
fense of commercial pasteurization ex- 
cept by Dr. Park, who believed it was 
a mistake to call it a fraud. The milk 
is no worse for it than it was before; it 
keeps sweet longer, kills eighty to ninety- 
five per cent of ordinary bacteria, many 
typhoid germs and probably most scarlet 
fever germs. Tuberculosis germs are 
probably not harmed. There was a very 
general disagreement with this view as 
to the efficacy of commercial pasteuriza- 
tion, the great majority, both in the con- 
ference and in subsequent written com- 
munications that will appear in the official 
report, stating that the effect is simply 
to kill the comparatively harmless organ- 
isms, such as the lactic acid bacteria 
which produce scouring, without destroy- 
ing the more dangerous spores and the 
germs of typhoid, diphtheria and tuber- 
culosis. 

The discussion was brought to an end 
by a resolution that it was the sense of 
the conference that pasteurization should 
not be made compulsory ; that commercial 
pasteurization has some value but not 
the same as true pasteurization. 

Infant mortality is so di- 
rectly related to the purity 
m Depot5 * or impurity of milk, that 
this branch of the subject is one of great- 
est interest and one that offers the fairest 



Infants 
Milk 



Clean Milk for New York City 



681 



field for philanthropic effort both be- 
cause of the appeal of the helpless baby, 
and because while the total de- 
mand for this purpose is large, it 
is only a small part of the whole 
supply and it is possible to form feasible 
plans for accomplishing comparative early 
and visible results. Dr. Goler, whose 
work in Rochester has given him the 
primacy in this field, gave the history of 
ten years in Rochester. After their un- 
satisfactory experience with pasteuriza- 
tion they decided to devote themselves 
especially to securing a clean milk sup- 
ply. He gave an interesting description 
of their method, which has resulted in 
reducing the Rochester death rate of chil- 
dren under five years from thirty-three 
per cent to fifteen per cent. They simply 
have a portable plant, consisting of three 
or four tents and a booth, costing all 
together only $1,000, which they estab- 
lish every year on some large farm so 
that clean milk is obtained, and thorough 
sterilization of all vessels, utensils and 
bottles is practiced, all under the care of 
a competent nurse. The milk is then 
carefully iced and shipped to four sta- 
tions in Rochester, each of which is also 
under the care of a competent nurse in 
the absence of the physician. Advice is 
given to mothers and little booklets are 
issued in several languages. As to whether 
infants milk depots should be sustained 
by the city or by private philanthropy, 
Dr. Goler thought it would probably be 
necessary in a large city like New York 
that the aid of private philanthropy 
should be sought, but he felt that it was 
really the duty of a city to protect the 
lives of its children. He also spoke of the 
educational work in connection with 
these depots, and Dr. Ager of Brooklyn 
told of the service rendered there in con- 
nection with several depots by volunteer 
physicians through the Children's Aid 
Society. 

An interesting account was given by 
Dr. Williams of the work last summer 
at the summer camp of the A. I. C. P. 
at the foot of East 65th street, known as 
the Junior Sea Breeze, where, through 
the liberality of John D. Rockefeller, four 
hundred sick babies were cared for. The 
mothers were given lessons by physicians 



and nurses, teaching them how to prepare 
food and handle the children. He told 
of the eagerness with which mothers wel- 
comed instruction, and emphasized the 
importance of such education. 

A valuable statement was made by 
Dr. Holt of careful tests and observa- 
tions made by the Rockefeller Ins f itute 
and the Health Department a few years 
ago upon infants in the tenements to 
determine the results which attend the 
use of (1) condensed milk, (2) milk 
which was procured from the groceries, 
known by the people as store milk, (3) 
a fair grade of bottled milk, (4) milk 
from the different distributing stations 
or milk depots, — those of Mr. Straus and 
others connected with various dispen- 
saries or diet kitchens. The results were 
enormously favorable to the distributing 
stations, due he thought not only to the 
greater purity of the milk, but to the fact 
that it was furnished in feeding bottles 
and was therefore not exposed to con- 
tamination in handling. 

Dr. Darlington expressed himself as 
very much in favor of such depots and 
of the use of pasteurized milk in them. 
As to whether they should be established 
by the city or by private philanthropy, 
he considered it a grave question, but 
thought they should certainly be estab- 
lished and the people educated by cir- 
culars and other teaching as to the care 
of babies. The following resolution was 
passed : 

That infants milk depots should use both 
raw milk and pasteurized milk, but that 
all milk used should be "clean"; that it is 
questionable whether municipal depots are 
desirable; that much educational work is 
possible in connection with milk depots. It 
should be directed to the instruction of 
mothers and other persons having the care 
of infants in the proper method of feeding 
infants and the importance of cleanliness 
in their care and feeding. 



Model Milk 
Shops. 



Fundamental to the whole 
question of protecting the 
people's milk supply, it is 
necessary to secure proper conditions in 
retail stores where milk is now com- 
monly sold by dipping from cans, opened 
in the midst of decaying vegetables, 
fruits, meat and fish by those whose 
hands are necessarily soiled by the na- 



682 



Charities and The Commons 



ture of their work. In speaking on this 
subject, Professor Pearson of the dairy- 
ing division of the College of Agriculture, 
Cornell University, said that it was a 
question upon which there is the least 
difference of opinion. Milk should be 
sold only in connection with articles 
which would not contribute dirt, dust or 
mould. Where such exclusive shops are 
not possible, special booths might be con- 
structed, very small perhaps, but fitted 
to exclude dust. Cans with lids that will 
only remain open when held open, might 
be used, or those with faucets at the lower 
end. Refrigeration to or below fifty 
degrees Fahrenheit should be rigidly en- 
forced and adequate means should be 
provided for boiling utensils if only a 
wash boiler could be procured, as steam 
is not necessary. These requirements 
should not increase price of milk. A 
most interesting and valuable system of 
score cards for use in inspecting such 
shops was described by Clarence B. Lane, 
acting chief of the dairying division of the 
Bureau of Animal Industry, Department 
of Agriculture, Washington. Copies of 
cards, etc., will be found in the official re- 
port. All the features of a store are given 
points, certain absolute requirements are 
made and progressively insisted upon, 
and the standard of shops thus raised. 
Excellent results of such system were 
related. "It is good because it works." 
Considerable time was given to the 
discussion of the sterilization or cleans- 
ing of bottles, cans and utensils, the 
cleanliness of person and dress of attend- 
ants, the educational effect of such evi- 
dent cleanliness and teaching the value 
of milk and the importance of care in its 
handling. The following resolutions 
were adopted: 

1. That nothing should be sold in connec- 
tion with milk except other dairy, products 
and sealed package goods. Where milk is 
sold in grocery stores, separate booths 
should be provided in which the milk is kept 
free from contact with the other articles 
dealt in. It is not practicable at present 
to prohibit the use of cans; the milk should 
be required to be kept at a temperature be- 
low 50° Fahrenheit; all bottles and cans 
should be cleansed and exposed to a boiling 
temperature for a sufficient length of time 
to destroy all pathogenic germs, and that 
the natural place would be at the creamery 
where they are refilled. 



2. That in model shops provision should 
be made for sterilizing utensils at least to 
the degree of boiling them daily. That the 
attendants should wear washable white suits 
both for cleanliness and for the moral effect 
upon those purchasing milk. 

inspection The importance of inspec- 
the Main tion as the main reliance 
ReIlance ' was fully recognized. It 
must be constant, frequent and unremit- 
ting, beginning at the dairy and following 
every step to the consumer, coupling with 
it at every turn, in the words of Clarence 
B. Lane, not only an enforcement of 
regulations but moral suasion and edu- 
cation. Mr. Lane, who had been called 
upon to open the discussion, compli- 
mented the New York Health Department 
on its system, but considered the number 
of inspectors (fourteen to 30,000 dairies 
and 600 creameries) very inadequate. 
The system was as good as any he knew, 
but it should go further and give the 
dairies a definite rating on some basis 
that can be classified, and their condition 
readily compared from time to time when 
new inspections are made. He exhibited 
a "score card" adapted to the inspection 
of dairies. In answer to the ques- 
tion how many inspectors would be 
required in the country, he replied that 
from his experience one inspector should 
cover eight to ten dairies daily. On this 
basis there should be seventy-five in- 
spectors to cover 30,000 dairies once 
every two months. Then he would pub- 
lish the names of dairies that score 
ninety, in a national registry which would 
appeal to the pride of the dairymen. The 
Department of Agriculture is glad to co- 
operate with any city. 

Dr. Bensel assistant sanitary superin- 
tendent New York Department of 
Health following, gave a brief statement 
of what the New York Department of 
Health has done for milk, describing the 
course by which milk passes through 
several stages : in the dairy ; transporta- 
tion from dairy to creamery; the cream- 
ery; car transportation from creamery to 
the city ; wagon transportation from rail- 
road platform to retail stores, and then 
from store to the household. He pre- 
sented photographs showing conditions 
found in dairies and corrected by inspec- 
tion, showing how necessary it is to begin 



Clean Milk for New York City 



68 



work where the milk is produced and how 
absurd to suppose that pasteurization 
would be a cure for such conditions or 
reduce the need for their inspection. 
Photographs were also exhibited show- 
ing conditions in creameries before and 
after inspection, improvements of floors, 
drainage, etc. Railroad transportation 
and the necessity for effective refrigera- 
tion, the need for closed wagons with 
continued icing, the transfer of milk 
from railroad platforms to retail stores 
were discussed, all of which are meas- 
urably within the department's power to 
regulate and control. In answer to the 
question "Is it practicable by inspection 
alone to secure a clean milk supply," he 
replied, "Yes, after a time," "Will it 
protect against the more dangerous forms 
of infection?" "If followed up thor- 
oughly, it must." 

As to the number of inspectors, instead 
of fourteen in the country eighty are 
needed to inspect all dairies and cream- 
eries on an average of once every two 
months. Dr. Bensel spoke briefly of bac- 
teriological tests as giving evidence as 
to the success of inspection — thought 
they should be taken chiefly in summer 
and would furnish an indication of the 
character of work at given creameries. 
He did not think that we could ever pre- 
vent an occasional bad instance ; if our 
general average is good it is all that we 
can expect. In answer to questions he 
added that bacterial counts are not a 
basis for condemning arid destroying 
milk, as the milk is consumed before the 
count is finished, but they enable us to 
trace the faults back to creamery or farm 
or method of handling, where steps can 
be taken for their correction. 

Education: ^he chairman next asked 

"The Dairy for a brief consideration of 

special. t j ie su bj ects name d } n the 

program under this heading, and called 
upon Dr. Fulton, secretary of the Mary- 
land State Board of Health, who made 
a record in handling the milk exhibit 
at Baltimore last spring. 1 He gave an 
interesting account of the educational 
tour of the "dairy special" train which 
went about the state making forty-minute 
stops at stations, one of the cars being 

' See Charities and The Commons for August i, 1906. 



used as an auditorium. The immediate 
results were valuable, interest was ex- 
cited and farmers were induced to visit 
the milk exhibit in Baltimore. 

The extension of the state system of 
agricultural institutes was briefly pre- 
sented by Deputy Commissioner Geo r ge 
L. Flanders, who said that 300 were held 
during the last year, while there 
were calls for four or five times as many, 
which would require increased appropria- 
tions. If a good milk supply is desired 
it is of the first importance to educate 
the producer how to take care of the 
cows, how to draw and care for the milk, 
how to take it to market. 

Professor Vulte of Teachers College 
spoke of the importance of the proper 
treatment of milk in the household, 
where it may be received in a perfectly 
sanitary condition and yet from im- 
proper handling speedily become unfit 
for food. 

He also referred to the milk exhibit 
to be given in* the coming spring by the 
Teachers College, which he believed 
would be of great value as a means of 
educating the community. This sugges- 
tion was favorably received by the con- 
ference and it will receive cordial sup- 
port. 

The importance of teaching mothers 
how to care for milk, how to detect im- 
purities and the imperative value of 
cleanliness, by model shops, lectures and 
other means, could only receive brief at- 
tention but was recognized as deserving 
much consideration. 

Legislation A b [ ief t ime ^ remained 
That is to be devoted to topics 
Needed - under this heading. The 
importance of the question concerning 
diseased cattle and the evident necessity 
of guarding against the contamination of 
milk by persons having contagious dis- 
eases was regarded as too great to per- 
mit of its being- taken up in the short time 
remaining. These subjects will be treat- 
ed in the report by communications from 
members. 

It was thought that cans should be 
sealed at creameries; that the pollution 
of cans and bottles should be made a 
misdemeanor ; that a bacterial standard 



684 



Charities and The Commons 



should not be established at present and 
that state supervision should be greatly 
increased. 

A committee of five, consisting of Drs. 
Freeman, Holt, Lederle and Williams, 
and Mr. J. E. Sayles, was appointed to 
edit, recise and publish a report of the 
conference. This committee has obtained 
from members of the conference, who 
were unable to attend throughout both 
sessions, an expression of their views on 
the questions raised in the program, which 
will add greatly to the importance and 
completeness of the record. 

At the close of the session a resolution 
was adopted that the New York Asso- 
ciation for Improving the Condition of 
the Poor be requested to appoint a large 
committee with a small executive com- 
mittee to co-operate with the Health De- 
partment and the County Medical So- 
ciety and in the Milk Exhibit to be given 
by Teachers College. 



Such a committee has been appointed 
and it is laying plans for a vigorous cam- 
paign which it is hoped will be reflected 
in a decreased infant mortality next 
summer and in the permanent establish- 
ment of improved conditions both as to 
the quality of the milk brought into the 
city and the means of placing it in the 
handj of the people. 

There seems to be a general awaken- 
ing throughout the country to the im- 
portance of the milk question. For the 
reasons given above the problem in New 
York is more complex and difficult than 
elsewhere. It affects not only our own 
4,000,000 people but has relation to al- 
most the entire state and the adjacent 
states. It demands not only the im- 
mediate and constant attention of our city 
but deserves state and even national con- 
sideration. 



NeigHborHood Worh 



Street Crap Playing 

John W. ClarK 
Amity Church Settlement 



The spirit of gambling seems to have 
taken hold of large numbers of our popu- 
lation, young and old. Much has been said 
in condemnation of games of chance played 
in Wall street with enormous stakes, and 
of pool-room and race-track gambling. Fre- 
quent have been the raids made of late upon 
gaming houses, and many the gamblers 
taken "with the goods on them." But the 
spirit of gambling is as prevalent as ever 
and will continue to be so long as the 
ranks of the gambling fraternity are re- 
cruited year after year by boys in whom 
this spirit is fostered through the crap 
games of our streets. 

The prevalence of street crap playing is 
pretty generally known, but that the evil has 
assumed such large proportions as to con- 
stitute a menace to our social well being, 
may not be so generally recognized. The 
Association of Neighborhood Workers, com- 
prising the various settlements of the city, 
appreciating the significance of this evil, 
requested all organizations represented in 
the association to gather information con- 
cerning crap games on the streets of their 
neighborhood on Sunday the 18th of No- 



vember. The association believed that such 
a body of facts as might be gathered by a 
simultaneous investigation in various sec- 
tions of the city would be useful in an ef- 
fort to get the police department to take 
some action. 

What the Twenty-six settlements co- 
investigators operated in making the in- 
Found, vestigation on that day. The 
number of games observed was 437, and 
the number of players 3,455, varying in 
age from the child of six to the man of 
thirty. The ages given in the various re- 
ports are, of course, approximate. In 293 
games played, money was the stake, the 
sums varying from ten cents in pennies to 
$40 in bills. In other games observed, but- 
tons, cards and dice were used. Classify- 
ing the reports into sections, the result of 
the investigation is as follows: 

Eight settlements on the east side of Man- 
hattan observed 160 games with 1,448 play- 
ers. Of these, 145 were boys apparently be- 
tween the ages of six and nine, 291 between 
nine and twelve, 508 between twelve and 
fifteen and 504 from fifteen to twenty-one. 



The Boys Club in Civic Work 



685 



In 103 of these East Side games money was 
used, the amount at stake running up to 
$30 in one game, in another $20, and in a 
third $10. Such remarks occur in the re- 
ports of these East Side investigators as: 
"Of frequent occurrence in this neighbor- 
hood." "Policeman passed and said noth- 
ing." "Policeman stood ten yards away 
while the group commenced operations, then 
moved away." One report says: "Had a 
short talk with police captain. He admit- 
ted knowledge of existing conditions but 
said little could be done to suppress the 
vice inasmuch as little help is given by 
citizens and parents. However he promised 
to send men to places pointed out to him in 
his precinct." 

On the west side of Manhattan eleven in- 
vestigators noticed 153 games with 1,142 
players. Of these, eighty-three were be- 
tween the ages of six and nine, 136 between 
nine and twelve, 238 between twelve and 
fifteen, 368 between fifteen and twenty-one, 
and 120 over twenty-one years of age, — 
while for the remaining players no age 
is reported. In 114 of these games money 
was used, in one game $40 being the stake. 
On the West Side, as on the east, the in- 
vestigators complain of the indifference of 
the police. One says: "Many policemen 
met, but not one stopped a game." Another 
says: "I saw two officers at different times, 
each of them near enough to break up 
games which I saw, though they did not." 
One boy told this investigator that he had 
a fifteen year old friend who sometimes 
made $15 on a Sunday by playing craps. 
The report adds: "I know my informant and 
am inclined to believe him." 

From Brooklyn come similar reports. 
Seven settlement workers observed 124 
games with 865 players, though in that 
borough only six were as young as from 
six to nine years; 135 were from nine to 
twelve; 331, including five girls, were from 
twelve to fifteen, 321 from fifteen to twenty- 
one, and 72 above twenty-one, this last group 
including several men playing "morro" for 
drinks. 

Doubtless the above figures represent only 
a portion of the games and players on 
November 18, as the whole city could not 
be covered by twenty-six investigators. The 
Borough of the Bronx is not included. But 
sufficient data is here given to prove the 
statement made above that large numbers 
of boys, in the formative period of life, are 



permitted, unchecked, to cultivate the habit 
of gambling which, in many cases, will as- 
suredly prevent them from becoming use- 
ful citizens, if it does not entirely unfit 
them for doing honest work. Many of the 
investigators report the prevalence of swear- 
ing among the boys of all ages engaged in 
the games, and some report the habi/- of 
drinking among the older boys and men. 
Apparently the crap playing evil is not con- 
fined to any one locality, but prevails in 
all sections of the city, — in the district of 
the "brown stone front," as well as in the 
locality of the poorer tenement house. The 
lack of "something else to do" may explain 
why many boys take to crap playing — es- 
pecially the older ones. 

It is difficult to say how the 

Remedies ev n can be mos t effectively 

tor the Kvii. deaU w . th The police CQuld 

certainly do more than they are doing to 
mitigate it. But unless effort is also put 
forth by citizens who have the best inter- 
est of these boys at heart, the evil will not 
be stamped out. In this connection the 
words of the police captain quoted above 
deserve consideration. If citizens would 
feel it their duty to go out of their way 
to call the attention of a negligent police- 
man to such games, something might be 
accomplished in that way. But right here 
one investigator raises the question whether 
"the effect of police interference would not 
make the evil worse by driving the groups 
into alleys or courts or rooms, without the 
little air they get in the streets now?" 
It seems to the writer that in some in- 
stances such might be the effect of police 
interference, but not generally. Any method 
employed which will make it made difficult 
for street games to be played will have a 
beneficial effect at least so far as the young- 
er boys are concerned. 

The work of the settlement does not, of 
course, lie along the line of preventing crap 
playing ra the streets by seeing that exist- 
ing laws are enforced, or in seeking an 
increase of legislation to prevent the evil. 
It lies rather along the line of providing 
a remedy for the evil in the way of a 
substitute for the street game. And such 
substitutes are being provided by the set- 
tlements in their clubs, classes and gym- 
nasia. Here perhaps will be found one 
remedy for the evil. 



The Boys Cl\ib in Civic WorK 

Louis Heaton Pinli 
University Settlement 



"In some portions of the city antiquated 
horse cars may still be seen, giving pic- 
turesque emphasis to the disregard of the 
public convenience. * * * The problem 
of transportation in the territory of Greater 



New York demands special, prompt and 
comprehensive treatment." This is quoted 
from the message of Governor Hughes, Jan- 
uary 2, 1907. 
From the executive chamber to a boys 



686 



Charities and The Commons 



club of an East Side settlement is a long 
step. Yet the fight for the abolition of 
the horse cars, begun by the Milton Club 
of the University Settlement, has reached 
the state capitol. 

The Milton Club boasts less than twenty 
members. The average age is twenty-three. 
None comes of well-to-do parents; all are 
educated. There are lawyers, dentists, man- 
agers of stores and shops. Education they 
gained at the night schools. All had to 
work when they reached the legal age, some 
before. Not one but has known life as a 
messenger boy, errand boy or as helper in 
a sweat shop. 

The club has been in existence some ten 
years, all but the first few spent at the 
University Settlement. The settlement is 
their alma mater and their devotion to it 
is very similar to the regard of the college 
graduate for his college. When the mem- 
bers wore knee breeches and consumed 
their time in fiery arguments over the bal- 
ance in the treasury, or the expulsion of 
an unruly member, their ideals were high. 
They looked forward to the day when they 
could, as a club, work for the betterment 
of neighborhood conditions. 

A series of children's concerts was the 
first contribution of the club to civic work. 
Subsequently the Yiddish music halls were 
investigated, and the co-operation of the 
East Side press and of the actors' union 
was secured in an effort to drive the shady 
story from the boards. The chief contribu- 
tion the club has made to the neighbor- 
hood is the fight for better transit facilities 
on the cross town horse car lines. 

Last spring a petition was sent to the 
State Board of Railroad Commissioners set- 
ting forth the need of improved transit fa- 
cilities on the lower East Side. The com- 
mission was urged to order a better and 
more regular schedule, that the cars be 
cleaned, adequately lighted, heated in win- 
ter, and that the system be ultimately elec- 



trified — for only by electrification can sub- 
stantial and permanent relief be effected. 

The support of the East Side civic or- 
ganizations and of many prominent citizens 
was secured. After a public hearing the 
railroad commissioners ordered all that had 
been asked. 

The schedule has been somewhat im- 
proved. Within the past few weeks, after 
much prodding by the commission, stoves 
have been put in the cars. But the railroad 
company has made no move to electrify 
the lines; it will do what it is forced to 
do, no more. 

In November a petition signed by Judge 
Rosalsky, Lillian D. Wald, Joseph Baron- 
dess, Dr. David Blaustein, John Paley, Abra- 
ham Cohan, Dr. James H. Hamilton, and 
many other prominent east siders was sent 
to the mayor and to the board of estimate 
and apportionment requesting that body to 
order the bureau of franchises to inquire 
into the validity of the horse car franchises 
and further that the corporation counsel 
bring proceedings against the company for 
"misuser." The report of the franchise 
bureau will be out before this article is 
printed. The opinion of the corporation 
counsel will follow shortly. 

It is thought that some of the franchises 
can be successfully attacked. The legis- 
lature will also be appealed to for direct 
legislation abolishing horse cars that pre- 
serve franchises for the company but that 
do not give service to the public. 

It cannot fairly be said the credit for 
the movement belongs to the Milton 
Club. The fight has been taken out 
of its hands. The East Side has been 
aroused and has made the cause its own. 
But the Milton Club started the movement 
and has kept it going. 

All this to show that the boys club ex- 
ists not merely for the training and de- 
velopment of its members, but is capable 
of important work along civic lines. 



Lincoln House, Boston 

James JenKins 

Greenwich House 



Lincoln House in Boston is an educational 
institution similar to the Boys Club in New 
York of which Mr. Tabor is manager. The 
work started nineteen years ago in a single 
rented room; now it has a splendid building, 
to which twenty clubs and forty-seven classes 
come every week. The transition has been 
gradual and healthy. It is the result of 
life and growth, and serves, therefore, as 
the framework of their activities, and not 
as the prop of anybody's theories. 

John D. Adams is the director in charge 
and to his able, tactful management is due 
largely the present splendid condition of 
the house. There is a library, gymnasium, 
dispensary, boys' play-room, girls' play-room, 



baths, an ophthalmic department, manual 
training department, printing department, 
classes in cooking, sloyd, basketry, clay- 
modeling, cobbling, drawing, mechanical 
draughting and music. 

The total number enrolled in clubs and 
classes last year was 814. 

There are several facts in connection with 
this house that are specially interesting and 
commendable. One is the work done by 
the Graduate Club. A settlement or club 
that can keep its members interested after 
they become grown men and can make them 
in turn help in the work of that settlement 
or club is rather rare. Last year the Grad- 
uates Club members of the house were rep- 



The Trend of Things 



687 



resented on the house committee; they pre- 
sented a list of excellent speakers for Sun- 
day afternon talks; they appeared and help- 
ed at the socials and other events of the 
house; and last and greatest, they consti- 
tuted a sort of house committee of direction 
during the summer months, arranging it 
so that at least one member would be at 
the house every evening. This made it pos- 
sible to keep open several departments for 
the benefit of the neighborhood. 

An excellent idea was introduced in con- 
nection with the boys' play-room. Several 
picture books to be colored with crayons 
were provided. The boys enjoyed the work 
and at the end of the season the twelve best 
books were chosen and the boys who had 
colored them were invited to take them to 
one of the hospitals. Tne books were given 
to sick children, with equal pleasure to them 
and to the boys who brought them. The 
most interesting part of the financial state- 
ment is the large amount given to the house 
by the various clubs and classes. These 
were partly dues, partly the results of en- 
tertainments given by the clubs, and partly 
voluntary gifts to the summer vacation fund. 



The Christmas season at 
Se N<!t!£ ent Christodora House, New 

York, was one of good cheer 
to the residents and club members alike. 
Each day new parties of children were re- 
ceived, the trees standing in both houses 
throughout the week. In the afternoon the 
smaller boys and girls had their parties, 



in the evening the older club members came 
together. On Saturday morning three hun- 
dred children who do not belong to regu- 
lar clubs but who come every week for the 
children's hour, were entertained. Several 
groups of children were taken uptown to 
the homes of friends while others in spe- 
cial need were given useful gifts, as well 
as toys and candy. 

The Sunday services are always of special 
interest at this time of the year. Christ- 
mas songs are sung by the children on the 
Sunday before New Year's; this year they 
were led by Mrs. Margaret E. Sangster. On 
New Year's day the two houses were thrown 
open from three to eleven and neighbor- 
hood friends received. A purse of fifty 
dollars was made up by the voluntary con- 
tributions of the clubs and enough more 
added by friends to make possible, needed 
repairs. 

Th recent death of Miss Alice Jackson 
cast a shadow over the otherwise festive 
season. 

At the Normal College Alumnae House, 
the problem of simplifying Christmas par- 
ties has been solved by the plan of combin- 
ing all clubs into two large rallies for boys 
and girls respectively. At first, as is so 
apt to be the case, a little pride was shown 
by the older club members, in playing with 
the younger ones, but this was soon forgot- 
ten in the excitement of the games and gen- 
eral Christmas cheer. A genuine gain in 
interclub friendship and neighborhood loy- 
alty was felt as a result. 



The Trend of TKings 



"Why Girls Go Wrong," is answered in 
the January Ladies 1 Home Journal by Judge 
Ben B. Lindsey, of the Juvenile Court of 
Denver, very concisely in the words: "I say 
it unhesitatingly; that nine-tenths of our 
girls go wrong because of the carelessness 
of parents." Children read the daily papers, 
hear conversations not intended for them 
and are extremely curious regarding matters 
of sex. "I have no hesitation in stating 
that boys discuss it in a most improper and 
unfortunate way. I have been amazed to 
find that this same condition exists among 
girls to a much greater extent than I ever 
dreamed," says Judge Lindsey. "I have 
learned this in the children's court after 
repeated experiences in talking to little girls 
and their mothers in the privacy of my 
chambers, regarding their troubles brought 
to my attention by parents, officers, and prin- 
cipals of schools." The sad part of the mat- 
ter is "The girl finds out too late what her 
parents might have and should have told 
her in time." 



"Thirty thousand Russians, men and 
women, are at present engaged in gathering 
interesting data as to the desires and inten- 
tions of the remaining one hundred and 
fifty million," is the statement with which 
Robert Crozier Long opens his effort to 
penetrate the mystery of "The Russian Se- 
cret Police," in the January Cosmopolitan. 
The "okhrana" is a vast "invertebrate" army 
of spies and detectives ready to turn its 
hand to anything from ferreting out a ter- 
rorist plot to inciting a "pogrom." Either 
"increased" or "extraordinary security" ex- 
ists over almost all Russia to-day and it is 
this fact that gives the secret political police 
its power and value for the law is practi- 
cally suspended. "Brain against brain," 
however, says Mr. Long, "the average Rus- 
sian detective is no match for his adversar- 
ies, and backed though he is by the whole 
machinery of government and by endless re- 
sources he is more often than not evaded 
and foiled." 



688 



Charities and The Commons 



Two-fifths of all blindness — there are sixty- 
five thousand or more blind persons in the 
United States, according to the last census — 
could have been prevented by precautionary 
or curative treatment, writes Helen Keller in 
the Ladies' Home Journal for January, in an 
article, "Unnecessary Blindness." Of this 
one-quarter to one-tenth of the whole is due 
to what is called "ophthalmia neonatorum" 
— that is, "infantile ophthalmia." "It is an 
inflammation of the eyes which attacks the 
new-born child and is one of the most pro- 
lific causes of blindness. It is occasioned 
by germs finding an entrance in the eyes of 
the child during the process of birth. The 
germs may be washed away with absorbent 
cotton and saline solution but the most cer- 
tain way is that "one or two drops of a solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver of a determined 
strength be dropped in each eye of the new- 
born child." This destroys the germs with- 
out injuring the eyes and its use would prac- 
tically eliminate this cause of blindness. 
One case of blindness in three due to this 
cause was shown by several years' observa- 
tion at the New York School for the Blind. 



Edwin Markham, in the January Cosmo- 
politan, has drawn another of his graphic 
pictures of child-labor, this time in "The 
Sweat-Shop Inferno," the fifth chapter of 
"The Hoe-Man in the Making." But the 
forceful presentation Mr. Markham makes 
of cause and effect is marred by an unfortu- 
nate looseness of statement when he en- 
deavors to state the extent of the evil in 
figures. For example it is difficult to gather 
what is meant by an isolated statement such 
as: "In three hundred out of five hundred 
homes, women and children must work to 
eke out the living." There is no doubt, 
however, of what is meant by such things 
as "A child frequently earns only one cent 
an hour. The average income of the whole 
family is five dollars and seventy cents a 
week. Three out of five of these doomed 
workers who are making our clothes are led 
down to death by the white plague." Over- 
drawn, possibly, but as long as the figures 
are accurate no more illegitimately over- 
drawn than is Dickens. The figures are not 
always accurate. 

* * * 

J. Horace McFarland, president of the 
American Civic Asociation, presents in the 
Ladies' Home Journal for January another 
of his "Beautiful America" series — "And 
this is at the Nation's Capital!" Theatre 
posters facing the capitol grounds and drugs, 
cigars and soda blatantly advertised on the 
historic "Key Mansion" are among the blots 
on the 'scutcheon of the city planned by 

L'Enfant. 

* * * 

"I have now lying before me the official 
record of suicides in the United States from 
1885 to 1903," writes James Cardinal Gib- 
bons, in the January Century, in a little 
sermon on The Moral Aspects of Suicide. 



"It is calculated to excite in every patriotic 
and humane breast sentiments of compassion 
and deep concern. These statistics show a 
steady increase in nineteen years in this 
class of crime and misery." Cardinal Gib- 
bons closes by comparing the life of Job with 
that of Cato, according "a higher degree of 
heroic virtue to the saint of the Bible than 
to the sage of Utica. The one yielded to the 
storm of adversity, the other bravely con- 
fronted it." 

* * * 

The Railroad Trainmen's Journal pub- 
lishes a sharp editorial criticism based on an 
account of a wreck which had reached them 
"reeking with cruelty and barbarism." The 
paragraphs would have been strengthened 
immeasurably if the name of the road, time 
and place, and superintendent of the wreck- 
ing crew had been printed so as to admit 
of further inquiry on the part of anyone in- 
terested. As it is, the average reader places 
such paragraphs as the following in that un- 
profitable category — "abominable if true." 

"A fast meat train was wrecked and the 
brakeman was pinned under the wreck. The 
company transferred every pound of meat 
and moved four other cars before it attempt- 
ed to do anything with the one under which 
the brakeman was buried. Friends, relatives 
and citizens protested, but without result, 
the officials took their own good time to get 
at the body. 

"It was one of the most inhuman exhibi- 
tions of official meanness we have ever 
known, and we have met a few, and the 
memory of it ought never to be forgotten by 
the men on that road. 

"Every man engaged in wrecking the train 
ought to have stopped work until ordered to 
start again for the purpose of finding the 
body of the brakeman. The fact that he was 
dead offered no excuse for the hoggishness 
that ordered him to remain under the wreck 
for forty hours." 

* * * 

Miss Goodyear's address before the New 
York State Conference of Charities and Cor- 
rection as to the cost items in a working 
man's family budget in New York has been 
made the subject of widespread editorial 
comment in the newspapers. The labor press 
is now taking it up. The Railroad Train- 
men's Journal reprints a considerable part 
of the addresses by Mr. Tucker, Miss Good- 
year and others, before the Rochester con- 
ference. The point of view of a wage-earner 
is put in a nut shell: "We know better than 
that (that vanity, fancy packages, special de- 
liveries and the like have unreasonably in- 
creased the cost of living). We who live in 
the same house, buy the same necessaries 
and follow the same old bent, know that the 
rent has gone up, that coal, flour, groceries, 
and other provisions have gone up, that 
clothing and the like have gone up and 
that when we compare the purchasing power 
of what is paid to-day with the purchasing 
power of what was paid fifteen years ago, 
we are not any better off and in some in- 



The Trend of Thin 



£ s 



689 



stances, not so well off as then. ... To live 
decently and honestly, comfortably and 
without waste, should be the right of every 
wage worker." The Journal thinks that any 
immediate legislation fixing a legal mini- 
mum of wage is far remote "with the right 
of contract staring us in the face." It 
hopes that the investigation will help settle 
the question as to whether 'the producer be- 
gins to get a fair share of his product.' " 

* * * 

A series of pictures by Bessie Marsh are 
published in the January Everybody's. The 
title is The Cry of the Slums. They are not 
pretty pictures. Probably an artist would 
take as much exception to the drawing of 
them as the social worker who really knows 
conditions among the poor would take ex- 
ception to what they portray. These rooms 
are not so bad as the pasty basement on an 
East Side street, where a family of illiterate 
children were found at work making paper 
bags, or the ramshackle brutalities of exist- 
ence in the West SMe rookery described in 
a recent publication of Greenwich House, 
New York. But the social workers who 
found them out would be the last to hold 
them up as illustrative of the life of the 
poor as a whole. That is a gift of portrayal 
possessed only by Dickens and Riis and a 
few others with big hearts and imaginations 
kindled by both discontent and hope. Here 
are rather the sketches of a chance reader 
of what is to her a new page of life, a reader 
who has gone no further than the squalid 
headlines. 

These pictures then, are like flourishing 
an out-at-heel, ill-smelling sock before him 
who has hung up a fat, round Christmas 
stocking, fine-spun and with gay clocks at 
the ankles. If he cannot be budged from 
his warm complacency by the showing of a 
darned, half-empty clean one, perhaps this 
will fetch him. But the poor wear both 
sorts. Charles Edward Russell has written 
the accompanying text, stating that "a 
woman, who was also an artist, started one 
day on a tour of the real New York to see 
with her own eyes and note for her own sat- 
isfaction the glories of our prosperity and 
the triumphs of our civilization." Here is 
one paragraph on what she saw: 

"And in a garret, just under the eaves, she 
saw a woman who had been left alone in 
the world and who earned a trifle of bread 
by stitching things for you and me to wear; 
and want and misery and suffering had 
warped the mind that should have been full 
and strong and aspiring, until it was dark 
and dusty, like the hole wherein she abode 
and stitched things for you and me." 

* * * 

In the January Outlook, Elizabeth Mc- 
Cracken tells how the working girl is trans- 
formed into a craftsman at the Manhattan 
Trade School, New York City. Miss Mc- 
Cracken's account of the school's work was 
written last spring, before the new building 
at 209 East Twenty-third street was ac- 
quired and the courses were enlarged. Con- 



sequently her account is not entirely accur- 
ate. But a good idea of the work the school 
is accomplishing may be obtained from the 
article. 

The school is entirely without precedent. 
Trade schools are by no means uncommon 
in Europe but each one of them is minutely 
adapted to the needs of the particular city 
or county in which they are located. ' At 
the Manhattan school the "trades center 
about the skilled use of certain tools, train- 
ing in the proper handling which had 
hitherto been impossible to obtain except 
by an actual apprenticeship, at once ill paid 
and, because of the nature of several of 
the tools, dangerous for the untaught 
worker." 

"During the school's first year, 244 girls 
were enrolled. At the end of the year, 43 
of these had completed their courses and 
obtained employment. ... At the be- 
ginning of the second year 113 of the form- 
er pupils returned to the school and 195 
new students came in, making a total of 
308. Of these, 91 became qualified for 
trades before the end of the year and were 
placed." 

There are four departments in the school 
— the branch which teaches the handling of 
the trade tools, and the academic, art and 
hygienic departments. Each student, in 
whatever branch of trade training she may 
be interested, is also required to work in 
each of the other three departments. 

Bearing in mind the fact that the untrain- 
ed girl apprentice is often obliged to work 
unpaid until the trade is learned, the fol- 
lowing table showing the wages of trained 
beginners in trade from the Manhattan 
School is of interest: 

Average weekly wage received by 108 

now at work $4.74 

Operating department (25 girls) 5.14 

Pasting department (20 girls) 4.92 

Dressmaking department (42 girls).. 4.68 

Millinery department (21 girls) 4.19 

Editorially the Outlook says: 

"Such institutions as Hampton, Northfield 
and the Manhattan Trade School are setting 
an example, not only for our public schools, 
but also for our private schools and uni- 
versities. The future development of the 
United States in economic welfare and in 
national character will be determined in 
no small degree by the intelligence and 
promptness with which that example is 

followed." 

* * * 

The first number of The Village, a journal 
for village life, made its appearance in De- 
cember. In the foreword the editor says: 

"We mean to have a great deal to say 
about village improvement. That is, really, 
the chief object of the magazine; but we are 
not going to spell it with a big O. We 
mean to make it interesting, and inform- 
ing, and amusing, and perhaps inspiring." 

The magazine is arranged in an attractive 



690 



Charities and The Commons 



style; it is handsomely illustrated and con- 
tains some forty pages of village improve- 
ment ideas. It is published at 35 Nassau 
street, New York, with editorial offices at 
Hyde Park, Mass. 



South"), and of a butler. There will be 
articles on poverty by James MacKaye; in- 
dustry, by A. Sakolski; crime, by J. C. 
Brown; the census, by W. J. Ghent; and 
race prejudice, by H. G. Wells. 



The February number of the Kindergar- 
ten Magazine and Pedagogical Digest will 
give special reference to the educational 
magazines of the United States and foreign 
countries. 

* * * 

Originality is not a synonym for inde- 
pendence, but it's a combination of the two 
which really gives the zest and hold upon 
public opinion characteristic of the weekly 
issues of The Independent. Coupled with 
these is a persistent habit of incursion into 
the outlying spheres of social activity and 
discussion, where standards are shifting. 
Of articles which bear upon international 
conditions to be published in 1907 are those 
by Prince Kropotkin on Tolstoy's Influence 
in Russia; Alvin F. Sanborn on How the 
French Anarchists Get Themselves Heard, 
and William English Walling on The Peas- 
ants' Revolt in Russia, and Professor Rich- 
ard Gottheil on Zionism. In the field of 
civics — Professor L. S. Rowe will describe 
municipal government as it is found in 
Rio de Janeiro; Clinton Rogers Woodruff 
on Municipal Franchises; Samuel B. Moffat 
on Municipal Ownership; Dr. James John- 
son on The Solution of the Milk Problem; 
and — no doubt an engaging narrative — The 
Social Activities of Mr. Joseph Lee of Bos- 
ton as told by himself. During the past 
year The Independent has had articles by 
E. G. Wells and others of a socialist bent, 
challenging at least the property principles 
underlying the average family group. Up- 
ton Sinclair will shortly tell of the experi- 
ence of six months at the Helicon Home 
Colony; and Charlotte Perkins Gilman will 
set forth her proposition as to paid mother- 
hood. The economic autobiographies which 
have been a distinctive feature during re- 
cent months will be continued by those of 
a Negro nurse ("More Slavery in the 



What might be called an interpretation 
of the newer nationalism as the United 
States knows it, will find expression in the 
year's Outlook. To begin with a series of 
six studies of American cities is announced 
for 1907, contributed by the president of 
the American Civic Association. The 
"glory" of Boston, Buffalo, Savannah, De- 
troit, Washington and Minneapolis — their 
material prosperity, civic righteousness and 
the growth of aesthetic appreciation — will 
be the main lines along which Mr. Mc- 
Farland's articles will run. In four articles 
Harold J. Howland will tell the story of 
staple products that form a foundation for 
our national wealth — wheat, corn, cotton 
and iron. In this field also there will be 
a continuation of the series upon industrial 
democracy which has been running during 
1906, and a further national survey is antici- 
pated in four articles on the North West 
by John Foster Carr; a group of character 
studies on twelve creative Americans; and 
an intimate study of middle western social 
development by Charles Moreau Harger. 
Ernest Hamlin Abbott will contribute a 
series of articles on the care and training 
of children in the home, and Miss Elizabeth 
McCracken will discuss The Servant and 
the Mistress as drawn from her personal 
investigations. A picturesque feature will 
be a series of pictures of street life in 
European capitals by Arthur Hewitt. Re- 
cent dispatches from London told how the 
London bobbies arrested Mr. Hewitt for 
endeavoring to infuse some old London thor- 
oughfares with the audibly American spirit 
of New Year's Eve. An imagination capable 
of offering such engaging effrontery to Bri- 
tish tradition is bound to see through the 
ordinary garb of London, Paris and Berlin 
and offer something original. 



BEAUFORT 
N. C. 



INLET INN 

MISS EMMA STANSBURY WINES, Proprietor 

TIRED charity workers can have a month's agree- 
able winter outing in the south for sixtv dollars, 
including transportation and return < from New York 
City) Write for descriptive circular. 



The Beth Israel Hospital 

TRAINING SCHOOL FOR NURSES, 

offers a two years' course in the study of nursing to 
■women from 2\ to 33 years of age, with High School 
education. An allowance of $7.00 and $10.00 
per month i9 made for uniforms and books. 
For information address 

Superintendent School of Nurses, 

BETH ISRAEL HOSPITAL, 

Cherry Street, New York City. 



Employment Exchange. 

Address all communications to Miss Helen M. Kelsey, 
Editor Employment Exchange of Charities and The 
Commons, Room 585, 156 Fifth Avenue. Kindly enclose 
postage if a reply is desired. 

The Editor is looking especially at this season for 
men and women who are qualified to organize new 
activities or to assume the direction of existing soci- 
eties. There is, however, the usual demand for "visit- 
or-" who have had training in organized charity work. 

Definite information concerning the more responsible 
positions cannot suitably be printed, but we need, for 
instance, 

1. A man accustomed to travel, who can undertake a 

financial secretaryship; 

2. Another, who is interested in public school better- 

ment, to direct a campaign ; 

3. A man or woman to take charge of a well-estab- 

lished settlement in the West 
For an extended notice of the Exchange 
see final cover page of tHis issue. 



CHARITIES 

and The Commons 



EDV »RO T- Devine, Editor 
Graham Taylor, Associate 
Lee K. Frankel, Associate for 
Jewish Charity 



THe Common Welfare 



Paragraphs in PHilantHropy and Social Advance 



Demand A mass meeting was held 
Real Labor on January 21 at Carnegie 

Inquiry. Lyceum in New York to 

arouse interest in the proposed inves- 
tigation of conditions among women 
and children wage earners. The bill 
passed Congress the day of the mass 
meeting. The bill originally carried 
with it an appropriation of $300,000 
which was struck out while pending. 
The mass meeting which was called 
to urge the passage of the law, there- 
ed to urge the passage of the law, there- 
fore, developed into an even more 
urgent appeal to appropriate the money 
that would make the law effective. 

Among the speakers were Mrs. Flor- 
ence Kelley, secretary of the Consum- 
ers' League, who spoke on the reaction 
against workingwomen. She in- 
stanced the Illinois law of 1893 that 
has been declared unconstitutional ; the 
Nek Jersey law which placed the state 
at the head of the "white list" of the 
International Association for Labor 
Legislation in 1903, but which was re- 
pealed while the "white list" was on the 
press, causing New Jersey to descend 
into the "black list" ; and finally, in 
New York, the Prentice bill before 
the present legislature allowing eigh- 
teen year old girls and sixteen year 
old boys the "liberty" of working 
twelve hours a day, sixty-six hours a 
week in "perishable, seasonal goods." 
Mrs. Kelley instanced the international 
treaty signed by fourteen nations of 
Europe prohibiting the working of 
women and children at night. The 
United States and Russia are practical- 

723 



ly the only great nations not included. 

Dr. A. Jacobi read a paper on The 
Physical Aspects of the Employment 
of Women and Child Labor. Dr. 
Jacobi's paper was a severe medical in- 
dictment of industrialism that demands 
"liberty to be gradually killed." The 
facts at first hand as he presented them 
were eloquent of the need of investi- 
gation whether "trade and commerce 
should rule or ruin the race." Dr. 
Jacobi traced the diseases one after 
another through many kinds of labor 
to their effect on the unborn and the 
cost of neglect in hospitals, penitentiar- 
ies, police courts and electric chairs. 
This paper will shortly be reprinted in 
this journal. 

Homer Folks followed with a plea 
for an investigation such as no private 
committee or organization could ever 
conduct, "a thorough diagnosis of the 
condition." There is too little ade- 
quate knowledge on these subjects, he 
said, while on the geography, the 
geology, the birds and the fish, the gov- 
ernment has collected a great mass of 
information. A. J. Boulton introduced a 
resolution demanding that "Congress 
provide an ample appropriation for 
the investigation" and Rabbi Stephen 
Wise closed by saying that in many 
of these subjects we stand in 1907 
where England stood in 1844. " Ample 
and earnest and honest investigation," 
he said, "will lead to less radical 
and more beneficent legislation than 
will neglect of the question." It was 
urged on the audience by all speakers 
that to make the bill really effective the 



7^4 



Charities and The Commons 



appropriation must be granted and that 
to secure it the audience and their friends 
should write to Senator Allison and Rep- 
resentative Tawney as chairman of the 
committees having the matter in charge, 
as well as to their own senators and 
representatives. 

America At 4.30 in the afternoon of 
e 1!e" ^to e " Monday, January 14, sev- 
Kingston. era j earthquake shocks oc- 
curred in Kingston, Jamaica, killing 
hundreds and practically destroying the 
city. Up to noon of January 19 the 
newspapers had reported the finding of 
1,745 dead bodies, over a thousand of 
which were cremated. 

At once it was evident that Kingston 
needed instant relief as badly, though 
not on so large a scale, as San Francisco 
or Valparaiso. The United States, being 
the nearest great neighbor, hastened to 
offer the logical and friendly services 
that common humanity dictated. The 
three companies doing the great trans- 
portation business with Jamaica, the- 
Hamburg-American, the Royal Mail and 
the United Fruit, offered to carry assist- 
ance and supplies free. Red Cross con- 
signments of medical supplies and food 
stuffs were hurried on board steamers 
that were about to sail as well as hun- 
dreds of barrels and packages of similar 
supplies given by many individuals. 

On the very day that news was re- 
ceived in New York of the extent of the 
disaster, a meeting of the prominent 
merchants doing business in Jamaica was 
held, a relief committee was organized 
and a subscription fund started. This 
committee was headed as chairman by 
Julius P. Meyer, manager of the Ham- 
burg-American line, and L. B. Sander- 
son of the Atlas line, 22 State street, 
New York, was treasurer. The other 
members of the committee were E. E. 
Darrell, Alexander von Goutard, M. de 
Mercado and George W. Copland. 

Supplies were forwarded almost as 
soon as received by the Allegheny, which 
sailed January 18 and the Prinz Joa- 
chim on January 20. By January 21 it 
was expected to have the Atrata also 
on the way with supplies. Several 
thousand dollars in money, also was 
collected and held subject to the 



order of the British governor, 
Swettenham, to whom a message 
was sent by three routes apprising him 
of the movement. No reply was receiv- 
ed up to Monday morning. 

Official dispatches told of the safety 
of the docks at Kingston so that the re- 
lief supplies could be landed without dif- 
ficulty. The first of the relief ships left 
on the morning of January 18, the Ham- 
burg-American Allegheny with various 
supplies, many ordered by the Jamaican 
government through the government 
agents. These shipments included both 
medicines and provisions. The follow- 
ing day the Prinz Joachim was to leave, 
but owing to a dense fog she was delayed 
until Sunday. She carried about 7,000 
packages and barrels of supplies for the 
sufferers. The Atrata was expected to 
sail with several tons of flour and po- 
tatoes as well as tents and bedding. The 
company was working overtime to load 
the ship to get her off on time. The re- 
sult was that by the strenuous efforts of 
the steamship companies, it was expected 
that a relief ship would reach Kingston 
on each of the days, the 24th, 25th and 
26th of January. 

Meanwhile, though there was no ques- 
tion of the ultimate aid that would come 
to Kingston, the need of immediate as- 
sistance was imperative. Rear-Admiral 
Davis of the United States Navy was 
first on the scene with the battleships 
Missouri and Indiana, the tender Yank- 
ton and torpedo-destroyer Whipple. 
French aid was ordered to Kingston also. 
The United States Congress passed a 
joint resolution which the President sign- 
ed immediately extending aid to the city. 
Ten thousand rations intended for the 
troops in Cuba were to be diverted to 
Jamaica. The navy was acting as effi- 
ciently in the carrying of foreign relief 
to Jamaica as the army had in home re- 
lief at San Francisco. 

In the face of these elaborate prepara- 
tions to carry first aid to stricken Jamaica 
came the stunning blow that Governor 
Swettenham delivered in the shape of a 
curt request for Admiral Davis to with- 
draw. Mayor Tait of Kingston, 
protested against the governor's action, 
and waited on Admiral Davis with a 
petition to stay. The local relief com- 



The Common Welfare 



725 



mittee, headed by Archbishop Hubball, 
threatened to resign. A dispatch from 
Guantanamo said that when the 
American surgeons left the hospital pa- 
tients begged him to stay, while the Red 
Cross nurses declared that the governor's 
action was nothing short of criminal. 

The mayor of Kingston has cabled to 
the mayor of New York, however: "On 
behalf of stricken people, I appeal 
through you to generosity of American 
people for help. Every house destroyed. 
Money, lumber, and building materials 
most urgently needed." Although Ad- 
miral Davis sailed away he left a well- 
equipped field hospital under the care of 
the American Jesuit fathers to help meet 
the overcrowded and inadequate facilities 
of the city and naval hospital. The 
dampening of the relief work by an im- 
politic governor did not prevent the work 
of saving life from going on. 

Among the ^ S S00n aS ^ e re f u & ee 
San Francisco population of San Fran- 
Refugees. cisco was sheltered f or the 

winter in barracks, in the parks, and else- 
where, the Rehabilitation Committee was 
able to turn its attention to plans for as- 
sisting people to obtain permanent 
homes. Persons who owned lots and 
could pay a part of the cost of a house; 
persons who, owning a lot, could pay for 
the house in small installments; or even 
persons without land and capital, who 
could hope to pay for both by install- 
ments, were invited to state their cir- 
cumstances and wishes. Those who ap- 
plied and were able to furnish satisfac- 
tory evidence of their ability to fulfil 
their contract, are having homes built 
with the assistance of the committee. 

The committee has an arrangement 
with contractors by which they agree to 
build for a given price any one of three 
styles of houses on any land designated. 
The cheapest house, costing $300, has 
two small or one large double bedroom, 
a kitchen-living room, a toilet, sink and 
boiler; a somewhat larger and better 
house can be had for $450, and for $775 
a five-room house with bath. If the ap- 
plicant has no capital to put in, he must 
be satisfied with the $450 house, and in 
fact the majority of the houses built will 
be at that price. The inside walls are 



either tongue-and-groove lumber, or fin- 
ished redwood boards battened, covered 
outside with paper and shingled. The 
plumbing is carried out ready to connect 
with the city sewer and water pipes. 

W ^ t0 J anuar y 8> the Re- 

Rehabilitation, habilitation Committee, had 
expended, since its organi- 
zation in June, nearly a million dollars 
and a half, of which eight hundred thou- 
sand was for furniture, three hundred 
thousand for all sorts of special relief for 
individuals, two hundred and thirty-four 
thousand for rehabilitation in business, 
sixty-eight thousand for tools, thirty-five 
thousand for transportation, and thirty- 
one thousand for housing. Items of spe- 
cial interest are the ten thousand dollars 
spent for sewing machines, and the one 
hundred and twenty-three thousand dol- 
lars lent to refugees, generally for a term 
of six months. Some of these loans are 
just coming due and a small amount has 
been repaid. 

Of the 25,429 applications received, 
representing 65,000 individuals, one-sixth 
approximately have been refused, and 
three- fourths have been assisted; the re- 
mainder are pending, have been with- 
drawn, or were not found. 

The New York Chamber of Commerce 
directed that the $500,000 which it sent 
for relief should be applied preferably to 
setting up in business those who had been 
burned out. Of the 1,500 recent appli- 
cants who had not been able to set up 
for themselves only about one-sixth have 
been refused. Already $234,000 has been 
expended for this purpose — an average 
of $224 per case assisted. The secre- 
tary of the committee is of the opinion 
that most of these persons would have 
been self-supporting without this assist- 
ance, although they would have suffered 
much greater hardship. 

There is much diversity of 
opinion as to the effect 
of the relief upon the 
refugee population. On the one hand 
some workers think that many are 
being pauperized by the idea that here is 
an immense fund of which they may and 
should have a share. They point to the 
demand openly made by many refugees 



Has the 

Relief 

Pauperized? 



726 



Charities and The Commons 



who are or should be self-supporting, for 
their "rightful share." An instance of 
this sort is the domestic who could earn 
$25 per month after the fire as easily as 
before and had savings in the bank, but 
was living in a refugee camp and applied 
for rehabilitation; or the old lady who, 
having received a grant of $200, came 
back with a demand for a pair of glasses. 

On the other hand there are other 
workers who do not agree with this de- 
duction from the facts. They declare 
that the refugees are not being pauper- 
ized but are merely exhibiting the very 
human trait of getting something for 
nothing when they can, which is no more 
common now than before the fire. 

Undoubtedly the hardships and bewil- 
derment incident to the disaster, and the 
lack of initiative characteristic of the un- 
skilled and the narrowly specialized 
worker, caused many to fall back upon 
the relief committee in the first days who 
have gradually found their own groove 
again. It seems improbable that the ex- 
tremely careful yet sympathetic adminis- 
tration of the fund should now be tend- 
ing to pauperize any considerable number 
of heretofore self-supporting people. 

It is true that many of the summer re- 
cipients of aid have been returning to ask 
for more. Whether this indicates either 
that they have been pauperized or that the 
original assistance given them was inade- 
quate cannot be determined off-hand. An 
inquiry is now being made into the pres- 
ent status of families assisted during 
July, August, September and part of Oc- 
tober. The results of this will doubtless 
help to answer the question. 

social Assembly halls have been 

Work in the provided in most of the ref- 

camps. U g ee cam p S) t h e i um b er 

from the disused warehouses and soup 
kitchens having been devoted to this pur- 
pose early in December. They are used 
for kindergartens, sewing classes, clubs, 
reading rooms and entertainments. The 
general supervision of this part of the 
work is in the hands of Miss Lucille 
Eaves, who has had charge of the sew- 
ing centers through the summer and fall. 
More systematic social work has been 
done in the camp for aged and infirm at 



the Ingleside race track than anywhere 
else, under the direction of its comman- 
der, Captain Kilian, who has recently, to 
the grief of all the refugees, been ordered 
to Newport News. 

Democracy The undemocratic char- 
District 6 of acter of the government 
Columbia. f tne National Capital 
is strikingly illustrated by the fact 
that the proposed small appropria- 
tion of $75,000 for the purchase of 
playground sites, and $5,000 for the 
maintenance of the playgrounds next 
year, was defeated in the House of Rep- 
resentatives last Wednesday on a techni- 
cal point of order raised by Representa- 
tive Champ Clark of Missouri. There is 
no doubt that if the proposition to es- 
tablish playgrounds were submitted to 
the vote of the citizens of Washington, 
D. C, it would carry by a large majority. 
But one man representing a distant state 
and evidently entirely uninformed as to 
the purpose and character of the play- 
ground plan was able to entirely set aside 
the work which the public spirited citi- 
zens of Washington have been carrying 
on at large personal cost for the last six 
years. The House of Representatives 
itself, containing many friends of the 
playground movement, was blocked in 
passing the appropriation. Chairman 
Gillett of the sub-committee on appro- 
priations for the District of Columbia 
made a plea on behalf of the movement 
and cited some of the facts which had 
been adduced at the hearing before the 
appropriations committee. Mr. Clark 
insisted upon the point of order, how- 
ever, in spite of the fact that his remarks 
proved conclusively that he had not read 
the statements made at the hearing on 
the subject and had not given the local 
situation any consideration. He only 
urged that he believed the appropriation 
of $75,000 now would lead to future ex- 
penditures amounting to perhaps a mil- 
lion dollars ultimately for the develop- 
ment of the entire playground system. 
Mr. Clark suggested that there was a 
real estate deal behind this proposition. 
It seems that a point of order can be 
used to prevent even the House of Rep- 
resentatives from acting upon a measure 



The Common Welfare 



727 



to which some skilled objector feels an 
earnest opposition. Meanwhile the 
studies and recommendations made by 
the Playground Association of America, 
by the public spirited members of the 
Washington Playground Association, 
and by educators and persons of experi- 
ence throughout the country are abso- 
lutely ignored and the will of the 
majority of the local citizens is disre- 
garded. Local workers are, however, 
cherishing the hope that the Senate will 
propose an adequate appropriation for 
playgrounds, which will bring the mat- 
ter into conference between the House 
and Senate and may lead to a con- 
tinuation of the work which is already 
underway. If this measure fails, the de- 
velopment of the past six years will be 
undone and the National Capital w r ill 
again be relegated to a position far in 
the rear of the majority of larger pro- 
gressive American communities. 

This instance will probably remind the 
readers of Charities and The Commons 
of another striking example of govern- 
ment without representation in Washing- 
ton. It is recalled that a proposed bill 
for the condemnation of insanitary 
dwellings was defeated in the Senate a 
couple of years ago, after it had been 
recommended by the Senate committee 
on district affairs and was actually pass- 
ed by the House of Representatives, sim- 
ply because the senator from Nevada, a 
state having only about one-sixth as 
many inhabitants as the District of Co- 
lumbia, opposed the measure for the 
reason apparently that he felt unfriend- 
ly to the local health officer. The oppo- 
sition of this senator was enough to 
postpone the legislation for more than a 
year, when the opposing senator lost his 
place and a renewal of public agitation 
brought about the final passage of the 
comparatively simple legislation. Such is 
democracy at the national center of the 
world's greatest republic ! 

immigration During the calendar year 
Facts 1906, the number of pas- 

and Figures. ^^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ 

port of New York was 1,198,434. Of 
this total number 1,055,831 were aliens. 
Of the 944,917 who came in the steerage, 



920,843 were aliens. The Hamburg 
American line led in number of steerage 
passengers with the North German Lloyd 
a close second. Frank P. Sargent, com- 
missioner general of immigration, has 
just issued his annual report, also, for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1906, Wuich 
shows that during that period there were 
admitted 1,100,735 immigrant aliens and 
65,618 non-immigrant aliens at all ports 
making a total of alien admissions of 
1,166,353 against 1,059,755 las t year 
made up of 1,026,499 alien immigrants 
plus 33,256 transients. During the fiscal 
year 1906, 12,432 were rejected against 
11,480 in 1905. The north Atlantic and 
north central states received ninety per 
cent of the entire immigration of 1906, 
the south four per cent. Among other 
things the commissioner recommends 
that an international conference be held 
on the subjects of immigration and emi- 
gration. 

Recently it was reported that a tenta- 
tive scheme had been hatched up for get- 
ting action on the senate immigration 
bill that is now pending in conference, 
where the fight has been over the educa- 
tional qualification inserted by the Senate 
and opposed by the House. In an edi- 
orial the New York Sun recently said : 

The need of the country is not brains but 
brawn. Illiteracy is an undesirable element 
in society, but it is not necessarily a menace. 
It is an evil for which we provide remedies 
and thus far the remedies have proved high- 
ly effective. In 1880, 17 per cent, of the peo- 
ple of the United States of ten years of age 
or over were reported as illiterate. During 
the next twenty years 9,000,000 immigrants 
landed. Illiterates were reported in 1890 as 
forming 13.3 per cent of our population and 
in 1900 as 10.7 per cent. The illiterates 
were reported as numbering 6,239,958 in 1880 
and 6,180,069 in 1900. Yet there was during 
that period an increase of 26,000,000 in the 
total population. 

The tentative scheme eliminates the 
educational test, but substitutes for it a 
modified form of the old consular certi- 
fication. It proposes to establish abroad 
a corps of immigration inspectors who 
shall be physicians, stationed at the ports 
of embarkation for immigrants. All 
immigrants will be expected to pass their 
examination as to their qualifications for 
admission to this country. The inspect- 



728 



Chanties and The Commons 



ors will certify to the steamship compa- 
nies the results of their examinations and 
will forward copies to the immigration 
officials at the ports of destination. 
Whether foreign countries will welcome 
our officials on their own soil is quite 
another question as well as the opportu- 
nity that arises for graft in an arbitrary 
power bestowed so far away from home. 

The commissioner general in his an- 
nual report, however, urges that marine 
hospital surgeons be stationed at the prin- 
cipal foreign ports of embarkation. He 
also urges that various sections of the 
country be allowed to place before 
immigrants at Ellis Island a statement 
of their inducements to settlers. Doubt- 
less it would be better to provide, also, 
that such inducements be distributed 
among the immigrants sooner, possibly 
at the port of embarkation or during 
the passage over. He also recommends 
the remodelling of the buildings on Ellis 
Island. For this purpose Robert Watch- 
orn, commissioner of immigration at 
New York, has already had a conference 
with Secretary Straus. 

The old "passenger act" now in force 
was passed in 1882 and in appointing a 
commission to investigate it Secretary 
Straus says that it is 

not adapted to modern conditions of ship- 
building or ocean travel and there is press- 
ing need that the statute be revised and ad- 
justed to the requirements of our time. 

The commission that will take charge 
of the examination will be Lawrence O. 
Murray, assistant secretary of commerce 
and labor ; Eugene T. Chamberlain, com- 
missioner of navigation, and N. N. 
Stranahan, collector of the port of New 
York. 



Iowa State 



Practical investigation and 
Conference! careful consideration of the 
most urgent legislative 
needs were the significant features of the 
Iowa State Conference of Charities and 
Correction, held December 6 and 7 at 
Grinnell. 

In answering the question, does Iowa 
need a law to punish family desertion, 
Miss Clara Lunbeck, who spoke upon that 
subject, did not rely solely upon her own 
appreciation of its urgent need, but ef- 



fectively gave the results of a state-wide 
correspondence she conducted. To every 
one of the ninety-nine county attorneys 
she addressed a letter asking for their 
opinion upon the subject. Replies came 
from seventy-seven, and seventy-five of 
these strongly urged the need of the law. 
She also wrote to the members of the 
boards of supervisors of the different 
counties. A large majority of these offi- 
cials favored such a law. 

The discussion following Miss Lun- 
beck's paper brought out some significant 
data. Miss Flora Dunlap, head resident 
of Roadside Settlement, Des Moines, 
stated that thirty of the thirty-six cases 
in the day nursery of that settlement in 
one month were children from homes 
where the parent had deserted. 

A subject of allied interest was next on 
the program when Dr. Paul S. Pierce, 
of the State University of Iowa, spoke 
interestingly of the Parental School 
of Chicago and its work. 

The indeterminate sentence was dis- 
cussed by Judge G. S. Robinson, of the 
Board of Control of State Institutions, 
and Judge Emlin McClain, chief justice 
of the Supreme Court of Iowa. 

The Nature and Origin of Crime, 
was the topic for the opening address of 
the conference by the president, Dr. 
Frank I. Herriott, professor of economics 
and political science, Drake University. 
He discussed various theories with the 
conclusion that the cause of crime is 
neither depravity nor disease, but both. 

Miss Charlotta Goff, in charge of the 
Associated Charities of Des Moines, gave 
the results of her personal observation of 
working plans in relief in the United 
States and England. 

Samuel H. Crosby of Grinnell, Iowa, 
in a paper upon the subject, The Over- 
seer of the Poor, showed that the system 
of outdoor relief has been challenged by 
careful students of social questions since 
1 82 1. He also urged closer co-operation 
between the secretary of the associated 
charities and the overseer of the poor. 
He advocated the establishment of state 
boards of charities to supervise the work 
of outdoor relief and to collect trust- 
worthy statistics upon the subject, some- 
thing that Iowa lacks at the present time. 



The Common Welfare 



729 



Indiana was instanced as a state which 
had solved this problem by the aid of the 
State Board of Charities. The discussion 
which followed the paper emphasized 
the great need of trustworthy statistics 
upon the subject of outdoor relief in 
Iowa. Hastings H. Hart of Chicago, told 
of the need for a state board of charities. 
Attention was also drawn to the necessity 
of a uniform system of accounting in the 
different county poor houses of the state. 

James A. Howe, judge of the district 
court of Polk county, Des Moines, Iowa, 
read a very instructive paper upon The 
Juvenile Court Law, its Provisions and 
its Needs. After a very careful expo- 
sition of the present law, Judge Howe 
emphasized the need of some method by 
which a probation officer might be se- 
cured and a detention house provided. 
The Iowa law makes no provision for the 
payment of a probation officer or for the 
erection and maintenance of a detention 
home. In the discussion which followed 
the paper, the need of voluntary co-opera- 
tion with the law was urged. 

One of the evening meetings was ad- 
dressed by Dr. Hastings H. Hart, super- 
intendent of the Illinois Children's Home 
and Aid Society, Chicago; his subject 
was Friendless Children, their Care and 
Supervision. Dr. Hart gave a very 
practical discussion of the question, em- 
phasizing the advantage of home as com- 
pared with institutional training. 

The following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year: 

President, Dr. Frank I. Herriott, Des 
Moines, Iowa; first vice-president, Supt. L. 
D. Drake, Eldora, Iowa; second vice-presi- 
dent, Hon. J. T. Hamillan, Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa; secretary, Clarence W. Wassam, Iowa 
City, Iowa; Treasurer, Professor G. P. 
Wyckoff, Grinnell, Iowa; executive commit- 
tee: Dr. F. I. Herriott, Des Moines; Clar- 
ence W. Wassam, Iowa City; Judge G. S. 
Robinson, Des Moines; Mrs. Alice G. Flet- 
cher, Marshalltown ; Miss Flora Dunlap, 
Des Moines. 

Public Edu- At tne annua l meeting of 
cation the Public Education As- 
sociation, New York city, 
held in the parlor of the Woman's Mu- 
nicipal League, Thursday evening, Jan- 
uary 17, Mrs. Price, the president, re- 
ported several important changes in the 
organization of the association which oc- 



curred during the year. Among them 
were the admission of men to membership 
and to the executive council, the securing 
of an executive secretary, and larger office 
facilities, the appointment of an execu- 
tive committee to meet as often as nec- 
essary to transact urgent business and 
discuss plans for new work. Mrs. Price 
pointed out the necessity of an increase 
in the membership to insure larger use- 
fulness. She reported that the Public 
Education Association had been much 
interested in regard to the question of 
the Normal College presidency, and had 
advocated the consolidation of the Nor- 
mal College and the College of the City 
of New York. After reference to the 
activities of the association not assigned 
to the special committees, Mrs. Price 
concluded as follows: 

I would like to say that when the educa- 
tional department is more progressive than 
the public an intelligent body of citizens 
can do much to interpret the ideas of the 
authorities so that the necessary money can 
be raised. If, on the other hand, the public 
is more progressive than the educational of- 
ficials, an organization like this can voice 
the opinion of the public and prod the edu- 
cational officials to carry out the ideas of 
the people. It will always be necessary to 
hold up the hands of those who have the 
welfare of the children of the city at heart. 

Mr. Martin, chairman of the play- 
ground committee, referred to the deter- 
mination of the Public Education As- 
sociation to push the demand for public 
school provision for crippled, blind and 
deaf children. He referred to the part 
that the association proposed to take in 
the coming congestion exhibit, and he 
spoke of its active interest in the move- 
ment for the extension of industrial train- 
ing especially for children between the 
ages of fourteen and sixteen. 

At the close of the business meeting, 
Dr. Lyman Abbott gave a talk on the 
marvelous growth of educational oppor- 
tunity and enthusiasm in the South since 
the war. 

* n w« The Massachusetts Public 

A Public _ . . 

Opinion Law Opinion League issues un- 

Proposed. der date of j anuary h igo7f 

a draft of a law which it proposes to ask 
the legislature to enact at its present ses- 
sion. 

The law provides, briefly, that on an 



730 



Charities and The Commons 



application signed by voters of the com- 
monwealth, equal to the number required 
to place on the ballot a nomination for an 
office, or on an application signed by 
voters of a county, or on an application 
signed by voters of a city, any question 
of public policy relating to the common- 
wealth, to counties, or to cities, shall be 
placed upon the official ballot for the next 
regular election ; in the first two instances 
this shall be done by the secretary of the 
commonwealth and in the last instance 
by the city clerk. Signers of applica- 
tions shall append to their signatures, 
their residence, street and number, and 
they shall all be certified as registered 
voters. Applications in every instance 
must be filed with the proper official at 
least sixty days before the election in 
question and not more than four ques- 
tions of this nature may be placed upon 
a ballot at any one time, the questions 
being placed in the order in which the 
applications are filed. A question once 
negatived may not be submitted again 
in less than three years. 

The purpose of the bill is to establish 
for the state, counties and cities, all hav- 
ing representative forms of government, 
a machine for the expression of public 
opinion. Town governments are amply 
provided with such machinery, as a mere 
handful of voters may place any ques- 
tion on the town warrant. It is believed 
that this machinery, if established, will 
tend to a more thorough discussion of 
questions of public policy and to a greater 
interest and activity on the part of citi- 
zens. If upon the basis of experiences 
derived under this law it were to be found 
that the referendum is considered de- 
sirable by the people of Massachusetts, a 
bill providing for such a change might, 
as a natural result, be presented to the 
legislature. 

The Massachusetts Civic League will 
co-operate with the Public Opinion 
League in securing the passage of this 
bill. 

Michael Reese The Jewish community of 
Hospital, Chicago is proud of the 

Chicago. fact that j t tQok but fiye 

days of actual work to raise $238,000 of 
the $300,000 required to complete the 



new Michael Reese Hospital. This an- 
nouncement was made by Dr. Emil G. 
Hirsch at a recent dinner of the build- 
ing committee of the hospital when he 
said that "such a result could only come 
from a community touched with the spirit 
of philanthropy." 

The reconstructed Michael Reese Hos- 
pital will be one of the largest and best 
equipped institutions of its kind in the 
United States. The old hospital build- 
ing was demolished in 1905 and the cor- 
ner stone of the new structure was laid 
in July of the same year. There will be 
space in the new building for 300 beds 
in both wards and rooms, while the chil- 
dren's wards are in an isolated structure. 
Six operating rooms have been provided, 
a hydro-therapeutic room and an incu- 
bator room. 

As about seventy-five per cent of the 
patients are treated without fees, special 
attention has been paid to the dispen- 
sary, so that it will accommodate a large 
number of people. 



Horse Cars 



The battle against the horse 
'to'aT"' cars in New York city has 
apparently been won. Presi- 
dent Vreeland of the New York City 
Railway Company, has announced that 
the directors have decided to proceed at 
once to make the contracts, order ma- 
terials, and do everything necessary to 
expedite the work of changing from horse 
power to electricity. Thus goes one of 
the anachronisms of the metropolis. The 
State Railroad Commission has been noti- 
fied of the decision and President Vree- 
land has written to property owners on 
the East Side, stating that work will be 
begun in First avenue as soon as the frost 
is out of the ground. The reason as- 
signed by him for delay in making the 
change is that the doubt regarding the 
location of new railroad and bridge 
terminals has held matters up and that 
now, as they are settled, plans are being 
adopted "to give the traveling public 
greatly increased facilities." 



THe Indeterminate Sentence for Crime 
Its Use and Its Abuse 

Eugene SmitH 
President of the Prison Association of New Yorh 



Early in Anglo-Saxon history, the 
punishment of crime was committed to 
the individuals whom the crime injured. 
The family or clan to which the victim 
of the crime belonged, united in a cru- 
sade against the offender who on his part 
was often defended by his relatives and 
retainers. As crimes were frequent in 
that crude age and vengeance was sanc- 
tioned by law, the community became in- 
volved in a state of private war, which 
threatened complete anarchy. The right 
of individual vengeance was therefore 
abrogated by law, and the state, repre- 
senting both the individual and the com- 
munity, became the "avenger of crime." 
This substitution of the state in the place 
of the individual victim of crime took 
place many centuries ago and marks the 
origin of our criminal law. Vengeance 
was its key-note and continued to be so 
in all the subsequent development of our 
penal codes down to the present genera- 
tion. The aim of the state in its dealing 
with criminals was strictly punitive ; the 
object of imprisonment was to inflict re- 
tributive suffering upon the offender. 

This view of the relation of the state 
to crime and of its duty toward crimin- 
als has in these later years undergone 
complete revision. The old theory of re- 
tributive punishment for crime has been 
thoroughly discredited and is now re- 
pudiated by all competent authorities. 
It has been supplanted by a radically dif- 
ferent theory, the key-note of which is 
not vengeance but public protection. 
The main function of government is the 
protection of the people from injustice, 
damage and wrong. The state imprisons 
a convict because it is not safe for the 
community that he should be at large. 
The imprisonment is demanded for the 
same reasons that detain in quarantine 
a ship bearing contagion; it is a protec- 
tive measure holding at bay what is a 
menace and a danger to the community. 
If this theory is correct, it manifestly 

731 



follows that the imprisonment should 
continue as long as the danger lasts. To 
discharge the convict while he remains 
unchanged in character and purpose is 
to precipitate upon the public a terror 
which it is the duty of the state to hold 
in leash. 

From this view of the function of the 
state, there has been evolved the indeter- 
minate sentence for crime, the essential 
principle of which is that no convict 
should be discharged from prison until 
he is fitted for freedom — until his re- 
lease is consistent with public safety. 
The indeterminate sentence is so logical- 
ly reasonable, so easy of comprehension 
and so commends itself to common intel- 
ligence, that it has, within a few years, 
secured wide adoption. It is now firmly 
incorporated in the penal systems of 
about one-third of the states of the 
Union, comprising those of the greatest 
power and influence. There is no longer 
need of argument in support of the in- 
determinate sentence; the present need 
is rather for discrimination and caution 
in its application. 

For the adoption of this form of sen- 
tence in some of the states, applying it 
to convicts condemned to confinement in 
all kinds of prisons, has been premature 
and ill-judged. It has been done in dis- 
regard or in ignorance of the essential 
nature of the indeterminate sentence and 
of the conditions which are indispensable 
to its successful operation. This misap- 
plication of the sentence, aggravated by 
features of legislation regarding it, has 
given rise to a feeling of discouragement 
at the results accomplished and tends to 
undermine public confidence in the effi- 
ciency of the sentence itself. 

It is the aim of the indeterminate sen- 
tence to retain the convict in prison until 
he is fitted for freedom, making such fit- 
ness for freedom the condition precedent 
of his release. The sentence therefore 
pre-supposes a system of prison disci- 



732 



Charities and The Commons 



pline that shall tend to fit the convict for 
freedom. Mere imprisonment does not 
have any such tendency ; on the contrary, 
imprisonment under the old retributive 
system, aiming at punishment, had the 
opposite tendency. The criminal, sub- 
jected to a rigid and exacting regime 
without any uplifting influence, sank to 
lower depths by the natural gravitation 
of crime; losing hope, a continued life 
of crime seemed to him his only possible 
resource for the future, and so he be- 
came confirmed and hardened in his 
criminal purposes. In such a prison the 
indeterminate sentence is a mockery and, 
necessarily, a failure. It will, indeed, 
incite the prisoners to a strict observance 
of the prison rules and regulations and 
to profuse professions of righteous pur- 
poses and of reformed character, in order 
to gain their release; but the system af- 
fords no sure means of testing these pro- 
fessions and of knowing whether any 
real change of character or purpose ex- 
ists. 

Mr. Brockway The essential complement 
IShnira of the indeterminate sen- 
Reformatory, tence is a prison sentence 
which shall yield two results: first, the 
reformation of the prisoners and, second, 
a test or means of determining when 
reformation has been attained. To de- 
vise such a system was the task assumed 
by Z. R. Brockway when he became su- 
perintendent of the Elmira Reformatory 
at its opening thirty years ago; for the 
prisoners sent to the reformatory were 
committed under the indeterminate sen- 
tence. Mr. Brockway was himself, in 
large measure, the originator of both the 
indeterminate sentence and the reforma- 
tory, and to him was committed the re- 
sponsibility of trying the most momen- 
tous experiment ever attempted in scien- 
tific penology. It is probably safe to say 
that there was no person living so well 
qualified to assume this undertaking as 
was Mr. Brockway, by reason of his long 
experience and his varied natural gifts. 
He was a keen judge of character, he ex- 
erted a magnetic influence upon the men 
under his charge, he possessed executive 
ability of the highest order, coupled with 
great fertility of resource, and he had 



broad, philosophic views regarding the 
treatment of crime and of criminals. 

The methods that Mr. Brockway in- 
augurated at Elmira were watched with 
keen interest by students of penology, the 
world over. From the beginning these 
methods accomplished results so success- 
ful, beyond precedent, that the Elmira 
system in its main features became the 
model upon which were framed the sys- 
tems of other reformatories established ; n 
several of the northern states of the 
Union. These reformatories, with that 
at Elmira in the lead, have worked har- 
moniously together toward the develop- 
ment of the new system. The methods 
originally employed have been greatly 
expanded, new features are constantly 
being added after they have been tested 
by experience ; and the result is that a 
modern prison system of reformative dis- 
cipline and training has been evolved 
through the strictly scientific process of 
experiment and trial. 

The oid ^n essential principle of 
System and the system is the individual 
treatment of convicts ; the 
utmost pains are taken to gain knowl- 
edge of the distinctive aptitudes and de- 
fects of each individual and to apply such 
special training as may serve to develop 
his capabilities and cure his defects. For 
this purpose the convicts are divided into 
grades and sub-divided into numerous 
classes and sub-classes, where they are 
constantly either gaining promotion by 
meritorious effort or suffering reduction 
in rank through their own fault. They 
are kept strenuously occupied at all 
times, but in many diversified directions ; 
in the workshops, in schools of letters, in 
trade-schools, in military drills. Those 
who suffer from certain forms of physi- 
cal or mental weakness are scientifically 
treated with gymnastic exercises, baths 
and massage. Interest is awakened, em- 
ulation is excited, personal responsibility 
is imposed, enlarged privileges are given 
as rewards and a more rigid regime is 
enforced as a penalty; the whole life of 
the prison comes to be under earnest 
stress, appealing to every man, to gain 
promotion. 



The Indeterminate Sentence for Crirrv 



733 



In the old punitive prisons, the in- 
mates are driven to listlessness and de- 
spair by the dull, dead monotony of the 
daily life. In the modern reformatory 
there is no monotony; the spirit of 
the place is one of alertness and 
intense interest, everything serving 
to arouse a feeling of hopefulness 
and a worthy ambition to do well. 
A minute record of the prison life of 
every man is kept, in which are entered 
his achievements and his failures, his 
steps toward progress and his slips to- 
ward defeat. The man's advance toward 
release and freedom is all of his own 
making ; he must work out his own salva- 
tion. And what more powerful stimulus 
can possibly be applied than the instinc- 
tive love of freedom ? That stimulus the 
indeterminate sentence applies in the 
strongest form, offering freedom as a 
boon to be attained in no other possible 
way. 

This system serves the double purpose 
required. The effects it produces upon 
the convict are all in the direction of re- 
habilitation ; it tends to develop power of 
self-restraint and strength of will, to es- 
tablish character by creating worthy 
ideals and motives; it gives the convict 
capacity of self-support by teaching him a 
trade and it equips him with the habit of 
industry. The discipline embraces the 

Another incident of the new system, 
it is administered with such minute 
watchfulness and careful record of re- 
sults as to furnish an accurate test of 
character. Thus it is that when the 
prisoners are discharged, after undergo- 
ing the treatment of this system, the offi- 
cers of the reformatory are able to form 
an intelligent judgment that they are fit- 
ted for freedom. And such judgment 
has been amply vindicated by the result; 
so far as statistics are available for this 
purpose it appears that the reformatory 
system has actually transformed not less 
than eighty per cent of those subjected 
to its treatment into law-abiding mem- 
bers of the community. 

It must not be overlooked, however, 
that besides the indeterminate sentence, 
there are two other important features 
of the reformatory system that have con- 
tributed to its success; no convict is re- 



leased from the prison until a place of 
employment has been secured for him, 
and the release is always on parole, the 
convict remaining on probation under the 
surveillance of the reformatory; and, in 
case of his dereliction, he is liable to be 
returned to the reformatory for further 
discipline. If at the end of the proba- 
tionary period (usually of six months) 
he has demonstrated his ability to sus- 
tain himself in right living, the final abso- 
lute discharge is granted. 

Another incident of the new system 
which increases incalculably its reforma- 
tive influence, is the attitude in which it 
presents the sovereign power to the con- 
vict. Under the old punitive system, the 
state, from the convict's point of view, is 
a merciless avenger, exacting from the 
convict hard labor and inflicting uponr 
him privations and hardship, all for pun- 
ishment and in retribution for his crime.. 
However this may accord with justice, 
the unregenerate nature of the convict 
rises in revolt against the severity of his 
treatment; the spirit of angry resent- 
ment, combined with a sense of helpless- 
ness, leads to sullen despair and the whole 
environment is hostile to any elevation of 
the character. The modern reforma- 
tory system, on the other hand, presents 
the state to the convict as a beneficent 
power, striving to uplift him ; the idea of 
punishment is eliminated or kept in the 
background. The requirements of the 
system, however hard and exacting, are 
avowedly designed to raise the convict 
to a higher plane of life. All its meth- 
ods are calculated to aid him in his up- 
ward progress toward fitness for free- 
dom; every step that he makes in ad- 
vance is met with encouragement and 
reward; he gradually gains new hope 
and purpose until finally, becoming im- 
bued with the spirit of the system, he 
surrenders himself to its renewing influ- 
ences and a transformation from the ab- 
normal into the normal man is wrought. 

There is nothing miraculous or super- 
natural in this change of character com- 
monly called reformation ; it is, rather, 
closely analogous to the recovery of 
health by a person physically diseased, 
or the regaining of sanity by a lunatic. 
A criminal always displays some defect 



734 



Charities and The Commons 



or deformity — it may be physical or men- 
tal or moral— by which he differs from 
men in the common. The cure of that 
defect or the correction of that deformity 
can, — it is safe to say, in the majority of 
instances — be effected by scientific meas- 
ures of treatment similar to those that 
have been tested in the modern reforma- 
tory system. It was a favorite saying 
of the late Warden Brush of Sing Sing, 
"You cannot convert a criminal into an 
angel"; but you can, very often, convert 
him into an ordinary, normal man and, 
when you have done that, you have made 
him a law-abiding man ; because the mo- 
tives and principles that govern the con- 
duct of common men are generally suffi- 
cient to restrain them from committing 



crime. 



E?ten d s e i d on Th e application of the mod- 
of the ern reformatory system has 
e sy r ™em! ry heretofore been generally 
confined to prisoners under thirty years 
of age. Youth is of course the plastic 
age and the younger a delinquent is the 
stronger the probability that he will yield 
to remedial treatment. But young men 
between twenty-five and thirty years of 
age have proved responsive to the re- 
formative training and their age has been 
no bar to their progress. Indeed, appeals 
to the reason and considerations of fore- 
sight and prudence can be presented with 
more cogeny to men than to youths. 

There is every reason to believe that 
the methods of the modern reformatory 
system can be successfully applied to 
adult convicts of every age. They would 
doubtless need modification, which exper- 
iment would develop, to adapt them to 
somewhat changed conditions, and it is 
probable that a longer term of treatment 
for the older men would be required. 
But the main features of the reformatory 
system, that have proved so effective with 
young men, would surely produce re- 
sults, similar in kind if not in degree, 
with men of maturer years. These older 
men could be taught an industrial trade 
which would furnish them on their dis- 
charge with a means of honest support; 
they could be taught the value of thrift 
and providence in the use of money 
through a system of accounts by which 
each convict should be credited (like a 



free workman) with the value of his la- 
bor and charged with the costs of his 
maintenance, clothing, tools, and with pe- 
cuniary fines for derelictions in duty; 
they could be made to acquire habits of 
personal cleanliness and courtesy of de- 
meanor; they could learn lessons in obe- 
dience, in attention, in precision, in en- 
durance, through the military drills ; they 
could gain power of self-control and a 
sense of responsibility through the tests 
to which they would be subjected; pro- 
motions in rank and in class earned by 
their own efforts would awaken a feeling 
of self-confidence and ambition, while 
degradation suffered by reason of their 
failures might arouse a sense of shame, 
perhaps long dormant, and incite to re- 
newed effort. The education by school 
books, indispensable with the young, 
would have to take a subordinate part in 
the training of the older convicts. But 
they should all be taught to read and 
write and to have a working knowledge 
of arithmetic; it is even possible that by 
means of the prison library, a taste for 
reading and a desire for useful knowl- 
edge might be developed. 

The force of habit is one of the most 
useful auxiliaries of the reformatory sys- 
tem. A prisoner who is engaged in pro- 
ductive industry, day after day for a 
term of years, gains the habit of work; 
and if, upon his discharge from prison, 
he is animated with any worthy purpose, 
this habit of labor and the acquired ca- 
pacity to do useful work are invaluable 
aids toward a life of honest self-support. 
A small fraction of the convicts dis- 
charged from even the old prisons, do 
abstain from a life of crime; and the 
phenomenon can only be accounted for 
by the fact that "hard labor" long contin- 
ued, created the habit of work. Labor «s 
the only reformative influence in the old 
regime, which utilizes none of the other 
uplifting influences and agencies of the 
reformatory system. 

The fact is, the old punitive non-re- 
formative prison is a relic of medieval- 
ism ; it is far behind the attainments and 
the spirit of the present age. The old 
prisons must be brought up to the stand- 
ard of modern prison science. There is 
no measure of prison reform so urgently 



The Liquor Law and Its Administration in Suburban Cities 735 



needed as the introduction of the reform- 
atory system of training and discipline 
into all state prisons and penitentiaries. 
A few of the old prisons have within re- 
cent years been led, by the general en- 
lightenment of public opinion, to adopt 
some of the reformatory features, but 
these measures have been for the most 
part half-hearted. What is demanded Is 
the frank and unreserved avowal of ref- 
ormation as the controlling aim of the 
whole administration and the establish- 
ment in its entirety of the modern system 
of reformatory treatment. In other 
words, the state prisons and penitentia- 
ries — all prisons for the confinement of 
convicts — must be transformed into true 
reformatories. The states of Indiana, 



Michigan and Minnesota have taken the 
lead in this direction and have advanced 
further than any other states of the 
Union. 

When the prisons have thus become 
reformatories and not until then, the in- 
determinate sentence will become a most 
potent instrument of reform. Social sci- 
ence has rendered no public service com- 
parable in value with the results that have 
been accomplished in the department of 
penology. The development of the re- 
formatory prison system and the inven- 
tion of the indeterminate sentence are by 
far its greatest practical achievements. 
In the universal adoption of this system 
with this form of sentence lies the best 
hope of the future in the contest against 
crime. 



The Liquor Law and Its Administration in 
Suburban Cities 1 

.Artlvur Lyman 



My practical experience with the ques- 
tion of license or no license and of the 
administration of the liquor laws has been 
only in their relations to a city of moder- 
ate size, one of the suburban cities in the 
neighborhood of Boston, affected as to 
this problem by its contiguity to Boston, 
but politically entirely independent. I 
was chairman of the board of license com- 
missioners in 1894 and 1895, and as 
mayor of Waltham was responsible for 
the administration of the law through the 
police during the year 1896. 

The board of license commissioners at 
the time I was a member was a new 
board created under the law of 1894, em- 
bodied in chapter 100 of the revised laws 
of Massachusetts. My associates on the 
board were two successful manufacturers 
of the city, both of them able and ab- 
solutely honest. I think we were all of 
us free from any narrowness in point of 
view, no one of us being a total abstainer 
and no one of us having any relations 
with any dealer. The administration of 
the law was treated solely from the va- 
rious points of view presented by 

1 Paper read at the Fourth Massachusetts State Con- 
ference of Ch